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    16 August 2013, Volume 68 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Land Use and Eco-environment
    Land consolidation and rural spatial restructuring
    LONG Hualou
    2013, 68 (8):  1019-1028. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2221KB) ( )   Save
    Currently, the implementation of new type industrialization, new type urbanization and agricultural modernization strategy lacks of a major hand grip and spatial sustain platform, due to long-term existed "dual-track" structure of rural-urban development in China as well as unstable rural development institution and mechanism and backward rural and agricultural infrastructures, which greatly affects the advancement of urban-rural integration development. It is necessary to restructure rural production, living and ecological space by carrying out land consolidation, so as to establish a new platform for building new countryside and realize urban-rural integration development in China. This paper develops the concept and connotation of rural spatial restructuring, i.e., an optimization and adjustment even utterly changing process of rural production, living and ecological space accompanied by rural socio-economic structure reshaping under the pressure of rapid industrialization and urbanization. The connotations of rural spatial restructuring involve three aspects of assembling industrial development, centralizing farmers' living and intensive resources utilization. Based on the effects analysis of industrialization and urbanization on rural production, living and ecological space, this paper also probes the mechanism which push forward rural spatial restructuring by carrying out land consolidation, an important approach to supplying cultivated land, revitalizing the stock land, optimizing rural-urban land, utilizing land intensively, and increasing land productivity. A conceptualization of the models of rural production, living and ecological environment spatial restructuring is analyzed in combination with agricultural land consolidation, hollowed villages consolidation and industrial and mining land consolidation. Finally, the author argues that a "bottom-up" restructuring strategy accompanied by a few "top-down" elements is helpful for smoothly pushing forward current rural spatial restructuring in China. The optimization and restructuring of rural intensive and high-efficient production space, suitable living space with amenity and ecological space with beautiful mountain and clean water will rely on the innovation of regional engineering technology, policy mechanism and mode of rural land consolidation, and more attentions should be paid to rural space, the foundation base and platform for realizing urban-rural integration development.
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    Incentive of land use change:A case study on the variations of agricultural factor productivity in Xinjiang
    ZHU Huiyi
    2013, 68 (8):  1029-1037. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (577KB) ( )   Save
    Understanding the driving forces and mechanism of land use change is a fundamental issue in land science, which has drawn more attention in the past 30 years. While many driving forces have been identified, the mechanism of land use change is still unclear, mainly resulting from a neglect of the incentive of land use change. Traditionally, the incentive of land use change is ascribed to people's pursuit of satisfying their own demands or people's pursuit of maximization profit. However, these theoretical hypotheses neglect the differences among basic production factors. In this paper, a case study on the variations of land productivity, capital productivity and labor productivity in agricultural land use in the past 30 years was conducted in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China. The long-term trend analyses revealed that only the labor productivity presented a long-term increasing trend in regional cotton production and grain production. This result implies that people' pursuit of increasing labor productivity is probably the incentive of land use change. More facts in agricultural land use and in non-agricultural land use in China support the above implication. As labor productivity is the determinant of people's living standard, increasing labor productivity means improving people's living standard. Therefore, we conclude that land use change results from people' pursuit of increasing labor productivity in changing environment.
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    Ecosystem services and hierarchic human well-being:Concepts and service classification framework
    LI Yan, LI Shuangcheng, GAO Yang, WANG Yang
    2013, 68 (8):  1038-1047. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1615KB) ( )   Save
    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment suggested “ecosystem service and human well-being” as the key area in future ecology research. There are a growing number of researches that have focused on this topic. However, debates still go on over the definition and classification of ecosystem service among scientific communities. Confusions in concepts resulted in different understandings of ecosystem services in practical research. This paper reviewed the mainstream definitions and classifications of ecosystem service and discriminated the different service cascades in the delivery of ecosystem service from ecosystem to human well-being. By investigating the essence of human well-being concept and its connection to ecosystem service, the concept of final ecosystem service is used for linking ecosystem and human well-being and thereby a service classification framework for this linkage was developed. Final ecosystem services are classified into three categories, which are well-being construction, well-being maintenance, and well-being improvement based on the contributions of their produced benefits to different hierarchies of human well-being. The service classification framework can be applied in relevant studies such as evaluation of the ecosystem service and analysis of the coupling relationship between ecosystem service and human well-being.
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    An analytical framework and indicator system of urban carbon-based energy metabolism
    ZHANG Lijun, QIN Yaochen, ZHANG Jinping, LU Fengxian
    2013, 68 (8):  1048-1058. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1837KB) ( )   Save
    It is crucial to assess carbon-based energy use and related carbon emissions to assign responsibility for emissions reductions. Previous studies have scantly documented urban carbon emissions and addressed carbon-based energy transfer in socio-economic subsystems. Therefore, this study aims to build a framework and indicator system of urban carbon-based energy metabolism to standardize the accounting methods on fossil-energy related carbon emissions. The framework explains the connotation of urban carbon-based energy metabolism and defines its accounting scope and boundary based on "carbon footprint" and "urban metabolism". The indicator system exhibits the input, conversion, transfer and output process of carbon-based energy for urban complex ecosystems with different spatial boundaries. The research suggests that urban carbon-based energy metabolism can be used to analyze the coordination between resource and environment for low-carbon eco-cites in process of urban socio-economic development. Secondly, three accounting methods use different benchmarks to estimate urban energy use and carbon emissions. In order to raise comparability between research results, we use the method to select the available data and the targeted research objectives. Thirdly, carbon reductions should be allocated based on production, consumption and/or shared responsibility by different accounting methods. In essence, urban carbon-based energy metabolism in China is one kind of city-region related metabolism. From perspective of the industrial and energy restructuring and the residential lifestyle changes, the combination of three comprehensive methods can reveal the evolutionary mechanism and pattern of urban carbon-based energy. This research has developed systematic accounting methods to measure urban sectoral carbon emissions. Furthermore, responses to technology structure changes are needed to understand the future change scenarios of energy use and carbon emissions.
