Table of Content

    10 June 2018, Volume 73 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Urban Research
    The world city network based on the global expansion of Chinese commercial banks and its influencing factors
    XUE Desheng, ZOU Xiaohua
    2018, 73 (6):  989-1001.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806001
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    World city and world city network are one of the most important topics in international urban studies in the last two decades. The current research of the world city network exclusively reflects a Western corporate-dominated network, which comprises core world cities. However, the hegemony of the Western cities and top world cities is undermined by the globalizing economy of emerging economies. In this more complex nexus of world cities, the diversity and complexity of the world city network with the influence of newly emerging economies are far from revealed. In this research, we take the emerging banking sector of China, one of the biggest economies around the world, as a case study and see how Chinese commercial banks expanded globally and shaped the world city network from 1979 to 2015. A modified interlocking network model is applied as the main method of the research. It is found that the Asia-Pacific region, West Europe, and North America are the key arenas of the global operation of Chinese commercial banks. The oversea affiliations of Chinese commercial banks are highly agglomerated in global financial centers and specialized financial centers, especially those in the three regions mentioned above. Then they expand to the whole world through gateway cities of their respective regions. Based on such global expansion strategies, Chinese commercial banks influence the world city network by intensifying the global connection of Chinese cities, the connectivity of core world cities, and regional city networks of the Asia-Pacific region. China's outward economy, including its foreign direct investment and trade, along with the increasing number of emigrants, are main factors affecting the globalizing Chinese commercial banking network. The intervention of the Chinese government to regulate and facilitate the global expansion of Chinese commercial banks, also makes contribution to the results.

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    Multi-scale assessment of social vulnerability to rapid urban expansion in urban fringe: A case study of Xi'an
    HUANG Xiaojun, WANG Chen, HU Kaili
    2018, 73 (6):  1002-1017.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806002
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    Social vulnerability assessment is an important approach to analyzing the elements of vulnerability, quantifying degree of social vulnerability, and identifying vulnerable spatial units or social groups. Meanwhile, related policies addressing targeted management of social vulnerability are necessary. Therefore, we analyzed the concept and connotations of social vulnerability in four aspects, i.e., disturbance, structure, dimension and scale. We established a framework for social vulnerability assessment that defines the evaluation process, objective, elements, data and method. Based on this framework, we developed a common evaluation index system of social vulnerability according to the three dimensions of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Finally, the social vulnerability assessment framework was applied to the case of the urban fringe of Xi'an, which has undergone rapid urban expansion. Using a mix of qualitative and quantitative analyses, we combined data from a statistical yearbook, in-person interviews and household surveys and evaluated multi-scale social vulnerability. The spatial differentiation and types of social vulnerability were displayed according to three scales, i.e., Jiedao, communities and land-lost peasant households. The proportion of Jiedao with a low social vulnerability index was 48%. The social vulnerability index of communities requisitioned by housing estate was the highest, and the social vulnerability index was the lowest in the area of educational function. More than half of the land-lost households lay in the middle range of the social vulnerability index, with fewer households having a high index than those having a low index. With the decline of the scale from Jiedao to household, the low value distribution of the social vulnerability index changed from decentralization to centralization. Meanwhile, we found a significant correspondence at the level of the social vulnerability index between household and community, but not for other levels. Our research highlights the social vulnerability assessment framework involved in the evaluation process, index system, data organization, method and multi-scale assessment. These conclusions could be further explored for theoretical research and practical application of social vulnerability assessment.

