The growth and spatial differentiation of housing price is a theoretical issue continuously discussed in the field of urban geography, and even a practical problem relating to whether urban residents could realize the goal of living a good life in their own residences. The paper chooses 3761 independent residential districts (or residential clusters) in Nanjing as research objects, and analyzes sample data of 30 quarters in 2009-2017 of each residential district; on this basis, it focuses on the spatial differentiation pattern and evolution process of residential price in Nanjing. It finds that, on the whole, the housing price in Nanjing presents the staged rule of mutually alternative of "fast growth" and "relative stability" in one and a half year; while, high-price residences are mainly in Hexi New Town and the districts of famous schools, as well as high-rise service apartments distributed in inner urban areas, gated communities with landscape at the periphery, and high-grade villas in suburbs. Based on the consideration of the price level, location characteristics and building attributes of residential districts, this paper has comprehensively divided the residences in Nanjing into nine typical types, those are in inner city: (a) the multi-story traditional residences, (b) high-rise apartment residences, and (c) residences within the districts of famous schools; in the peripheral areas: (d) the urban new center residences, (e) landscape-area residences, (f) other gated residences; in the suburbs: g) the residences in core areas of new towns, (h) high-grade villa residences, and i) residences in urban fringe area. The comparison of the price growth process of different residences shows that, a close connection exists between the spatial attribute of residences (centrality, comfort, and scarcity) and the characteristics of housing price growth (rapidity, stability, sustainability). This paper summarizes four models of housing price growth of residences in Nanjing, namely, leading pattern, following pattern, growth-chasing pattern, and independent pattern. In addition, it analyzes the main internal and external driving forces for the differentiation of housing price growth of different types of residences. On this basis, it discusses the deep effects of the rapid and differentiated growth of housing price on the urban social space reconstruction in Nanjing, including enlarging the gap between the rich and the poor, crowding out the middle- and low-income population, solidifying the residential spatial differentiation, etc. The study on the growth of residential housing price and its aftereffects with Nanjing as an example, which is a typical big city in China, would have a certain reference for relevant research on the general fast growth and spatial differentiation of housing prices in China after the global financial crisis in 2008.