Table of Content

    20 December 2013, Volume 68 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Panel Granger Test on urban land expansion and fiscal revenue growth in China’s prefecture-level cities
    WANG Fenglong, LIU Yungang
    2013, 68 (12):  1595-1606.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1047KB) ( )   Save
    Land development in China has been a popular research topic in existing studies. It is not only mobilized by municipalities to attract investments and promote local economic growth, but also become the trigger to ignite various land-related conflicts. While quite a few researches have focused on the institutional contexts of "land coffer", the effects of urban land expansion on the growth of local fiscal revenue remain poorly examined. Moreover, less attention has been paid to the "land coffer" in different industries in cities with various characteristics. To help narrow this gap, this paper initiates a preliminary inquiry to the causality between expansion of urban built-up land and growth of local fiscal revenue based on the panel vector error correction model (VECM). Using data from City Statistical Yearbook (1985-2011), this study examines the mechanisms, efficiency and regional differences of fiscalization of land among Chinese municipal governments based on random effect models. The findings indicate that the growth of urban land is the Granger cause of local fiscal revenue since 1995. However, the expansion of urban built-up land caused only a transient increase in local fiscal revenue and had no significant long-term effect on the development of housing or manufacturing industries, which suggests that the urban land development in China mainly contributes to local fiscal revenue through short-term land expropriation, which has been excessively extracted and doomed to be unsustainable. As for the spatial differences among the three regions in China, the promoting effects of land development are more significant within the cities in eastern region or those with a larger population size. Nonetheless, land development generally has negative effects on housing and manufacturing industries for Northeast China, central region and western region in the long run. This implies that the intensifying land expropriation across the country is rather short-sighted. To prevent waste of precious farmland in the ongoing urban sprawl and the upcoming round of "small city-township" development (chengzhenhua), we call for more compact land development and reform of current land system.
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    Spatial clustering analysis of residential and employment distribution in Beijing based on their social characteristics
    ZHAN Dongsheng, MENG Bin
    2013, 68 (12):  1607-1618.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312002
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    Along with the changes of urban residents' social space during China's institutional transition period, a wide concern has been aroused on the even more complicated spatial organization of residence and employment. Based on residential survey data of Beijing in 2010, several spatial analysis methods were applied to analyze characteristics of spatial distribution of residence and employment of different social groups in Beijing, such as the buffer analysis, the nearest neighbor clustering and Ripley K functions. The results indicated that spatial differentiation of residence and employment in Beijing was significant. Furthermore, relative differences on proportions of spatial distribution of residence and employment of different social groups also existed in the interior space of residence or employment. Degree of spatial mismatch showed that the circle of about a 15-km distance from Tian'anmen was the boundary of function dominant areas of employment and residence. Meanwhile, degree of jobs-housing balance presented a decreasing trend from inner city to outer layers as a whole, while that of high income groups and young white-collar workers was lower than the other two groups. Besides, spatial agglomeration of residence and employment for different groups also presented different characteristics. For common citizens, residential and employment locations were scattered in distribution. For young migrant workers, cluster locations of their living and working spaces were quite adjacent to each other, which were mainly concentrated in the eastern region of the city. Residential locations of high income groups were mostly separated, but their employment locations were relatively centered in the eastern and northwestern parts of the city. At the same time, distribution of young white-collars' living spaces displayed a band-like clustering in the west but scattered in the east, while their working spaces were mainly agglomerated in two axis regions centered on Zhongguancun and CBD respectively. Spatial agglomeration characteristics of residential and employment locations for different groups were similar in case of scales, revealing a trend of "increase at first but decrease later" with the increase of their distance from clustering center, although their distance thresholds were different. This difference suggested that high income groups had limited optional range on their residential locations and common citizens had minimum optional range on their employment locations, but the young white-collars showed maximum optional range on both residential and employment locations.
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    A research on the spatial-temporal process of relationship between cities and rivers of the Three Gorges Area
    GONG Shengsheng, LIN Yuehui, GE Dazhuan
    2013, 68 (12):  1619-1631.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312003
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    Based on historical documents of urban evolution, this paper makes a macro-analysis of the spatial-temporal evolution of the city-river relationships in the Three Gorges Area during the period 314BC-AD2013. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. From temporal evolution, in the stage from the Warring States to the Western Han Dynasty (475BC-AD8), cities in the Three Gorges Area grew slowly along the Yangtze River Mainstream; in the period from the Eastern Han to Sui and Tang dynasties (25-906), cities there spread rapidly from the Yangtze River Mainstream to its tributaries; in the epoch from the Song through Yuan and Ming to Qing dynasties (960-1911), cities there consolidated their distribution mainly along the Yangtze River Mainstream; and since then, from 1912 to 2013, cities there increased aggregately around central districts of core cities of both Chongqing and Yichang; therefore the Tang Dynasty (618-906) was the turning point of urban evolution of the Three Gorges Area, while the Ming and Qing dynasties (1368-1911) were the shaping stage of urban pattern, and contemporary era (1912-2013) is the polarization phase of the core cities. In terms of the spatial distribution, according to the site of cities, a total of 61 cities at the county level emerged in the Three Gorges Area during the past 2300 years, of which, 71% were distributed along the Yangtze River Mainstream, 73% on the junction of rivers, and 82% in the valley below an altitude of 300 m. Moreover, the evolution of cities in a small watershed usually tended to spread from downstream to upstream of the river. As a whole, the urban evolution in this area reflects the fact that a region is developed generally based on natural conditions, such as from lower to higher altitude and from downstream to upstream.
