Table of Content

    20 September 2014, Volume 69 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    State-of-the-arts in the study of climate changes over China for the past 2000 years
    Quansheng GE, Jingyun ZHENG, Zhixin HAO, Xuezhen ZHANG, Xiuqi FANG, Huan WANG, Junhui YAN
    2014, 69 (9):  1248-1258.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409001
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    We reviewed the state-of-the-arts of climate change research in China over the past 2000 years and summarized the achievements during recent 10 years; the research works perspectives of this field were discussed as well. The overview mainly focuses on the development of proxy data, reconstructions of temperature and precipitation (wetness/dryness) changes for the past 2000 years, and recognition on the cold/warm periods, modeling simulation and diagnosis of climate changes for the last millennium, as well as the new findings on impacts of climate change on society in historical times. It is found that spatial coverage of proxy data increased largely and that quantifications of climate proxy indicator interpretation and impacts of climate change on society were improved. The understanding of the decadal to centennial climate change and its possible driving forces and impacts were improved. These achievements provide a solid scientific basis for revealing the rhythms of past changes in earth system, in particular for a better understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of climate change in China and dynamics of regional climate change.

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    The geopolitical pattern of global climate change and energy security issues
    Wentao WANG, Yanhua LIU, Hongyuan YU
    2014, 69 (9):  1259-1267.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409002
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    Currently, the problem of climate change is already far beyond the category of scientific research, and it affects the economic operation mode, interests pattern and geographical relations, and has become the focus of international relations. During the transition period of the international economic and social development and the critical transformation period of the world geopolitical pattern reorganization, China’s industrialization is still at the mid-stage, and tackling with climate change is also China's internal demand under this development stage. With more influences of climate change on national competitiveness, and the Middle East, central Asia, north important geo-strategic region, climate change and geopolitics present complex multiple relations, and climate change in the era of geopolitics gradually has affected the national strategy and diplomacy. This report illustrates the new geopolitics characteristics of climate change from the interests and the game, and puts forward relevant policy suggestions: (1) Weigh the interests, handle the complex relations of power, and negotiate between the European Union group and the umbrella group led by the United States; (2) Strengthen risk assessments, actively carry out cooperation on energy, climate change with the United States and the European Union; (3) Rely on the "One Belt (Silk Road Economic Belt) and One Road (21st Century Maritime Silk Road)" to ensure our energy security, and actively participate in global energy governance; (4) Innovate the "south-south cooperation" mechanism, and increase the investment; (5) Promote economic and energy restructuring and transformation in China to build the international competitiveness in the future. Finally, the research directions in climate change and energy security issues are proposed for Geography, which should be strengthened.

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    Research progress on Holocene environmental archaeology in the Yangtze River Valley, China
    Cheng ZHU, Li WU, Lan LI, Chaogui ZHENG, Zhongxuan LI, Chunmei MA, Yan TAN, Quanhong ZHAO, Kunhua WANG, Liugen LIN, Zhanghua JIANG, Jinlong DING, Huaping MENG
    2014, 69 (9):  1268-1283.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409003
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    The Yangtze River Valley is an important economic zone in China with a long history of human civilization. However, natural disasters, such as floods and droughts, also frequently occur in this area. The study of Holocene environmental archaeology has important scientific significance for clarifying the interactive effects between environmental evolution and human activities during 10.0-3.0 ka BP with no written records. In recent years, Holocene environmental archaeology was mainly based on the event stratigraphy of palaeoflood and sea-level change in the Yangtze River Valley. From the aspects of temporal-spatial distribution of archaeological sites, archaeological stratigraphy of typical sites, and regional environmental evolution archived from typical natural sedimentary strata, there have been significant progresses of Holocene environmental archaeology in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which indicate deeper and wider development of this research field. Also, the development of international research on environmental archaeology is deepening continuously, such as the new progress on annual recorders of the past in PAGES Magazine. New technologies, such as RS, GIS and DNA analysis, are also applied in the field of environmental archaeology. China has a long history, therefore many archaeological sites and well preserved natural sedimentary records are of great value in environmental archaeology research. In the future, we should keep pace with the international frontier, and take full advantage of above richly endowed conditions, which will further promote the progress on the Holocene environmental archaeology of the Yangtze River Valley.