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    Spatial structure and mechanism of urban poverty in Xi'an city
    MA Beibei,LI Hailing,Yehua Dennis WEI,XUE Dongqian,JIANG Jun
    2018, 73 (6):  1018-1032.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806003
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    Urban poverty in western China, where poverty is largely concentrated and distinctively different from eastern China, is a relatively less studied but noteworthy research field in China's urban poverty in the transition period. This paper analyzes spatial structure and mechanism of urban poverty in western China, through a case study of Xi'an city, an ancient capital and a traditional industrial base. The data comes from a survey of urban residents' income in main urban areas of Xi'an in 2015. The definition of relative poverty used by the World Bank and the method of FGT index are adopted to evaluate the attributes of urban poverty at the scale of sub-districts. The results show that the average poverty incidence in Xi'an is relatively high, but poverty depth and intensity are weak. Urban poverty presents U-shaped curves from the city center towards suburban areas, along with the variations of spatial heterogeneity and continuity. The inner differentiated fringe of rising extension zone and mature built-up zone are the weakest urban poverty areas. We can identify five types of areas with high poverty rates: declining old inner city areas, deprived development areas, declining traditional industrial areas, urban villages and areas near new growth poles, where people in poverty exhibit different demographic and housing characteristics. The spatial structure of urban poverty in Xi'an reflects the city's stage of socioeconomic development and regional characteristics, which having directly effects on the city's employment capacity and residents' income level. There are multiple forces shaping the spatial structure of urban poverty in Xi'an, ranging from public policy, industrial legacy, tourism and residential choices. During the process of economic transition, urban residents of different income groups are remaking the structure of urban social space of Xi'an through diversified paths, including replacing, filtering, spontaneous agglomeration, segregation, exclusion and reinforce. These findings help us to have a better understanding of the development mechanism underlying urban poverty in less developed inland cities in western China, and provide scientific basis to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of anti-poverty policies in China.

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    Urban vacant land: Rethinking the mushrooming urbanization
    SONG Xiaoqing,MA Zhanhong,ZHAO Guosong,WU Zhifeng
    2018, 73 (6):  1033-1048.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806004
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    Urban vacant land has been concealed for a long time in the contradictory but unified processes of urban growth and shrinkage. The study on urban vacant land, however, is currently a rather rudimentary and subjective issue. This paper firstly presents the connotation of urban vacant land based on bibliometric analysis. Then, typology, proximate causes and values of urban vacant land are analyzed at parcel, transect, city and national levels. Results show that the study in China lags about half a century compared with North America and Europe. Moreover, geographers has seldom paid attention to this issue. Urban vacant land could be proximately categorized by land cover, land usage and land ownership. It is widespread with a large amount in cities. For example, the probabilities of urban vacant land in the cases of Guangzhou and New York are 8.46%-8.88% and 3.17%-5.08%, respectively. In addition, the average proportion of urban vacant housing land take up 11.48% in the 65 cities in the USA. Generally, urban vacant land shows fragmentation and odd shape. Significant spatial differences exist at parcel, transect, city and national levels. Proximate causes, such as land division, odd shape, demographic decline, de-industrialization, land speculation, disinvestment, and environment issues could result in urban vacant land, which has become the Grey Island in urban social, economic and ecological spaces. However, it could be considered as the potential resources for enhancing urban sustainability. To promote urban renewal and land supply-side structural reform, urban vacant land research framework is finally discussed. Specifically, the logical research themes on urban vacant land consist of unified typology, dynamic process and pattern, underlying driving forces, transformation mechanisms among different types, impacts and multifunction assessment, and sustainable use control. Focus should be given to research on social, institutional, economic and ecological interaction, comparative study in different urbanization processes and regions, as well as multi-scale study.

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    Regional Development
    The classification and growth pattern of industrial bases in China
    JIN Fengjun, CHEN Linlin, YANG Yu, HONG Hui
    2018, 73 (6):  1049-1064.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806005
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    The rapid process of China's industrialization is manifested in space as the formation and evolution of a series of industrial bases. The paper identifies and selects different industrial bases in China in 1985, 2001 and 2010. It then examines the evolution of these industrial bases and explores their evolution paths according to their scales or types, as well as summarizes the general pattern of its formation and evolution. The results indicate that the development of Chinese industrial bases have undergone four stages since the founding of the country: decentralization before the implementation of the reform and opening up policy; gradual gathering to the coastal areas in the early period of reform and opening up; balanced development from north to south since the beginning of the 21st century. Generally, industrial structure evolved from single to diversified development, combined the advantageous industries; the dominant sectors of industrial cities evolve from the light industry, basic raw material industry, to advanced manufacturing industries. Moreover, the essential factors of production are necessary, and the key factors are transformed from traditional production factors such as natural resources and labor forces, to new factors such as capital and information, with the expansion of industrial bases. The growth path and the impact factors for industrial bases of different sizes are different. The growth of small-sized bases maintains a single industry relied on natural resources; medium-sized bases tend to be sector integrated; the large bases are developing in industires of basic raw materials and equipment manufacturing.

