Table of Content

    28 October 2016, Volume 71 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Spatial pattern of population daily flow among cities based on ICT:A case study of "Baidu Migration"
    LIU Wangbao,SHI Enming
    2016, 71 (10):  1667-1679.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610001
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    With the advent of the Internet era, network data has become an important carrier characterizing residents' geography behavior. The residents' migration, social network, mobile communications and other geographic behavior big data have become an important data source for urban interactive relationship research. "Baidu Migration" big data can fully, dynamically, immediately and visually record population migration trajectory with LBS technology. Through collecting population daily flow among 369 cities in China during the period from February 7 to May 16 in 2015 in "Baidu Migration" and extracting six periods with "Quarter average, Spring Festival Transportation (before Festival), Spring Festival Transportation (after Festival), Labor Day, weekends, workdays", this paper tries to analyze and compare the characteristics and spatial patterns of daily flow among cities from the aspects of "population daily flow distribution levels, flow distribution layers network aggregation, spatial patterns and its relationship with the 'Hu Huanyong Line' for population flow". This paper analyzes the characteristics and spatial pattern of population daily flow among cities in each period. The result shows that "Baidu migration" big data clearly shows the pattern of population flow between the central and coastal areas in China during the period of Spring Festival Transportation. Main flow assembling centers are distributed in the urban agglomerations of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing, and those centers have strong coherence with those urban hierarchies in each period. Clear hierarchical structure and level distinction can be identified in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Chengdu-Chongqing and Urumqi assembling systems in each period. But Central China, Northeast China, Southwest China and coastal Fujian do not present a pattern of higher level of urban assembling centers and high hierarchical assembling systems and those conditions do not match the status in national regional development strategy of those areas. The "Hu Huanyong Line" can reflect the spatial patterns of population daily flow at national level, and the profound influence of geographical environment on the population daily flow among cities. The intensity of population flow among cities is an important indicator of intensity of regional economic relationship, urban hierarchy and network structure. Spatial patterns of population flow showed in this paper can provide reference for the formation of the new pattern of regional economic development and the promotion of regional balanced development.

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    Floating characteristics and formation mechanism of rural-urban migrants in China from the perspective of the urban house purchasing
    WU Wenheng,ZHANG Jingsa,XU Kaiying,QU Yinghao,ZHU Hongying
    2016, 71 (10):  1680-1695.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610002
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    At present, more and more rural-urban migrants purchase urban houses in China. Studies on the floating characteristics of purchasing urban housing for a permanent home and deeply understanding the direction and difference of rural-urban migrants might help to know public migration intention from the demand side. Furthermore, relevant policies of urbanization and citizenation could be better formulated from the supply side. In this study, 1327 valid information from China's 24 provinces and autonomous regions such as Jiangsu, Henan, Shaanxi and so on was collected through random questionnaire survey of farmers, migrant workers, undergraduate students, graduate students and their family members. Basic situation of rural-urban migrants and their family members of purchasing urban housing were filled out by participants' memories or telephone inquiries. Floating characteristics of rural-urban migrants for purchasing urban housing were summarized by data analysis. Furthermore, causes and formation mechanism of floating direction differences were probed into from the perspective of individual or the family by spearman bivariate correlation analysis and multiple classification logistic regression analysis methods. The results show that firstly, few rural-urban migrants purchased urban housing during the 1980s-1990s, whereas migrants of purchasing urban housing have been gradually growing since 2000 and tend to be younger. What's more, migrants of higher education level purchase housing in the cities of larger scale or higher grade in general. Secondly, cities within the province or autonomous region, especially, county-level cities are the main destination of rural-urban migrants purchasing urban housing, and the attraction of town is weak as a whole. It can be seen from the data that the original location of migrants affects the floating orientation of purchasing urban housing, namely, rural households of ordinary township move to the county-level cities and towns nearby, but the households near big cities specially provincial cities prefer to purchase their housing in those higher-level cities. Thirdly, cities and towns of different levels in the eastern provinces, compared with the other regions, take a relatively larger proportion of purchasing housing, and from the whole country, towns take the largest percentage. These indicate there exists the relatively developed regional economy and the urbanization pattern of coordinated development among large, medium and small cities and towns; Rural-urban migrants dispersedly purchase their housing in cities at or above the county level in the central provinces, where the county-level cities and cities of other provinces at prefecture level and above have the largest proportion of purchasing housing among the three regions. The urban housing of rural-urban migrants in the central provinces is decentralized; In the western provinces, migrants who purchase their urban housing in the cities of prefecture level and above account for more than half, and the proportion of migrants flowing to towns by purchasing housing is the lowest among the three regions. These reflect that it is still underdeveloped and unbalanced inside. Finally, it should say that it is the interaction between the urban and rural demand, the interference of other cities and the distance to the city that influence spatial distribution of migrants for purchasing urban housing. Moreover, the desired economic income and the attraction of the city should be the underlying causes that migrants purchase the urban housing in the cities they work. People prefer to choose the housing in the county-level cities and towns of their hometown or the higher levels of cities nearby if they do not have the stable work in the cities. Through the quantitative analysis we also found that the floating differentiation between migrants for purchasing urban housing is significantly correlated with the personal or family factors such as education degree, fixed job or not, work in the city of purchasing the housing or not, work time in the current city, the age of buyers, and so on. In a word, the social environment and policy implications at the macro level, all media's role of the urban and rural system at the middle level and the subjective behavior of individual or family members at the micro level comprehensively drive the spatial differentiation of rural-urban migrants.