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    Progress and perspective of international river researches in China
    Daming HE, Changming LIU, Yan FENG, Jinming HU, Xuan JI, Yungang LI
    2014, 69 (9):  1284-1294.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409004
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    China is the most important upstream country in the world, where the major international rivers in Asian continent originate. Under the influences of globalization, the transboundary issues, such as the reasonable utilization and protection, ecological change and impact, geopolitical cooperation and eco-security in international rivers, have become a world-wide concern and they are the hot topics of interdisciplinary research in the field of geography, ecology and geopolitics. The paper, based on the literature review, which included key words of "international rivers", "transboundary water resources" and "transboundary eco-security", and articles published in Acta Geographica Sinica (Chinese version) and Journal of Geographical Sciences (English version) in the past 30 years, reviewed the progress of international river studies in China from the perspective of geographical sciences, and identified the key problems, challenges, and key research categories. Furthermore, we prospected the scientific advances and China's geo-cooperation development in the future.

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    Research progress on the impact of climate change on water resources in the arid region of Northwest China
    Yaning CHEN, Zhi LI, Yuting FAN, Huaijun WANG, Gonghuan FANG
    2014, 69 (9):  1295-1304.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409005
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    The arid region of Northwest China is a special natural unit, which responds sensitively to the global climate change. Studies on the impact of climate change on water resources in the arid region of Northwest China have a significant effect on the adaptability of future climate change. Based on the latest research results, this paper analyzes the impacts of climate change on the formation and transformation of water resources and water cycle in the arid region of Northwest China. The results can be shown as follows: (1) The air temperature and precipitation in the arid region of Northwest China had a significant increasing trend in the past 50 years, however, the sharp increasing trend has retarded since the 21st century. (2) The temperature change in winter could be the most important factor for the unusually sharp rise in annual air temperature in this region. Moreover, the Siberian High and carbon dioxide emissions could be the most important reasons for the higher rate of the winter temperature rise. (3) Pan evaporation in the region exhibited an obvious decreasing trend until the early 1990s (1993), however, the downward trend reversed to go upward since 1993. The negative effects of warming and increasing evaporation on ecology have been highlighted in the arid region of Northwest China. (4) The glacier change has exerted great impact on water resources and its annual distribution in the arid region of Northwest China, and many rivers have passed the "Glacier inflexion". In the Tarim River Basin, the proportion of glacier melt water to runoff is high (e.g., as much as 50%) and it is supposed that the runoff may show a great fluctuation in the near future. Global warming not only increases the frequency and intensity of hydrological extremes, but also intensifies the fluctuation and uncertainty of inland rivers.

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    Progress of DEM and digital terrain analysis in China
    Guoan TANG
    2014, 69 (9):  1305-1325.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409006
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    Digital elevation model (DEM) is known to be one of the most important national fundamental geographic information data. The theory, method and application of digital terrain analysis (DTA) based on GIS is a hot research issue in geography, especially in the field of geographical information science. This paper makes an overall review on Chinese scholars’ contribution to the research of DEM and DTA, especially to DEM data model, uncertainty, analysis method, scaling effect and high performance computing method, as well as its application in DTA. A few research groups in this field have made great progress recently, and young scholars are playing a critical role in the process. Their research has caught up with the international forefront, and achieved fruitful results in significant innovation. Some research, like DEM based regional geomorphological research on the Loess Plateau and Tibetan Plateau of China highlighted the contribution of Chinese scientists, which have had influence in the international academia to a certain degree.

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    Spatiotemporal data analysis in geography
    Jinfeng WANG, Yong GE, Lianfa LI, Bin MENG, Jilei WU, Yanchen BO, Shihong DU, Yilan LIAO, Maogui HU, Chengdong XU
    2014, 69 (9):  1326-1345.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409007
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    Following the emergence of large numbers of spatiotemporal datasets, the literatures related to spatiotemporal data analysis increase rapidly in recent years. This paper reviews the literatures and practices in spatiotemporal data analysis, and classifies the methods available for spatiotemporal data analysis into seven categories: including geovisualization of spatiotemporal data, time series analysis of spatial statistical indicators, coupling spatial and temporal change indicators, detection of spatiotemporal pattern and abnormality, spatiotemporal interpolation, spatiotemporal regression, spatiotemporal process modelling, and spatiotemporal evolution tree. We summarized the principles, input and output, assumptions and computer software of the methods that would be helpful for users to make a choice from the toolbox in spatiotemporal data analysis. When we handle spatiotemporal big data, spatial sampling appears to be one of the core methods, because (1) information in a big data is often too big to be mastered by human physical brain, so has to be summarized by statistics understandable; (2) the users of Weibo, Twitter, internet, mobile phone, mobile vehicles are neither the total population nor a random sample of the total population, therefore, the big data sample is usually biased from the population, and the bias has to be remedied to make a correct inference; (3) the data quality is usually inconsistent within a big data, so there should be a balance between the variances of inferences made by using data with various quality and by using small but high quality data.

