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Table of Content

    20 October 2013, Volume 68 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Characteristics of human geographical proposals of National Natural Science Foundation of China
    LENG Shuying
    2013, 68 (10):  1307-1315.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310001
    Abstract ( 983 )   PDF (628KB) ( 1420 )   Save
    The article explores the characteristics of human geography of China in recent years, based on a study of human geographical proposals of National Natural Science Foundation of China from 2007 to 2011, which includes an analysis of application code, key research area and research contents of these proposals. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) More complicated research issues and more interdisciplinary research projects make it difficult for us to distinguish human geography from other relevant disciplines; (2) research interest reflects the characteristics of the times and presents a balanced distribution in the number of disciplinary orientations; (3) more key words have appeared, but less disciplinary identity was shown in the representations; (4) topic selection is featured by local application, and the awareness of disciplinary system construction is increasing.
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    Jobs-housing balance and commute efficiency in cities of central and western China:A case study of Xi’an
    ZHOU Jiangping, CHEN Xiaojian, HUANG Wei, YU Peng, ZHANG Chun
    2013, 68 (10):  1316-1330.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310002
    Abstract ( 1166 )   PDF (6859KB) ( 2135 )   Save
    Jobs-housing balance is an inevitable topic and even strategy in most urban plans and policies aimed at reducing car dependence, increasing public transportation's attractiveness and/or improving quality of life. Existing studies of jobs-housing balance have rarely focused on developing cities, in particular, those in central and western China. This manuscript proposes that there are six groups of factors affecting jobs-housing balance, which notably influence commute efficiency. Those factors exert different impacts on jobs-housing balance in cities at different development stages. There is need to single out specific factors influencing developing cities' jobs-housing balance so as to better improve their jobs-housing balance and commute efficiency. Improved jobs-housing balance and commute efficiency should help the developing cities gain advantages in terms of attracting and keeping talented workers and increasing their competitiveness in traffic mobility, quality of life and sustainability. Based on 59,967 samples of the 2011 Xi'an City-Wide Household Travel Survey, this paper investigates the commute efficiency, jobs-housing balance and excess commute in Xi'an. It also compares relevant indictors of Xi'an with those in other Chinese and international cities whenever possible. It finds that Xi'an has a shorter actual average commuting distance and higher commute efficiency than most other cities that have been studied in existing literature. Average commuting distance in Xi'an is found to be negatively correlated to jobs-resident ratio and total number of employment. Danwei compounds in the city still have decent jobs-housing balance and commuting efficiency but this pattern is changing.
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    Spatial-temporal characteristics of scientific and technological resources allocation efficiency in prefecture-level cities of China
    FAN Fei, DU Debin, LI Heng, YOU Xiaojun
    2013, 68 (10):  1331-1343.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310003
    Abstract ( 746 )   PDF (1433KB) ( 1033 )   Save
    The scientific and technological (S&T) resources allocation efficiency of China's 286 cities at prefecture-level during 2001-2010 is measured from both input and output perspectives in this paper. From an input perspective, employees in scientific research and technical services (ten thousand persons), financial expenditure on science (ten thousand yuan), total social investment in fixed assets (a hundred million yuan) and the number of Internet users (household) represent scientific human resources, scientific financial resources, scientific material resources and scientific information resources respectively, while the number of scientific thesis and the numbers of three types of patents which can be retrieved represent the output of technological resources allocation efficiency. The S&T resources allocation efficiency of each city is calculated by the improved data envelopment analysis (DEA) in different periods, while differences of distribution and change rule of it are revealed from spatial and temporal dimensions. Based on this, the spatial-temporal distribution pattern and evolution trend of S&T resources allocation efficiency in prefecture-level cities during the research period are analyzed and discussed with the method of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA). The results show that: (1) the average allocation efficiency of S&T resources in prefecture-level cities has been at low level, decreasing annually in a process of high-low crisscross, and the gap between the eastern and central-western China gradually expands. (2) In the aspect of spatial distribution, S&T resources allocation efficiency in prefecture-level cities remains unevenly distributed, and