Ancient Chinese cartography dates back to the third century during the Western Jin Dynasty. Cartography was initiated during this period by Pei Xiu, a prime minister and cartographic expert who posited six principles of cartography. Pei Xiu is known in the West as the father of Chinese Cartography. He oversaw the completion of a "Yugong Diyue map"(similar historical atlas), along with 18 articles and a map of the "Terrain Fangzhang" (AD 224-271). Subsequently, a spate of cartographic initiatives followed, some of which are described below. The "wood Fang-zhang map" (similar to administrative map on the plank) was completed by Xie Zhuang, a minister during the Southern Dynasty (AD 502-557). Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty commanded the scholar Cui-ji (AD 550-618) to write the "Quyu Tuzhi" (similar to geographic chronicles, AD 581-600). Jia Dan, a prime minister during the Tang Dynasty was also a cartographic expert who led the initiative to develop a map of "Heinei Huayu" (similar to Asia map, AD 730-805). Shen Kuo, a scientist during the Northern Song Dynasty, led efforts to develop a map of "Shouling" (similar to administrative map, AD 1031-1095). Huang Chang, a cartographer and the director of the Board of Rites during the Southern Song Dynasty, created an original of "Suzhou Stone Carving Astronomic Map" (AD 1190), and between AD 1273 and 1333, Zhu Siben, an expert in cartography and a Xuan-trained master during the Yuan Dynasty, developed a map of "Yu" (similar to administrative map, AD 1273-1333). The Zhenghe navigation chart was completed by Zheng He, a navigator during the Ming Dynasty, while Luo Hongxian, a geographic expert, led efforts to develop an atlas of "Guang Yu" (similar to administrative atlas, AD 1504-1564). Xu Guangqi, an astronomer during the Ming Dynasty was responsible for completing a "Star Barrier Figure" and Wei Yuan, an officer in Gaoyou of Jiangsu province in China, was entrusted by Lin Zexu to compile the "Haiguo Tuzhi" (similar to world geographic atlas, AD 1842-1852) during the Qing Dynasty, and etc. Throughout the sixteenth century, ancient Chinese cartography developed continuously and cumulatively, shaped with the individual characteristics in the field of world cartography. Western latitude- and longitude-based mapping techniques had penetrated China much earlier in AD 1460. Thus, the theories and methods of Chinese and Western mapping systems existed in parallel with each other for over 400 years, entailing some fusion between them. The priceless cultural heritage of Chinese mapping imbues a multitude of famous ancient Chinese maps. These include astronomical figures and atlases (world maps, Chinese maps, regional maps, military maps, water conservancy maps, historical maps, and education maps), charts, and maps of scenic spots. These have hitherto been scattered across the world, housed in well-known map agencies at home and abroad. They form an important part of the global cultural heritage of ancient maps and cartography. Given their high cultural value, it would be important to further explore, extract, and utilize them. Finally, the paper gives preliminary discussion on the rare value, application value, historical value, scientific value and artistic value of ancient Chinese maps.