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    Spatial heterogeneity analysis of regional economic development and driving factors in China's provincial border counties
    CAO Xiaoshu, XU Jianbin
    2018, 73 (6):  1065-1075.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806006
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    The economic development difference index and spatial autocorrelation model is used to analyze the different patterns of economic development in China's provincial border counties. And the spatial heterogeneity of regional economic development and its driving factors were studied by using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and geo-weighted regression model (GWR). The results show that the counties' economic development of the provincial border areas in China has significant spatial agglomeration, and the areas with large differences in border economic development are concentrated in the border areas such as Inner Mongolia-Gansu, Inner Mongolia-Ningxia, Shaanxi-Inner Mongolia and other border areas. There is a negative correlation between the macroeconomic regulation and the economic development of the western region. The influence of educational development level on county economic disparity shows the regional differentiation of poverty and developed counties. There is a positive correlation between the compactness of the boundary, the terrain fluctuation degree and the provincial economic development at the provincial boundary. Traffic dominance and industrial structure factor show a positive correlation trend in terms of the difference of county economic development. This paper analyzes the differences between the influencing factors and the direction of the impact of different factors on the development index of county economic development in different counties. It provides scientific basis for rationally regulating the elements of development in different regions, narrowing the economic development differences in the border areas and setting up different provincial border development strategies.

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    Multi-dimensional analysis of urban expansion patterns and their driving forces based on the center of gravity-GTWR model: A case study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration
    WANG Haijun, ZHANG Bin, LIU Yaolin, LIU Yanfang, XU Shan, DENG Yu, ZHAO Yuntai, CHEN Yuchen, HONG Song
    2018, 73 (6):  1076-1092.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806007
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    Research into urban expansion patterns and their driving forces is of great significance. Under the background of the integrated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) urban agglomeration, it is important to study the temporal and spatial patterns of urban land expansion and the driving forces development. This paper uses land-use data of the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration from 1990 to 2015 and reveals the multi-dimensional characteristics of the urban land expansion patterns. We then combine the urban spatial interaction and the spatial and temporal nonstationarity of the urban land expansion process and build the center of gravity-geographically and temporally weighted regression (GTWR) model by coupling the center of gravity model with the GTWR model. Using the center of gravity-GTWR model, we analyze the driving forces of urban land expansion at the city scale, and summarize the dominant mode and core driving forces of the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration. The results show that: (1) Between 1990 and 2015, the expansion intensity of the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration showed a down-up-down trend, and the peak period of expansion was in 2005-2010. Before 2005, high-speed development was seen in Beijing, Tianjin, Baoding, and Langfang, which were then followed by rapid development in Xingtai and Handan. (2) Although the center of gravity of cities in the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration showed a divergent trend, the local interaction between cities was enhanced, and the driving forces of urban land expansion showed a characteristic of spatial spillover. (3) The spatial development mode of the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration changed from a dual-core development mode to a multi-core development mode, which was made up of three function cores: the transportation core in the northern part, the economic development core in the central part, and the investment core in the southern part. The integrated development between functional cores led to the multi-core development mode. (4) The center of gravity-GTWR model analyzes urban land expansion as a space-time dynamic system. The model proved to be feasible in the analysis of the driving forces of urban land expansion.

