Exploring the influence of urban spatial morphology layout on the urban heat island (UHI) at the urban scale is of great significance for the improvement of ventilation environment and the ecological and livable urban planning. Taking Beijing, China as an example, this study analyzed the UHI spatial characteristics using the hourly temperature data of high-density automatic weather stations in 2009-2018 and the 2018 NPP/VIRRS night-light satellite data. Using 1:2000 basic geographic information data and Landsat8 satellite remote sensing data in 2017, based on remote sensing and GIS technology and morphological models, we extracted eight morphological parameters in the main urban area of Beijing, namely, building height (BH), building density (BD), building standard deviation (BSD), floor area ratio (FAR), frontal area index (FAI), roughness length (RL), sky view factor (SVF), fractal dimension (FD) and three land surface parameters consisting of vegetation coverage (VC), impervious cover (IC), albedo (AB). The relationship between these morphological parameters and UHI was further examined at the urban scale using the spatial statistical method. Results show that the downtown area of central Beijing has presented a relatively fixed distribution pattern of UHI at annual scale, four seasons, and 02:00 at nighttime in the past 10 years. The UHI of the annual, spring, summer, autumn, winter, 14:00, and 02:00 are 1.81℃, 1.50℃, 1.43℃, 2.16℃, 2.17℃, 0.48℃, and 2.77℃, respectively. The eight spatial morphological parameters have obvious spatial correlations with UHIs for most of the year, and the correlations are stronger in winter than in other seasons, and stronger at 02:00 am than at 14:00 pm. The top three parameters are SVF, FAR, and BD. There are spatiotemporal changes in the impact of different spatial morphological parameters and land surface parameters on UHI. Spatial morphological parameters have become important drivers of UHI change and the individual contributions of the eleven parameters to UHI changes are 13.7% to 62.2%. The spatial morphological parameters that contribute the most in summer, winter, and the whole year are BD (43.7%), SVF (62.2%), and SVF (43.0%), respectively; and the corresponding largest land surface parameters are VC (42.6%), AB (57.1%), and VC (45.4%), respectively. The comprehensive contribution of multiple parameters to UHI changes in summer, winter, and the whole year are 51.4%, 69.1%, and 55.3%, respectively; and the dominant influencing factors are BD, SVF, and BD.