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    Spatial variation and its determinants of migrants' Hukou transfer intention of China's prefecture- and provincial-level cities:Evidence from the 2012 national migrant population dynamic monitoring survey
    LIN Liyue,ZHU Yu
    2016, 71 (10):  1696-1709.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610003
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    Based on data from the 2012 national migrant population dynamic monitoring survey and related statistics, this article examines the spatial pattern and its determinants of migrants' intention of hukou transfer of China's 276 prefecture- and provincial-level cities, using GIS spatial analysis and statistical modelling. The results show that the overall level of migrants' hukou transfer intention of the cities is not high, and varies significantly among different cities. The intention of migrants' hukou transfer increases as the administrative level and/or the size of their destination cities increase. Meanwhile, migrants' hukou transfer intention is generally higher in coastal mega-city regions than in other cities, but it is also relatively high in some provincial capital cities and small and medium-sized cities in some inland regions with good transport location and resource endowment. The spatial pattern of migrants' intention of hukou transfer is shaped jointly by both the characteristics of the destination cities and migrants themselves characteristics, with the former exerting more influence than the latter. High level of socioeconomic development and good location of the destination cities can effectively promote their migrants' intention of hukou transfer; however, their level of basic public services does not have the same effect. The degree of migrants' social integration in the destination cities also exerts positive effects on their hukou transfer intention. However, having medical insurance, the concentration in the secondary labor market and higher household income are negatively related to such intention; furthermore, the individual and family characteristics of migrants do not have a significant impact on it. Finally, on the basis of the above findings, we put forward some suggestions for relevant policy making.

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    The distribution environment of robbery, snatch and theft crime based on space syntax: A case study of the central area of Wuhan
    ZHENG Wensheng,ZHUO Rongrong,LUO Jing,YU Bin,WANG Xiaofang
    2016, 71 (10):  1710-1720.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610004
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    By integrating spatial configuration and environmental criminology theory, this study tentatively constructed a theoretical framework for elucidating crime distribution environment based on space syntax. Address-level crime data from law court was used to interpret the distribution environment of robbery, snatch and theft crime. The central area of Wuhan was taken as a case study area, and several typical crime spaces were analyzed for further empirical studies. This research showed the following four results: (1) Under the macroscopic space, crime hot spots are closely associated with crime attractors, which are the spontaneous emerging urban nodes in spatial configuration. (2) The accessibility of urban nodes that link the macroscopic spaces with the microcosmic ones, has an impact on the cost of arriving at and escaping from crime locations and the risks of failure. (3) Under the microcosmic space, the "spatial gap" generated by the separation of global and local space, creates potentials for criminals' spatial exploration. Meanwhile, homogeneous use of space intensify crime concentration with high integration. (4) By forming the social structure and territoriality of a community, the topological depth of space influences the defense space. In conclusion, the proposed space syntax method provides a theoretical and technical support for systematically elucidating the breeding environment of criminals, the stimulation environment of criminal motive, the criminal activation environment and the constrained environment for preventing criminal activities.