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    Spatial variation of terrain relief and its impacts on population and economy based on raster data in West Henan Mountain Area
    ZHANG Jingjing, ZHU Wenbo, ZHU Lianqi, CUI Yaoping, HE Shasha, REN Han
    2018, 73 (6):  1093-1106.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806008
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    Topographic relief can be the constraining factor for the population and economic development in an area. This is especially the case in transitional zones from mountains to plains. In this study, West Henan Mountain Area, situated in the transitional zone from the Qinling Mountains to the Huang-Huai Plain (i.e. the second step to the third step of Chinese macro-topography), was selected as a case study area. Based on the optimal statistical unit (OSU) as determined by the mean turning-point analysis method (MTPAM), a DEM of 200 m resolution was used to extract the relief degree of land surface (RDLS). Integrating the 1:100, 000 land use map, statistical population data at township level and economic data of various industries at county level, raster models of spatial patterns of population and economy were formulated, and then the spatial distributions of population density and economic density at a resolution of 200 m by 200 m were produced using the models. Subsequently, statistical analysis was carried out to reveal the effects that RDLS had on population and economy based on raster data (i.e. RDLS, population density, and economic density), and the differences between the effects of RDLS and those of other terrain factors on the population and economy were also analyzed. The results showed that: (1) the RDLS in the West Henan Mountain Area was prevailed by low value, with 58.6% of the area having the RDLS lower than 0.5 (relative altitude of ≤ 250 m). Spatially, RDLS was higher in the west and lower in the east, higher in the central part and lower in the south and the north. Moreover, there existed strong positive correlations between RDLS and altitude and slope, especially correlated with slope significantly. (2) The relationships between the statistical values (i.e. population density and economic density which were selected to test and verify the models) and the corresponding simulated values were fitted to linear models with 0.943 and 0.909 levels of goodness-of-fit. This fitness indicated that the spatialization results reflected well the actual spatial patterns of population and economy in the study area. (3) The effect of RDLS on population and economy is stronger than that of other terrain factors. RDLS had a good logarithmic fit with population density and economic density, with 0.911 and 0.874 goodness-of-fit, respectively. Specifically, 88.65% of the total population lived in the areas where RDLS was less than 0.5 and 88.03% of the gross regional production was distributed in the areas where RDLS was less than 0.3. It can be clearly seen that economic development was more inclined to agglomerate in areas of lower RDLS values compared with population distribution.

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    Effects of population agglomeration on urban economic growth in China
    CHEN Le, LI Xun, YAO Yao, CHEN Dongsheng
    2018, 73 (6):  1107-1120.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806009
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    Population agglomeration is the focus of New Economic Geography. However, so far, there is not enough evidence to prove that population agglomeration would promote China's urban economic growth, as it is difficult to obtain data of urban construction land in consecutive years. In this paper, we identify a new way of extracting DMSP/OLS nighttime light data, which could eliminate continuous years of spatial and temporal heterogeneity, to help us obtain data for a robust construction land area. We aim to analyze the effects and spatial disparity of population agglomeration on economic growth of 35 large cities in China from 2005 to 2013, based on a theoretical model of population density that influences per capita urban land revenue. The major results are as follows: population agglomeration has a significant positive impact on urban economic growth in China, and its impact is decreasing from the eastern, the central, to the western regions of China. The results also show that knowledge and human capital are the two main factors promoting urban economic growth in China. We also found that the effects of the ratio of intensive industry and the ratio of college teachers and students on urban incomes is decreasing from the eastern, central, to western regions, and its spatial distribution presents a similar tendency, which are the main reasons for the spatial differences in the effects of population agglomeration on urban economic growth.

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    Spatio-temporal difference and influencing factors of environmental adaptability measurement of human-sea economic system in Bohai Rim region
    LI Bo, SHI Zhaoyuan, HAN Zenglin, TIAN Chuang
    2018, 73 (6):  1121-1132.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806010
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    Adaptability theory is an important tool to analyze the degree, mechanism and process of interaction in global environmental change, which provides a new perspective for the research on sustainability assessment. Taking adaptability as the starting point, this paper constructs an evaluation framework based on the three elements of sensitivity, stability and response. We use entropy weight-TOPSIS and cointegration test to analyze the spatio-temporal difference and influencing factors for the environmental adaptability of human-sea economic system in the Bohai Rim region. The results indicate that: (1) The environmental adaptability development of human-sea economic system has been under the double disturbance effect of internal and external factors. (2) Different adaptability elements and adaptability subsystems show completely different regional evolution characteristics. Human-sea environment system is less sensitive and presents "dumbbell-shaped" distribution with high in the north and south and low in the center; The stability of this system is poor and the development trend of the high east and low west; The response of the human-economic system is relatively weak and demonstrates a "grade-difference"; The adaptability of human-sea economic system is linearly related to the adaptability of human-sea environment system. (3) The environmental adaptability of human-sea economic system in the study region improves slowly between 2000 and 2014, and a cluster analysis method is applied to categorize the adaptability into four types: the city with high adaptability is Dalian; the cities with higher adaptability are Tianjin, Yantai, Qingdao, Rizhao, Dongying and Weihai; the cities with moderate adaptability are Qinhuangdao, Weifang, Yingkou and Dandong; the cities with low adaptability are Tangshan, Huludao, Binzhou, Panjin, Cangzhou and Jinzhou. (4) Environmental management, extroversion marine economy, port construction and talent support are important influencing factors that play a positive role in the environmental adaptability of the human-sea economic system.