basically presents downtrend from East China, Central China to West China. The cities whose S&T resources allocation efficiency is at high level and higher level present a cluster distribution, which fits well with the 23 forming urban agglomerations in China. (3) In terms of spatial evolution trend, S&T resources allocation efficiency of prefecture-level cities illustrates significant spatial autocorrelation and has positive correlation in every stage. The S&T resources allocation efficiency of adjoining cities with similar values (high-high or low-low) is featured by spatial agglomeration. The phenomenon of spatial distribution agglomeration is gradually increasing, while the general geographic difference changes in the trend of diminishing. (4) By observing the LISA map of S&T resources allocation efficiency at different stages, we can find that the spatial location and spatial agglomeration range of four agglomeration types of S&T resources allocation efficiency have changed in different degrees with the elapse of time. The geographical space continuity of S&T resources allocation efficiency progressively enhances. (5) Economic development has been found to be positively correlated with S&T resources allocation efficiency to some extent. However, the improvement of S&T resources allocation efficiency does not depend only on economic development. The differences of S&T resources allocation relative efficiency appears universally. Geographic location, S&T resource endowment, innovation environment and other aspects are directly and indirectly influencing and reflecting the existence and evolution of those differences.
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    Estimation of urban population at daytime and nighttime and analyses of their spatial pattern:A case study of Haidian District, Beijing
    QI Wei, LI Ying, LIU Shenghe, GAO Xiaolu, ZHAO Meifeng
    2013, 68 (10):  1344-1356.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310004
    Abstract ( 1612 )   PDF (3837KB) ( 1989 )   Save
    Urban population at daytime and nighttime and their spatial distribution are basis for planning urban infrastructure, public services and disaster relief, and it is also a leading edge for urban geography study. Because current statistical data in China cannot distinguish urban population at daytime from that at nighttime, existing research in this field is limited. Aiming to estimate urban population at daytime and nighttime and to analyze their spatial characteristics, this paper establishes a relationship model among urban population, time (daytime or nighttime) and types of land-use, and a population spatial distribution model based on different area weights, and also conducts an empirical study on the Haidian District in Beijing. The results are shown as follows. (1) There are many differences between daytime and nighttime population in spatial structure. Population is more concentrated during daytime. (2) There are many spatial coupling relationships between daytime and nighttime population, such as sandwich mode, inlay mode, convergence mode, and monomer mode. (3) There is a great difference in the use of road networks between daytime and nighttime. This phenomenon is related to the spatial distribution between daytime and nighttime. It seems that daytime population has a notable influence on road expansion. The spatial distribution of daytime and nighttime population also reflects some phenomena in the develop-ment of China, such as the distribution of old residential areas, the construction of new industrial districts, the differences between urban and rural areas, which can provide some reference for the studies in this field and other regional research.
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    Analysis of the economic network structure of urban agglomerations in the middle Yangtze River
    TANG Fanghua, TANG Hui, SUN Qian, TANG Disha
    2013, 68 (10):  1357-1366.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310005
    Abstract ( 1067 )   PDF (2332KB) ( 1240 )   Save
    The development of urban agglomerations in the middle Changjiang River is strategically significant for integrating coordinated development and enhancing the rise of Central China, so the research of related economic network structure is beneficial for the making up of urban and regional development strategy. Based on modified gravitation model and using social network analysis, this paper constructs an urban agglomeration economic network structure model which takes economic ties strength and economic network structural statistical features as the core. Then, this paper empirically studies the urban agglomeration economic network of the middle Changjiang River. The results are shown as follows. (1) The whole network density is staying at middle-high level and the economic network scale has formed. (2) The network has many subgroups, and in the internal of subgroups of Wuhan Metropolitan Circle and Hunan "3 + 5" urban agglomeration, the economic interaction is obvious, while the interaction between these two subgroups is not significant; especially in the ecological economic zone of Poyang Lake region, an internal tie needs to be strengthened. (3) The pattern that central cities such as Wuhan, Changsha and Nanchang take the lead in the development of this urban agglomeration has formed, and their radiation effects are obvious, while the absorbing abilities are insufficient.
