China's poverty alleviation practice has proved that geography has played an extremely important role in supporting anti-poverty targeting and poverty reduction decision-making. However, due to vague basic concepts, lagging basic theories, and an imperfect discipline system, "theoretical poverty" has become the biggest shortcoming restricting the innovation and development of poverty geography. Based on the analysis of the core concept of poverty, this paper systematically analyzed the nature, basic theory, research object, research content, and framework of poverty geography as a branch of the discipline, and put forward the frontier areas of future research on poverty geography. The results show that firstly, poverty refers to the state of inferiority, lack, or insufficiency of various welfares enjoyed by people compared to a certain standard, which has multidimensional, regional, and dynamic characteristics. In terms of measurement standards, absolute poverty emphasizes the minimum value, and relative poverty emphasizes the average value. In terms of target objects, poverty can be divided into individual poverty and regional poverty. The former focuses on the lack and deficiency of individual welfare or capability, while the latter focuses on the regional welfare behind individual welfare from the perspective of space. Secondly, poverty geography is a discipline that studies the formation, distribution, geographic characteristics of poverty-stricken areas, their relationship with the environment, and anti-poverty measures. It takes the impoverished areal system (IAS) as the research object and the poverty-environment nexus as the research core. It has comprehensive, cross-cutting, and regional characteristics, focusing on the study of regional poverty. The basic theories of poverty geography include spatial poverty theory, regional poverty theory, multidimensional poverty theory, and sustainable development theory. Its research content and framework include three dimensions (economic, social, and environmental poverty), two elements (nature and human), two types of objects (regional poverty and individual poverty), and two standards (absolute poverty and relative poverty). Thirdly, there is an urgent need to strengthen the basic research of poverty geography in terms of the evolution of IAS, regional poverty measurement, relative poverty targeting, poverty dynamic monitoring and simulation prediction, urban poverty and rural poverty, poverty alleviation effectiveness evaluation, transformation and development and revitalization path of poor areas. In the situation that we face new challenges of poverty reduction and development at home and abroad, there is an urgent need to constantly innovate and develop the fundamental theory of poverty geography, promote the globalization of China's poverty research, and contribute China's anti-poverty project to the eradication of global extreme poverty.