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    Transportation and
    Vulnerability and risk management in the Maritime Silk Road container shipping network
    WU Di, WANG Nuo, YU Anqi, GUAN Lei
    2018, 73 (6):  1133-1148.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806011
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    The Maritime Silk Road is representative of China's global strategy of this century. The road runs through the western Pacific Ocean, the southern Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the eastern Atlantic Ocean, connecting most of the ports in Eurasia and northeastern Africa from east to west. As world economy dependence on container shipping has been constantly increasing and terrorism has quickly spread, research on the vulnerability and geopolitical risk of the Maritime Silk Road container shipping network is crucial in establishing and improving the security mechanism in the global economy operation, as well as in guaranteeing unobstructed container shipping. Our study specifically addresses this issue through a statistical analysis of all ports and shipping lines in the Maritime Silk Road operated by global container shipping companies in 2015, covering 93% of the global container shipping capacity. The results highlight the presence of 2429 shipping lines and 440 ports in the Maritime Silk Road container shipping network. Based on these statistics, we calculated the rates of change of network average degree, isolated-node proportion, clustering coefficient, network average shortest-path length, network efficiency, and relative size of the largest connected subgraph when the network is under either random or intentional attack. Results indicate that the network is robust under random attack, but vulnerable under an intentional one. We find that the top 53 ports with the largest node strength are hub/mainline ports which require more careful protection, as the network begins to collapse when the intentional attack rate reaches 12%, with a complete collapse when such a rate is 30%. Moreover, by combining geographical features and calculating the rates of change of the network metrics when the main channels in the Maritime Silk Road are interrupted, we find that the straits of Malacca, Taiwan, and Mandeb, as well as the Suez Canal are the most influential channels, thus requiring more attention in terms of protection. In the risk evaluation, the factors determining network vulnerability and survivability are analysed. As for the latter, we find that South Asia is the weakest area in the network. Then, by combining geopolitical and economic factors, we considered the geopolitical risk of the Maritime Silk Road container shipping network. Finally, we formulated corresponding policy recommendations from the perspective of maritime security. Overall, this paper is of great theoretical significance and practical value in the study of vulnerability and risk management of the Maritime Silk Road container shipping network.

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    Spatial relationship between high-speed transport superiority degree and land-use efficiency in Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration
    CUI Xuegang, FANG Chuanglin, ZHANG Qiang
    2018, 73 (6):  1149-1161.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806012
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    Generally, the land-use efficiency is low in the urban agglomerations of China. The high-speed transport construction has been an important factor during the land use change. As a result, it is critical to explore the spatial relationship between high-speed transport superiority degree and land-use efficiency. Taking the 42 counties of Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration as an example, we build an evaluation model of high-speed transport superiority degree, which is constructed based on the relative density of the highway and the distance from the high-speed rail station and the airport. The land-use efficiency is then calculated by DEA model with capital, labor, economic benefits and environmental benefits as input and output factors. By exploring the spatial relationship between high-speed transport superiority degree and land-use efficiency, we obtain the following results: (1) There is a significant spatial difference in the relationship between the high-speed transport superiority degree and land-use efficiency. Taking the two major hub cities of Jinan and Qingdao as the center, the core circle counties (also including Qingzhou and Weihai sub-hubs) present a significant spatial coordination between their land-use efficiency and high-speed transport superiority degree. With the increase of distance from the hub cities, the spatial coordination is declining. Among them, the land-use efficiency is lower than the high-speed transport superiority degree in the areas along the traffic trunks, which are also away from the hub cities. Meanwhile, the coordination is at a low level in the areas away from hub cities and traffic trunks; (2) Due to mechanism of element agglomeration and endogenous growth, the diversity of high-speed transport has a positive relationship with land-use efficiency; (3) According to the hub effect, high-speed transport facilitates flows of elements and technologies between the core cities and peripheral cites in the form of space spillover. This reconstructs the spatial pattern of regional land-use efficiency; (4) With the help of the balanced layout of expressway, the Shandong Peninsula urban agglomeration can get rid of short board effect caused by less high-speed transport construction. Moreover, owing to the proper node layout of high-speed rail station and airport, land-use efficiency presents not only a well-balanced macro-spatial pattern but also a clustered and linear micro-spatial pattern.