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    Administrative adjustment of Xinjiang in multiple perspectives
    YANG Yu, DONG Wen, LIU Yi
    2013, 68 (10):  1367-1379.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310006
    Abstract ( 838 )   PDF (4795KB) ( 1327 )   Save
    The reform of administrative division in Xinjiang has been lagging behind the whole country and behind its economic development affected by urban development and national policies. Under the background of supporting development of Xinjiang, adjustment and optimization of the administrative divisions have important implications for its economic and social development. Based on different prior principles, we carry out different schemes as follows. (1) Under the transport principle, it is very important to build the main traffic corridor and establish distribution center and transportation hub which can optimize the functional organization in the oasis area. (2) Viewed from the economic principle, the oasis area can be seen as relatively homogeneous space. It is important to strengthen the basic functions of the central city that can play a leading role in the oasis. (3) Under the principle of functional zone, we should consider the development of cities and towns in Xinjiang constrained by natural conditions and the eco-environment. Adjustment of administrative divisions should be conducive to the realization of the main geographical functions and sustainable regional development. (4) Programs which focus on different principles can lead to different conclusions. The common point at different principles will have priority to adjustment. The cities that need to be adjusted for a principle can be combined with national strategy, regional stability and economic development situation and so on.
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    Analysis of virtual trading area of C2C E-commerce based on temporal distance:A case study of 50 cosmetics retail stores on TAOBAO in Beijing
    YU Jinyan, LIU Weidong, WANG Liang
    2013, 68 (10):  1380-1388.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310007
    Abstract ( 841 )   PDF (2047KB) ( 1033 )   Save
    According to the theory of metacartography, this paper, using model-building, tries to transform the spatial distance into the temporal distance. On this basis, it re-defines the distance between two places using the map projection transformation method in ArcGIS. Thus, the temporal distance map is obtained theoretically. Then this paper, taking the case of 50 cosmetics retail stores on TAOBAO in Beijing as an example, analyzes their transaction information of 6 months, and conducts studies on the features and causes of virtual trading area based on the temporal distance map. Some unique features are shown compared with traditional trading area. (1) The virtual trading area has even a wider range because the new ICTs can reduce the space friction. (2) The temporal distance affects consumption decision so that the virtual trading area demonstrates hierarchy. (3) The frictional resistance of temporal distance is not the unique factor affecting consumption decision, and, in actual cases, the virtual trading areas demonstrate more permeability, superposition and dynamics compared with the traditional trading area.
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    Multi-scenario simulations on the interactions of jobs-housing based on agent-based model
    LI Shaoying, LI Xia, LIU Xiaoping, WU Zhifeng, AI Bin, CHEN Minghui, LI Haibo, LIU Mengwei
    2013, 68 (10):  1389-1400.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310008
    Abstract ( 964 )   PDF (4422KB) ( 1291 )   Save
    Jobs and housing are two major elements in urban spatial structure. The relationship between jobs and housing affects urban planning and management, and has become one of the hot topics in urban study. Most of the current researches focus on the analyses of urban spatial structure and the empirical study of urban theory based on macro-models. These models, which are traditional "top-down" approaches, have limitations in reflecting the individual behaviors. In fact, the spatial relationship of jobs-housing is the outcome of population individual behaviors including jobs selecting and residential decisions. Hence, the spatial organization of jobs-housing is difficult to simulate with those macro-models. Studies indicated that agent-based models which are "bottom-up" approaches, can offer a way to simulate the complex problems that involve individual behaviors. This paper proposes an agent-based model (Labor Market Based Model of Residential Location-LMBMRL) to simulate the interactions between jobs and housing. In this model, labor economics theory is incorporated to define the influence of labor market on job searching behaviors of population individuals. An agent-based approach is used to simulate the job searching behaviors and the residential location decisions of individuals. The proposed model is applied to the center region of Dongguan, an emerging and renowned manufacturing metropolis in the Pearl River Delta region, China. The simulated results reflect the effect of labor market on residential decisions. Quantitative analysis is carried out to assess the influence of housing cost and commuting cost on jobs-housing balance. It is found that as the housing cost rises, the relationship of jobs-housing will become less balanced. When the commuting cost is reduced, the relationship of jobs-housing will be much more imbalanced. Moreover, it has revealed the jobs-housing characteristics of population in different economic sectors through multi-scenario simulations. The study results are significant for understandings of jobs-housing organization, which can provide important guidance for urban planning and management.