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    A study of sequential city growth pattern:Theoretical model and empirical evidence of U.S. urban system
    SHENG Kerong, SUN Wei
    2013, 68 (12):  1632-1642.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312004
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    The dynamics of city growth and urban system evolution are attracting more attention in urban geography studies. Based on a theoretical model from new economic geography perspective and the empirical evidence of U.S. urban system evolution, this paper undertakes a thorough study of how cities develop and grow in a large country whose urban population is growing steadily over time. The results show that city growth follows a sequential pattern in the long run: cities with the highest market potential are the first to grow rapidly, and only when their growth rates slow down at some point does the city with second-highest market potential become the fastest-growing one, then the third one, and so on. This research also reveals three features of urban system evolution related to sequential city growth pattern. First, city size distribution evolves from primary balanced type to low-developed primate type and finally high-developed balanced type in an inverse "U"-shaped pattern. Second, there exist lasting discontinuities, or gaps, between size classes. Third, the upper tail of city size distribution exhibits conditional convergence characteristics. The research can not only contribute to a better understanding of urbanization process and the evolution of city size distribution, but also be widely used in the effective policy making and scientific urban planning.
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    Differentiation characteristics and forming mechanism of rural settlements in Central China
    HE Yanhua, ZENG Shanshan, TANG Chengli, ZHOU Guohua, ZHANG Jie, LI Li
    2013, 68 (12):  1643-1656.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312005
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    This paper makes a deep analysis of the differentiation characteristics and forming mechanism of rural settlements in Central China, in view of the core characteristic elements about rural settlements, such as scale and spatial form, facilities and housing condition, subject and social structure. The sampling-point method and transects method are adopted. The results are shown as follows. The spatial differentiation of rural settlements are obvious in Central China, and the "plain-hill-mountain" regional gradient, "developed-undevelopedunderdeveloped" economic gradient and "suburb-outer suburb-country" distance gradient are prominent. The factors has a joint effect, which include physiographic conditions, economic development and level of income, urbanization and urban-rural relationship, regional culture, national policy and systems, and so on. The factors are interacting and influencing each other in different ways. Physiographic conditions are stable factor that mainly affect "plain-hillmountain" regional gradient, by the "continuous reinforcement effect". Economic development and level of income, urbanization and urban-rural relationship are dynamic factors that mainly affect "developed-undeveloped-underdeveloped" economic gradient and "suburb-outer suburb-country" distance gradient, by the "inverted 'U' stage effect". In addition, regional culture influences rural settlements deeply and essentially by affecting peasant households' value system and behavior habit, which are semi-stable factors producing "bidirectional equilibrium effect".
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    A study on commodification in rural space and the relationship between urban and rural areas in Beijing City
    WANG Pengfei
    2013, 68 (12):  1657-1667.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312006
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    Changes of agricultural production and rural society in China have attracted worldwide attention since the reform and opening up in 1978, the grain output has increased year by year, and the farmers' income has been obviously raised as well. After joining the WTO, rural China has faced the following situations, internationally, stronger trends of economic globalization and sustainable development on one hand, domestically, more serious environmental problems caused by agriculture, the decrease of working population and the increase of labor substitution factors in agricultural sector on the other hand. Meanwhile, the diversification characteristics of rural economy have emerged. Rural areas were considered as an agricultural production space in essence. But, nowadays, it is also generally regarded as a space with other functions such as leisure and relaxation, cultural and education, and environmental conservation. While the role of production has decreased in the present rural space, the role of consumption has increased. Therefore, based on the theory of post-productivism, this paper discussed the issues about the spatial commodification and the rural-urban relationship in Beijing. We have gained the following abstract theoretical findings: (1) Theoretically, space is an abstract concept, whatever for urban areas and rural areas, there is no pure space which has commodification sense in physical world. Indeed, the so called spatial commodification is closely related to various production activities of human beings and gradually reveals itself with the production development; (2) Under the economic globalization and the worldwide sustainable development background, with the increasing growth of the production variety, the spatial commodification in urban and rural areas tends to be manifested; (3) Since the implementation of open and reform policies in the late 1970s, great changes have taken place in rural landscape, land uses, employment structure, life styles and spatial patterns in the rural areas of Beijing, and the rural spatial commodification has become protruding; (4) With the development of the spatial commodification transformation in rural Beijing, the urban-rural relationship has been greatly improved. (5) The gaps between urban and rural areas have been gradually narrowed, along with the development of the spatial commodification transformation in rural Beijing.