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    Impact of community built environment on residents' health:A case study on individual overweight
    SUN Bindong,YAN Hong,ZHANG Tinglin
    2016, 71 (10):  1721-1730.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610005
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    With the rapid economic development and living condition improvement in China, the problem of obesity becomes increasingly serious and threats to the residents' health. Based on the data of China family panel studies, this study examined the association among community built environment, individual commuting mode choice and overweight of adults with the structural equation model. It is concluded that community built environment has a significant effect on individual commuting mode choice and overweight. After social economic factors are controlled, improving population density and degree of accessibility of facilities, shortening the distance to the nearest bus station will lower the likelihood of overweight by the intermediary role of reducing private motorized commuting; however, the direct and total effects are positive. The latter conclusion contrasts with findings from western developed countries. In order to alleviate the obesity problem of China through geographical perspective, we should make urban planning policy according to China's own conditions and rules.

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    Modeling urban housing price: The perspective of household activity demand
    NIU Fangqu,LIU Weidong,FENG Jianxi
    2016, 71 (10):  1731-1740.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610006
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    Existing studies on the heterogeneities and determinants of urban housing price have put overwhelming emphasis on the 'location theory', which is generally descriptive rather than modeling in nature. More research which can systematically explore the spatial heterogeneities of urban housing price is needed. Given that housing price is, to some extent, the reflection of household activity demand, the paper therefore attempts to model urban housing price from this perspective on the basis of urban transport-land use interaction model. Taking Beijing as an empirical case, this research first develops a new measurement of accessibility which can directly depict the cost and possibilities to access opportunities of different activities such as employments, educational, shopping and medical services. According to the composition of different households and their different demands for activities, the paper then analyzes the relations between urban housing price and these demands. The empirical results demonstrate that the spatial pattern of housing price can be relatively well represented by the regression model. Among the four kinds of accessibilities, employment accessibility is found to be the most profound factor influencing housing price, while the next is followed by shopping, education accessibility. Medical service accessibility demonstrates the least influences on housing price. The approach and method proposed in this paper can well demonstrate how the distributions of different activities influence the spatial pattern of urban housing price and therefore have the potential to simulate the results of various urban land use policies, such as 'Decentralization Policies'. Finally, the policy implications of the model are discussed at the end of the paper.

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    Spatial evolution pattern of Chinese economic power based on the sensitivity and vulnerability of states interdependence
    DU Debin,DUAN Dezhong,YANG Wenlong,MA Yahua
    2016, 71 (10):  1741-1751.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610007
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    The process of China's rise is the outward expansion of its power space. In times of peace, the interdependence based on trade and investment become the core and foundation of international relations, but the nature of political power among countries has not changed. Asymmetric interdependence has been an alternative to military power, which has become an important source of power. Participation in international mechanism is the main way to achieve China's peaceful rise. Extending the boundaries of the global market has become the main form of China's rise, which results in the reconstruction of the world political landscape and the expansion of Chinese economic power. Based on the theory of economic interdependence, this paper constructs the evaluation model of economic power through analyzing the sensitivity and vulnerability of the world's countries to China's global trade by adopting the trade data between China and the other countries of world in 2002 and 2013, so as to study the spatial expansion pattern of economic power in the context of China's rise. From 2002 to 2013, China's global trade patterns had developed from the tripartite confrontation pattern dominated by East Asia, Western Europe and North America to multi-polar pattern. However, the dependence spatial pattern of world trade and economy to China global trade has presented the other scene, showing a good spatial and temporal inertia that is highly concentrated in Asia, Africa and Latin America near the equator. The distribution of the areas sensitive to China's global trade showed an advancing trend from Asia-Pacific to Africa, Latin America, but the distribution of the areas vulnerable to China's global trade had evolved from point spread to contiguous growth. China's economic power space has expanded from peripheral to the world, and to the developed countries and regions, while the United States in the same period, showing a significant contraction trend.