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    Spatial syntactic analysis of cognitive maps
    LU Zheng
    2013, 68 (10):  1401-1410.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310009
    Abstract ( 1472 )   PDF (2582KB) ( 2076 )   Save
    The topic on the externalization of spatial images of consciousness into the measurable objects is always valued by behavioral science, geography, tourism and other related disciplines. Starting with the structure of spatial images, this paper compares two important methods of this field: the cognitive map and the space syntax. The intention of comparison is to find the relevance between these two methods in the field of structural spatial cognition. This paper firstly gives a brief introduction of spatial diagram of syntactic formula, and compares the two results that are respectively derived from syntactic integration values and imaginable indexes of cognitive sketch-maps. Through the analysis of the correlation between the integration values of real map and the elements' imaginable indexes (e.g. frequency of road occurrence, degree of road accuracy) in 579 sketch maps on the Taiping Historical Block of the Changsha City, a better correlation coefficient has been found between integration value and frequency of occurrence. Then, it redraws 579 axial-line maps based on original sketch maps, finds corresponding road index in real map, and compares the syntactic integration values with the average values of syntactic integration in 579 sketch maps. Therefore, a relatively good correlation coefficient is presented between the above two comparisons. Meanwhile, a significant correlation is also formed between integration values of real map and the imaginable indexes such as nodes or landmarks in sketch maps. The above conclusions show that the spatial configuration has a great influence on the image configuration of human mind. And the spatial syntactic analysis of cognitive maps could be valuable to reveal the mechanisms of how people can achieve the image knowledge of spatial configuration. Furthermore, the conclusions imply the possibility of the combination of the space syntax and the cognitive map.
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    Space operation of rural primary and secondary school location
    PENG Yongming, WANG Zheng
    2013, 68 (10):  1411-1417.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310010
    Abstract ( 965 )   PDF (2442KB) ( 993 )   Save
    The location of the primary and secondary schools has a great significance on ensuring the safety and convenience when students attending and leaving schools. Many previous researches have proposed school location-allocation models, but the models are not suitable for rural schools. In this manuscript, we improve the P-median model by fully considering the advantages of P-center model and P-median model. A maximum distance constraint between students' home and school are coupled into the original P-median model. Thus, the improved P-median model owns the advantages of both P-center model and P-median model, i.e. ensuring the convenience for students from remote rural areas, and minimizing the sum of weighted distance. In order to facilitate the model application, an decision support system based on our newly derived vertex substitution search algorithm for allocating optimal location of rural elementary and secondary school were developed on the ArcGIS Engine development component library and Visual Studio development platform. Afterwards, a town of Shandong province is taken as a system test case. The school location selected by our system is better than the locations selected by traditional P-median model. The results prove that the improved P-center model can supply a reference for allocating the location of elementary and secondary school.