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    Using accessibility measures to assess spillover effect of civil airports in China
    DAI Teqi, ZHANG Yuhan, ZHAO Juanjuan
    2013, 68 (12):  1668-1677.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312007
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    Spillover effect of transport infrastructure is a significant concern to researchers and policy makers, for the improvement of transport infrastructure by the local government in a region will increase the accessibility of the neighbouring regions, which may bring more benefits to the neighbouring regions than to the local region. After the reform of airport localization, the local governments in China are playing more and more important roles in airport investment and management. However, so far in China, there has been little research on the spillover effect of airports. Using the dataset in 2009 and the accessibility measures, this paper examines the spatial spillover effect of civil airports in China. Here the spatial spillovers of accessibility for a given region are defined as the overall increase in accessibility of the neighbouring regions brought by the airports in the given region. Based on the network analysis tools in GIS and the potential model, a methodology is devices to realize the definition. Then we calculate the spillovers of accessibility at province and city scales. Results indicate that the spillover effect of accessibility at the province scale is rather weak. The average ratio of the spillover effect of accessibility at the province scale is only 2.1%. It is much stronger at the city scale and varies significantly. The average ratio of the spillover effect of accessibility at the city scale is 8.1%, and the highest one reaches 55.3%. These results offer very useful information for both planners and policy makers. And particularly, the implications for institution design on the coordination at the city level are also discussed.
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    The empirical analysis of industrial development and energy consumption in Jilin Province
    ZHANG Huimin, WEI Qiang, TONG Lianjun
    2013, 68 (12):  1678-1688.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312008
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    Based on the analysis of the features of economic development and energy consumption, the relationship between them in Jilin was revealed by employing the cointegration theory, index decomposition method and logarithm linear regression method. The result suggests: (1) the economic development and energy consumption are interdetermined, and there is a positive and long-term relationship. The economic development is highly depending on the energy in Jilin Province. (2) Under the condition of other unchanged factors, the change of industrial energy efficiency contributes to the energy saving, while that of industrial structure increases the energy consumption. (3) The industrial structure change enhances the energy intensity, but the energy utility efficiency change lowers it. From the view of contribution to the energy consumption, the contribution of industrial structure to the energy consumption was more than that of the energy utility efficiency in 2000-2011. (4) In 2000-2011, the comprehensive energy intensity change and hydroelectricity energy intensity change were related to all industrial structures' change, and the influencing factors about structure of oil energy intensity change were more than those of coal energy intensity change; from the impact degree, agricultural proportion decrease exerted a positive and greater effect on lowering the energy intensity of comprehensive energy and hydroelectricity, and industrial one did on coal and natural gas.
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    Spatio-temporal-situational evolution and regional influencing factors of the inbound tourism service quality in China
    HUANG Yi, MA Yaofeng, XUE Huaju
    2013, 68 (12):  1689-1701.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312009
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    To some extent, the development of China's tourism industry originated from inbound tourism. Generally speaking, the tourism industry has been keeping rapidly increasing in quantity. On the other hand, we should pay enough attention to its quality situation which has a great influence on the sustainable development. But through literature review, we find that there are some deficiencies in the related research, such as lack of time-series research, little attention paid to the spatial association and full of one-sided perspective: quantity or quality. As a result, based on the data of inbound tourist's evaluation on the service quality from 1999 to 2009, this paper conducts a research on the service quality of inbound tourism in China, in the view of time, space, situation and regional influencing factors. Research methods include Theil index, ESDA, quality-quantity matrix and Pearson correlation coefficient. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) On the whole, inbound tourism service quality had been improving in China from 1999 to 2009. The situation of central region had been better than that of the east since 2006. But western region had been in the worst situation. (2) Service quality differences among provinces presented a convergent trend. The percentage of differences in regions was very high. In eastern and central regions, service quality differences presented a continuous reversed U-shaped pattern at low level, while those in western region changed greatly. It can be concluded that the conversion of service quality potential energy difference in eastern and central regions was better than that of the west. (3) Inbound tourism service quality did not show significant global spatial autocorrelation in most years, which was different from the situation of inbound tourist flow and tourism revenue. (4) The fluctuation of local spatial relationship was primarily caused by the quality reduction of neighbor provinces. LL zone expanded from southwestern inland to southern coastal area. (5) In eastern region, HH zone accounted for a large proportion, but its significant degree began to reduce. In central region, as the rise of Jilin Province, HH zone with Jilin Province as the centre came into being and its significant degree became higher than that of the Yangtze River Delta. Yunnan-Sichuan and Xinjiang-Qinghai-Tibet were the significant LL zones in western region. (6) As for the situation of quality-quantity, eastern region was the best, but the quality of some provinces began to decline while the reception number remained large. In central region, the development situation of quality was better than that of quantity. Both the quality and quantity developments were in bad situation in the west. According to the evolution of quality-quantity, the 31 provinces can be divided into 9 types. (7) Inbound tourism service quality was positively correlated with service facility, labor supply and economic living level, but it was not so much affected by inbound tourism revenue or reception number.