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    Transportation and "The Belt and Road"
    The impact of traffic on spatial mobility at different scales
    CHEN Yonglin,XIE Binggeng,ZHANG Aiming,CHAI Chaoqian
    2018, 73 (6):  1162-1172.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806013
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    Traffic system controls the material flow of modern society and it shapes the spatial distribution of socio-economic system by providing logistics service. Its change has significant impact on the spatial organization of socio-economic system. Here we report an investigation on the impact of traffic change on spatial mobility at different scales, and based on the theory of kinetic energy and potential energy transformation in physics, a method of measuring the mobility of a single city is constructed. On both macro and micro scales, we selected 285 municipalities (major cities with districts and with Ganzhou as a typical case) to investigate the impact of traffic change on spatial mobility based on the spatial analysis of electronic map data and statistical data collected in 2005, 2010 and 2015 with the aid of ArcGIS. Our results find that traffic change has significant impact on the spatial mobility of municipalities at different scales. Our conclusions can be drawn as follows. First, traffic flow is the most dominant reflection of spatial mobility, and by interacting with other factors of time, space and distance, a special spatial organization, flowing space, is formed. Second, the influence of traffic on spatial mobility is different from scale to scale. On macro scale, traffic change will generate new inter-regional flow space. The degree of interdependence increases as spatial mobility increases; on micro scale, traffic change will change the spatial organization within a city where the material flow of the city will change accordingly. Finally, the land transport network density of municipalities in China was in a gradient distribution. Central cities and cities with the most variable traffic flow have the greatest spatial mobility. Traffic change has an obvious positive driving force on the mobility of municipalities (cities with districts), and it plays a more significant leading role in the migration and dispersal of population in urban areas, and the extension and direction migration of functional zones.

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    Geographic Information
    Regional differences of drug abuse behavior and its influencing factors among middle school students
    ZHOU Suhong, LIU Mingyang, LU Ciyong
    2018, 73 (6):  1173-1186.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201806014
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    The research on adolescents' health is one of the main topics in the field of health geography. The health problems in one's teen age tend to have some potential influence in his adulthood, especially the health behaviors. Compared to adult, drug abuse of a teenager is more harmful to one's brain and more likely to lead to addiction. The study of factors that affect drug abuse among middle school students, will contribute to interventions introducing and health risks reducing. Previous researches focused on the factors that lead to drug abuse, including individual, neighborhood and regional factors. But less literature focused on the surrounding built environment of schools or studied the mechanism leading to the differences in the health behavior of different regions. This paper tries to fill in the gaps by a case study of 124 middle schools in Guangdong province, China. Using the factorial ecological analysis and cluster analysis to explore the social spatial structure of the districts in which sample schools located, as well as the multiple stepwise regression models, this paper explores the situation and factors that affect middle school students' drug abuse in different social areas. The results reveal that there are differences in the incidence of drug abuse among middle school students in different social areas. The incidence of young floating population gathering areas is the highest, followed by the aging areas. And the local business practitioners gathering areas have the lowest incidence. In the young floating population gathering areas, built and social environments such as the high proportion of students who would go to internet bars, game centers, and billiard parlors in their free time, as well as the high density of internet bars and game centers within 1000 m around the school, will cause a high incidence of drug abuse among school students. In the aging areas, characterizing good social supervision, the built environment such as the high density of intersections helps to reduce the risk of drug abuse among students. In the local business practitioners gathering areas, family factors such as harmonious family relationship help to reduce drug abuse among students. Meanwhile, if middle school students have more pocket money, they have more chances to buy drugs, and are more likely to suffer from the drug abuse.

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