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    Spatial evolution of coal transportation of coastal ports in China
    WANG Wei,WANG Chengjin
    2016, 71 (10):  1752-1766.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610008
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    Coal is the basic resource that can provide support and protection for the development of national economy and our society. Thus, coal transportation has been an important component of China's comprehensive transportation system. In this system, port is the most vital transit node. This paper, taking coastal ports in China as the study subject, analyzes the pattern evolution of coal transportation from 1973 to 2013. We focus on the spatial pattern of coal output and input, and summarize the main characteristics and the development law. Then, using mathematical models and indicators, we examine the spatial concentration level and its changes in ports' coal input and output. Finally, we analyze the specialized functions and the spatial differentiation of the ports in coal transportation in order to reveal their spatial relations and temporal evolution. We found that the spatial pattern of coal transportation for China's coastal port changed from "south input and north output" to "all input and north output". However, the prominent ports in coal unloading are still concentrated in the south of the Yangtze River. Coal loading is concentrated on the west bank of the Bohai Sea. In addition, some ports around the Bohai, such as Dandong, Dalian, Yantai and Qingdao, have changed from the traditional coal unloading ports to loading ones. This study enriches the theory of transport geography, and we hope it can provide guidance for China's coal transportation optimization.

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    The effect of transport accessibility on urban growth convergence in China: A spatial econometric analysis
    YIN Jiangbin,HUANG Xiaoyan,HONG Guozhi,CAO Xiaoshu,GAO Xingchuan
    2016, 71 (10):  1767-1783.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610009
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    The construction of transport infrastructure is a significant strategy to promote urban economic growth and convergence. Based on the neo-classical growth model, this study establishes a spatial econometric model of urban growth convergence, and explores the influences of two types of accessibility on urban economic convergence by using the data of 273 cities in China from 1990 to 2012. The results suggest the following findings. First, a significant global autocorrelation of GDP per capita exists among cities, which suggests that the application of non-spatial model to convergence analysis suffers from the risk of misspecification and a spatial econometric model is competent. Second, the result of spatial econometric model indicates the existence of absolute urban economic convergence in China, with a higher rate of convergence in the period of 2001-2012 than in the 1990s. Third, the effect of transport accessibility between cities on urban economic growth and convergence is appearing gradually in China. At the national level, the improvement of accessibility between cities significantly slowed down the rate of convergence and broadened the economic disparities since 2001. At the regional level, however, it accelerated the rate of convergence of cities in the eastern, central, and western regions, respectively. Fourth, accessibilities between cities and four types (i.e., highway, waterway, railway, and airway) of ports of entry have no significant effect on economic convergence among cities at the national level, but play significant and different roles in determining the convergence among cities at the regional level. In the 1990s, the accessibilities for highway and waterway ports of entry significantly promoted the convergence of cities in the central region, while accessibilities for highway and railway ports of entry restrained the convergence of cities in the western region. But since 2001, the accessibilities for highway ports of entry have mainly influenced the convergence of cities in the central and western regions, and the accessibilities for railway ports of entry mainly influenced the convergence of eastern cities, while the accessibilities for waterway and airway ports of entry had no effect on the convergence in any region. Furthermore, all the four types of accessibilities for ports of entry do not have significant effect on urban growth convergence in Northeast China. Based on these findings, kinds of policies about the promotion of urban growth convergence by transport infrastructure investment are discussed.

