Since the establishment of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) 80 years ago, great attentions have been paid to the construction of field stations (networks) and scientific data centers. With establishment of four field observation research networks, IGSNRR has made notable success and led the construction and development of China's ecosystem research networks. Moreover, IGSNRR formed a unique field observation research platform and data sharing service platform, with two national scientific data centers and one CAS data center, as well as two national field observation and research stations and one CAS field research station. (1) This article reviewed the developmental history of Chinese (National) Ecosystem Research Network (CERN/CNERN), Chinese terrestrial ecosystem flux observation and research network (ChinaFLUX), Chinese Phenological Observation Network (CPON), Yucheng Station, Lhasa Station, Qianyanzhou Station, National Earth System Science Data Center (NESSDC), National Ecosystem Science Data Center (NESDC) and Resource and Environmental Science and Data Center. (2) The stations (networks) of the IGSNRR have grown from scratch and kept growing to be stronger, which have led the development of field observation research in China, and well supported the outcomes of important scientific achievements in geography and ecology, etc. The capacities of scientific and technological support as well as demonstration-promotion in our networks have been greatly improved, which strongly supports the construction of ecological civilization in the North China Plain, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the southern mountainous and hilly areas. The networks of IGSNRR have become the largest scientific data center among the fields of earth system science, resources and environment science, and field station networks in China, with remarkable achievements in data sharing services and extensive influence both at home and abroad. (3) In the future, IGSNRR will give full play to the role of comprehensive center in field stations (networks), strengthen the construction capacity of observation and research networks such as ecosystem carbon and water flux, phenology, etc., and steadily improve the ability of condition guarantee for field observation and research stations, as well as of the data collection, analysis, mining, and sharing ability for scientific data centers. With these improvements, the networks of IGSNRR will continuously promote and lead the sharing of scientific data in China, make greater contributions to support scientific research and national needs.