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    Main progress in the research on land use intensification
    Huiyi ZHU, Minghui SUN
    2014, 69 (9):  1346-1357.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409008
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    Land use intensification is an unimpeachable choice of human beings under the multiple pressures of food security, economic development, and ecological conservation. It is particularly important for the countries with less land resource per capita like China to foster a sustainable intensification in their use of land. The scientific understanding of land-use change, however, is still insufficient to characterise the conditions under which such a sustainable intensification can and will occur. The existing large knowledge gaps should be filled in the future. In this paper, we briefly review main progress in the research on land use intensification. The content is arranged in two sections. The first section focuses on four subtopics: (1) basic characters and their measuring indicators, (2) extremum and potential for input and output, (3) driving factors and limiting factors, (4) ecological effects and sustainable intensification. The second section is on current hotspots: monitoring and mapping land use intensity, land sharing & land sparing, policy premise and choice, and urban land "intensification" in China.

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    Internationalization progress of Acta Geographica Sinica and Journal of Geographical Sciences since their publication
    ZHAO Xin, ZHENG Du
    2014, 69 (9):  1358-1368.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409009
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    This article conducts a review of the internationalization progress of "Acta Geographica Sinica" in 80 years (1934- 2014) and an in- depth analysis of international development of "Journal of Geographical Sciences" published since 2001. The efforts aiming at the increase of the international influence of the two journals include: internationalization of publishing form, the expansion of international publishing and distribution, the increase of international submission and publication, the international network downloads and citations to upgrade international influence.
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    Orginal Article
    Paradigms in historiography of geography: Science history and knowledge history
    Jun SUN, Yujun PAN, Youde WU, Weiren HE
    2014, 69 (9):  1369-1384.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409010
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    In this article, from a historiographical perspective, we examined the ways that geographers and historians used to construct their geographical histories. We start with an overview of ideas that argue for a 'scientific' history in geography. Then, we discuss how some geographers construct their 'scientific history' in a 'strong program' pattern, while the others contrast a 'knowledge history' which does not give a damn to the comparative dimension with early modern geography. In conclusion, our aim is tantamount to proposing a bidirectional perspective to understand our histories and future. At the same time, we propose the dualism between Anglophone and non-Anglophone Geography what is unnecessary or pseudo rather than real. Until recently, the history of geography was drafted in narrow, uncritical terms usually invoked to legitimize the activities and perspectives of different geographical constituencies in a modernistic view, sealed off from external economic, social, political or cultural forces. For example, currently popular All Possible Worlds, developed an "essentialist" historiography which postulates what geography is as a science "in essence", and constructs geography's history in an essentialist light. The "top to down" narrative pattern in this history makes: only the Anglophone geographical tradition is legitimate; the nature of history is constructed, abstracted; traditions beyond Anglophone are always absent (e.g. Chinese geography), or sometime, explained in an anachronism way; and natural geography and human geography are divided into two different intellective enterprises. The shaping of geography as a discipline has resulted from a combination of productive and successful communication and missed opportunities, of presence and absence, of fluid travels of ideas and projects, but also of closures, impediments, good lessons that got lost. So, a history of geography should be concerned with the past for its own sake, rather than the ways in which it can be understood in the light of the present-day practice of the subject. We suggest that history should be constructed from the root, knowledge, and then explain why it is important and how it changes. The history like this is what we called knowledge history, a history in a "bottom to top" narrative path which implies geography in various places and times is so dissimilar and the aim of writing is an annotation. By comparing the "top to down" and "bottom to top" narrative paths, we suggest both the construction and explanation are necessary for a history. It will be purely admirable if a history presents a history "from the physical and biological, through the social and economic, to the humanistic".

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    A statistical analysis of the papers published in Acta Geographica Sinica during 1934-2013
    DONG Liuqun, SHI Zhenghong
    2014, 69 (9):  1385-1390.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201409011
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    In this paper, databases including Chinese Journal Full- text Database (CJFD) and Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD) were taken as tools to obtain the basic data of the theses published in Acta Geographica Sinica (Chinese edition). The authors examined the theses covering the period 1934- 2013 for statistical analysis and evaluation so as to demonstrate the 80 years of papers published in Acta Geographica Sinica and the academic influence of the journal. The article indirectly reflects the level of development in geographical research and provides some reference for the development of geography.
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