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    Spatial econometric analysis of carbon emission intensity and its driving factors from energy consumption in China
    CHENG Yeqing, WANG Zheye, ZHANG Shouzhi, YE Xinyue, JIANG Huiming
    2013, 68 (10):  1418-1431.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310011
    Abstract ( 1097 )   PDF (2403KB) ( 1823 )   Save
    The economic and social development has been facing with serious challenge brought by global climate change due to carbon emissions. As a responsible developing country, China pledged to reduce its carbon emission intensity by 40%-45% below 2005 levels by 2020. The realization of this target depends on not only the substantive transition of society, economy and industrial structure in national scale, but also the specific action and share of energy saving and emissions reduction in provincial scale. Based on the method provided by the IPCC, this paper examines the spatio-temporal dynamic patterns and domain factors of China's carbon emission intensity from energy consumption in 1997-2010 using spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial panel econometric model. The aim is to provide scientific basis for making different policies on energy conservation and carbon emission reduction in China. The results are shown as follows. Firstly, China's carbon emissions increased from 4.16 Gt to 11.29 Gt in 1997-2010, with an annual rate of 7.15%, which was much slower than that of annual growth rate of GDP (11.72%); therefore, China's carbon emission intensity tended to decline. Secondly, the changing curve of Moran's I indicated that China's carbon emission intensity from energy consumption has a continued strengthening tendency of spatial agglomeration at provincial scale. The provinces with higher and lower values appeared to be path-dependent or space-locked to some extent. Third, according to the analysis of spatial panel econometric model, it can be found that energy intensity, energy structure, industrial structure and urbanization rate were the domain factors that have impact on the spatio-temporal patterns of China's carbon emission intensity from energy consumption. Therefore, in order to realize the targets of energy conservation and emission reduction, we should improve the utilizing efficiency of energy, and optimize energy and industrial structure, and choose the low-carbon urbanization way and implement regional cooperation strategy of energy conservation and emissions reduction.
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    Spatial-temporal analysis of rubber plantation and its relationship with topographical factors in the border region of China, Laos and Myanmar
    FENG Zhiming, LIU Xiaona, JIANG Luguang, LI Peng
    2013, 68 (10):  1432-1446.  doi: 10.11821/dlxb201310012
    Abstract ( 1053 )   PDF (6310KB) ( 1381 )   Save
    Rubber plantation is a major land use type in Southeast Asia. Monitoring the spatial-temporal pattern of rubber plantation is significant for regional land resource development, eco-environment protection, and the maintenance of border security. With remote sensing technologies, we analyzed the rubber distribution pattern and spatial-temporal dynamics with GIS and a newly proposed index of Planted Intensity (PI). Furthermore, we quantified the impacts and limits of topographical factors on rubber plantation in the border region of China, Laos and Myanmar (BRCLM) between 1980 and 2010. The results showed that: (1) As the dominant land use type in this region, the area of rubber plantation was 6014 km2 in 2010, accounting for 8.17% of the total area. From the aspect of rubber plantation structure, the ratio of mature (≥10 years) and young rubber forest (<10 years) was about 5:7. (2) From 1980 to 2010, rubber plantation expanded significantly in the BRCLM from 705 km2 to 6014 km2, nearly nine times. The distribution of rubber plantation showed a transition from a concentrated to a dispersed pattern and greatly expanded throughout Jinghong City and abroad. (3) Restricted by the topographical factors, more than 4/5 of rubber plantation was concentrated in the appropriate elevation gradients between 600 and 1000 m, but rarely occurred at elevations beyond 1200 m in BRCLM. Nearly 2/3 of rubber plantation was concentrated on slopes of 8°-25°, but rarely distributed on slopes above 35°. Rubber plantation was mainly distributed in the south and east aspects, but less in the north and west aspects. Correspondingly, rubber plantation intensity displayed the similar distribution trend. (4) Comparative studies of rubber plantation in different countries showed that there was a remarkable increase in area at higher elevations and steeper slopes in China, while there were large suitable areas for rubber plantation in Laos and Myanmar, which benefited China for rubber trans-boundary expansion. (5) Rubber plantation in BRCLM will expand in the territories of Laos and Myanmar, and the continuous expansion in the border region of China will be inevitable.
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