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    American magazine TIME's geographical imaginations of China:A case study on the perspective of Orientalism
    AN Ning, ZHU Hong
    2013, 68 (12):  1702-1713.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312010
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    Alongside the ascendancy of the Information Age, how the mass media restructures human-land relationship has gradually become one of the most influential and debated human geographical subjects. Since the 1970s, western scholars, such as Edward Said who is concerned with the subject of Orientalism, have opened up a field of inquiry concerned with imaginative geographies, and linked geographical topics such as geopolitics to the study of post-colonialism. This article introduces the theory of Orientalism which investigates the construction of Oriental subjects and reflects on how the western world gazes the Oriental world with a view of colonialism. Empirically this paper analyzes the process in which TIME, an American popular magazine, produces and spreads knowledge of China. It employs the method of text analysis, and also discusses how the Occident imagined and re-sculptured the Oriental world through the western discourses. By reviewing and elaborating relevant literatures on China, this article summarizes and analyzes the empirical studies in this body of research. In the first place, as an important place that has been and is producing and spreading global knowledge, the magazine TIME has constructed national identities of China and produced negative knowledge about it. In the second place, the magazine TIME has employed a dualist discursive strategy based on the historical and geographical facts which seem to exhibit naturalized distinctions between China and America. On the one hand, it has described China as an unenlightened Oriental country. On the other hand, it has portrayed America as an advanced nation, and thus finally served the political purpose of the Occident. Finally, China has been imagined, deconstructed, and reconstructed by the Occidental hegemony as a special "Oriental" text. In summary, this article has addressed the absence of Chinese research on Orientalism and has injected new elements in the studies of national images from the perspective of imaginative geography. Furthermore, this article also puts forward some suggestions for the Chinese scholars on research about national images and Sino-US relationship both in cultural geography and other disciplines.
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    The spatio-temporal patterns of street robbery in DP peninsula
    XU Chong, LIU Lin, ZHOU Suhong, YE Xinyue, JIANG Chao
    2013, 68 (12):  1714-1723.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201312011
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    The paper aims to uncover macro and micro spatial-temporal patterns of street robberies on DP Island of H city in southern China. DP Island, with an area of about 4 square kilometers, connects to the city via 7 bridges. There are a total of 373 street robbery incidences during the period of 2006-2011. Since street numbers are not linearly calibrated along streets in China, each incidence has to be geo-coded manually to a street network. First, all street robbery incidences are summarized by year (6 years), month (12 months) and hour (24 hours). The summary shows that street robberies reached a peak in 2007, followed by a trend of steady decrease until 2010; Just before the Spring Festival (around February), the number of incidences is much higher than that of other months. This pattern is different from those found in other countries, including the United States of America; during a day, street robberies peak during 22:00-23:00. Second, crime hotspots are revealed by kernel density mapping of all street robbery incidences. Comparisons with street network and land use suggest that hotspots tend to associate with main throughputs, intersections with high accessibilities, and areas with a high degree of land use mixture. To better characterize detailed patterns needed by policing, this paper selects 4 hotspots with the highest density for further analysis at a micro level. Prediction accuracy index (PAI) shows that these 4 spots are "hot" during all the 6 years from 2006 to 2011 and therefore warrant special attention for crime reduction and prevention. These hotspots are placed in different categories of the "hotspot matrix", which combines the spatial distribution (clustered or not) within the hotspot and the temporal distribution (clustered or not) in 24 hours. Based on these spatio-temporal patterns, the study suggests possible means for more effective policing, policing resource allocation, and crime prevention strategies. The study represents the first case study of its kind in China, and it sets the stage for future comparisons with other Chinese cites and foreign cities. Unfortunately, the name of the city cannot be revealed per confidential agreement on the crime data.
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