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    Evolution and spatial characteristics of tourism field strength of cities under high speed rail network in China
    WANG Degen,QIAN Jia,NIU Yu
    2016, 71 (10):  1784-1800.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610010
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    Traffic is an indispensable prerequisite for tourism system. The high speed rail network of "four vertical and four horizontal" is an important milestone of "traffic revolution" in China, which will produce important effect on the spatial pattern of tourism accessibility in Chinese cities, and then change the tourism attraction force and radiation force of cities greatly. The paper analyzes the evolution and spatial characteristics of tourism attraction force of cities under high speed rail network in China, based on the measurements of the influence of accessibility of 338 cities under HSR with the help of GIS. The results show that: (1) the accessibilities of Chinese cities are optimized under high speed rail network. The spatial pattern of accessibilities presents obvious traffic direction and forms the “high speed rail corridor” effect. (2) The spatial pattern of tourism field strength in Chinese cities presents the dual characteristics of the "multi-center" annular divergence and "dendritic" diffusion, especially "dendritic" diffusion is more obvious along high speed rails; The change rate of urban tourism field strength forms the high value corridor along high speed rails and presents the spatial pattern of decreasing from the center to the outer circumference along high speed rails. (3) The influence of the highest tourism field strength area and higher tourism field strength area under high speed rails is most significant, and the number of cities distributed in two types of tourism field strength increases significantly, the area of the two types of tourism field strength expands more than 100%; high speed rails enhance the tourism field strength value of regional central cities, and radiation range of tourism attraction extends along high speed rails.

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    Changes of the Hong Kong inbound tourism relationship circle and its indications since 1976
    ZHA Ruibo,SUN Gennian,DONG Zhibao
    2016, 71 (10):  1801-1814.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610011
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    The inbound tourism is an important measure for development and internationalization of a tourism destination. By combining the theories of interpersonal relationship from sociology and distance attenuation of geography, we introduced a three-layer structural conceptual model, namely, Inbound Tourism Relationship Circle (ITRC), which includes the surrounding circle, the intra-continental circle, and the inter-continental circle. In order to illustrate the model, we use Hong Kong as a case study, and built a Hong Kong Inbound Tourism Relationship Circle (HKITRC). The article puts forward five hypotheses of the main factors that may indicate the changes of the real HKITRC. Then, we conducted an empirical analysis of the changes of real HKITRC and its indications in the past 40 years through spacial and temporal stratified approach, which was based on the Hong Kong tourism statistics from 1976 to 2013 sorted by countries and regions. The results showed the variation of the real HKITRC over the past 40 years. It is also revealed that when the distance of regions to Hong Kong is not the same, the tourism relation between Hong Kong and the Chinese circle becomes closer and closer than that between Hong Kong and the intra-continental circle and the inter-continental circle as well. On the other hand, to the regions that have the same distance to Hong Kong, the level of tourism relation between Hong Kong and the regions within the Chinese circle ranged from high to low as the mainland of China, Taiwan, and Macao; Within the intra-continental circle, it ranked as East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. With the inter-continental circle, Europe and North America are almost at the same level of relation and the oceanic regions positioned at least. Moreover, the five indications of the changes of the real HKITRC were summarized with examples: the visa policy, the population, the culture, and economic growth. The results of this study not only introduced a new interdisciplinary research perspective to study the inbound tourism, but also provided future research opportunity to enrich the theory and apply the ITRC conceptual model in other destinations and make comparative studies.

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    The social space and network of homosexual groups in context of postmodern geography: A case study of Beijing
    FENG Jian,ZHAO Nian
    2016, 71 (10):  1815-1832.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610012
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    This article explores the development characteristics of homosexual's social space and social network under the frame of postmodern geography. Based on the empirical study of Beijing, the research adopts the methods of the participant observation, questionnaire, and interview. On one hand, the homosexual space in Beijing is gradually showing a trend into pluralism. The space influences the behavior and mentality of participants and the participants inversely affect the space. Furthermore, the group activity of participants indicates the gender type of the physical space and transforms it into a 'place' which is permeated with subjective feelings. On the other hand, the homosexual social network exhibits the instability and the dependency on the internet. Besides, the network is isolated with the 'daily activity' space of the homosexuals. The fragmentation of the social space, the instability of the participants, and the government regulation synergistically induce the instability of the homosexual social network. Postmodern geography overcomes the limitation of glottocentrism, advocates the pluralism and suggests the reversal of power relations. These theories with other perspectives in the postmodern geography interpret the homosexual social space in detail. Meanwhile, the study of the homosexual space annotates the socio-spatial dialectic in the aspect of the subculture. In addition, the inferences of the 'homosexual getto' and 'homosexual urbanity' in the western literatures are discussed in the condition associated with the reality of China.

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    A primary exploration of the heritage and cultural values of ancient Chinese maps
    LIANG Qizhang,QI Qingwen,JIANG Lili,ZHANG An,LIANG Xun
    2016, 71 (10):  1833-1848.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610013
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    Ancient Chinese cartography dates back to the third century during the Western Jin Dynasty. Cartography was initiated during this period by Pei Xiu, a prime minister and cartographic expert who posited six principles of cartography. Pei Xiu is known in the West as the father of Chinese Cartography. He oversaw the completion of a "Yugong Diyue map"(similar historical atlas), along with 18 articles and a map of the "Terrain Fangzhang" (AD 224-271). Subsequently, a spate of cartographic initiatives followed, some of which are described below. The "wood Fang-zhang map" (similar to administrative map on the plank) was completed by Xie Zhuang, a minister during the Southern Dynasty (AD 502-557). Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty commanded the scholar Cui-ji (AD 550-618) to write the "Quyu Tuzhi" (similar to geographic chronicles, AD 581-600). Jia Dan, a prime minister during the Tang Dynasty was also a cartographic expert who led the initiative to develop a map of "Heinei Huayu" (similar to Asia map, AD 730-805). Shen Kuo, a scientist during the Northern Song Dynasty, led efforts to develop a map of "Shouling" (similar to administrative map, AD 1031-1095). Huang Chang, a cartographer and the director of the Board of Rites during the Southern Song Dynasty, created an original of "Suzhou Stone Carving Astronomic Map" (AD 1190), and between AD 1273 and 1333, Zhu Siben, an expert in cartography and a Xuan-trained master during the Yuan Dynasty, developed a map of "Yu" (similar to administrative map, AD 1273-1333). The Zhenghe navigation chart was completed by Zheng He, a navigator during the Ming Dynasty, while Luo Hongxian, a geographic expert, led efforts to develop an atlas of "Guang Yu" (similar to administrative atlas, AD 1504-1564). Xu Guangqi, an astronomer during the Ming Dynasty was responsible for completing a "Star Barrier Figure" and Wei Yuan, an officer in Gaoyou of Jiangsu province in China, was entrusted by Lin Zexu to compile the "Haiguo Tuzhi" (similar to world geographic atlas, AD 1842-1852) during the Qing Dynasty, and etc. Throughout the sixteenth century, ancient Chinese cartography developed continuously and cumulatively, shaped with the individual characteristics in the field of world cartography. Western latitude- and longitude-based mapping techniques had penetrated China much earlier in AD 1460. Thus, the theories and methods of Chinese and Western mapping systems existed in parallel with each other for over 400 years, entailing some fusion between them. The priceless cultural heritage of Chinese mapping imbues a multitude of famous ancient Chinese maps. These include astronomical figures and atlases (world maps, Chinese maps, regional maps, military maps, water conservancy maps, historical maps, and education maps), charts, and maps of scenic spots. These have hitherto been scattered across the world, housed in well-known map agencies at home and abroad. They form an important part of the global cultural heritage of ancient maps and cartography. Given their high cultural value, it would be important to further explore, extract, and utilize them. Finally, the paper gives preliminary discussion on the rare value, application value, historical value, scientific value and artistic value of ancient Chinese maps.

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    Linking science and society: Review of 33rd International Geographical Congress
    WU Xutong,FU Bojie,WANG Shuai
    2016, 71 (10):  1849-1855.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201610014
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    General program and main topics of 33rd International Geographical Congress are introduced in this article. Frontier issues of geography generalized from the congress are: "Future Earth" research, integrated research on land surface processes, land use change and ecosystem services, the impact of human activities on global change, human response and adaption to global change, urbanization and sustainable development, health and environment, formation mechanism and the comprehensive risk management of disaster, "big data, GIS ciences and decision-making", geography and culture diversity. The development of geography should pay more attention to comprehensive study of human-natural systems, coupling study of the natural system and social system, and development of fundamental theories. Chinese geography needs to focus on the frontier issues and development trends of international geography, and lead the world in the new development of geography.

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