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    Urban and Industrial Development
    The definition and identification of urban agglomerations
    WANG Li, DENG Yu, NIU Wenyuan
    2013, 68 (8):  1059-1070. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3066KB) ( )   Save
    The definition and identification are important contents in the urban agglomeration research. Traditional studies rely on empirical data, and the implementation is limited due to the difficulty of gathering data. However, modeling study is rare, and the finite precision is the main disadvantage. Based on the previous studies, this paper develops the definition of urban agglomeration; by combining models and methods, (and) identification system of urban agglomeration is proposed. By qualitative and quantitative analyses, urban agglomeration is delineated more efficiently and precisely. This research will help to both define urban agglomerations and identify them in practice.
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    Residents’incongruence between reality and preference of accessibility to urban facilities in Beijing
    CHEN Li, ZHANG Wenzhong, YANG Yizhao
    2013, 68 (8):  1071-1081. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1473KB) ( )   Save
    Accessibility to facilities is a significant concern to urban residents' life quality, and is an indicator frequently used for a place's livability. In the U.S., the rise of anti-sprawl smart growth and the environmental concerns about transportation show that the growing preference for accessibility is connected to interest in urban environment. However, in China, researches have reported the decreasing accessibility to facilities brought by rapid urbanization. Meanwhile, the increasing selectivity in preferences may further reduce accessibility. So far there has been little research on the general preference of different households for living environment; less is known about which households are experiencing a state of incongruence between their preference and reality. This paper is concerned with several aspects of accessibility to various daily life activities and destinations (education, health services, shopping, recreation space and food outlets). The paper has three aims. First, it is to analyze whether the preference for accessibility varies across socio-economic characteristics. Second, it is to measure the objective accessibility across different locations and housing types. Third, it is to identify the determinants of incongruence between people's preference and reality. Particularly, we are interested in the influence of urban temporal and spatial development, as well as housing access types. Our micro data comes from a large-scale 2005 residential satisfaction survey conducted in the city of Beijing. We also adopted GIS-based measures of objective accessibility and related it to a respondent's satisfaction levels. Evidence generated from this study will shed some light on the problem of social justice in urban space. Moreover, it can contribute to the debate on urban sprawl and housing reform. Finally, the paper sums up with suggestions to local government on public facilities provision.
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    Spatial differentiation and model evolution of housing prices in Yangzhou
    WANG Yang, FANG Chuanglin, SHENG Changyuan
    2013, 68 (8):  1082-1096. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4743KB) ( )   Save
    Urban housing price differentiation is an important issue in urban geography. However, relatively little analysis is available on continual time for all types, and all space. In China's high housing price times, housing price has become the core issue which was paid close attention by the government and inhabitants. The focus of this research is to examine global differentiation, spatial differentiation, model evolution and dynamics of housing prices in Yangzhou. Housing prices data for housing estates in the period 2001-2012 were used. Global differentiation index (GDI) was established to measure the trend of global and within-group differentiations on housing prices in Yangzhou. Then based on kernel density estimation (KDE), the evolvement rule of distribution shape and differentiation pattern of housing price is examined. After that, the trend of spatial differentiation of 6 types housing prices was captured by trend analysis. Finally, the model and dynamics of spatial differentiation and pattern were summarized according to the above results. The results show that: (1) there have been increasing gaps among housing estates since 2001. In this period, the trend of differentiation has showed an upward fluctuation, which is coupled with the annual growth rate of housing price. Moreover, there exists a sector pattern of western-eastern differentiation. The spatial distribution of housing estates of homogeneity price turned cluster in 2001 into dispersion in 2012. Meanwhile, high price and low price housing estates are expanded along particular directions from core to periphery; (2) the fluctuations of prices on 6 types housing are obviously different. And their price levels are unequal, but their shapes of trend are similar; (3) the spatial model that is sector of western-eastern differentiation with cluster on housing estates of homogeneity price in 2001 has been turned into sector and concentric circles integrated on housing estates of heterogeneity price in 2012; (4) the core dynamics of global differentiation on housing price exert great influence on rapidly expansion of urban residential land, widening of residents' income gap, boom of real estate market, and diversification of housing types. The main dynamics of the enrollment of spatial pattern on housing price are as follows: the formulation and change of direction for urban development, locational direction on dwelling construction of particular housing types, ancient city protection, urban redevelopment and new urban district construction.
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    Analysis of the cluster mode of R&D industry in the innovative city districts:Taking Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing as examples
    WANG Chengyun, QIN Jian, YANG Sui
    2013, 68 (8):  1097-1109. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4814KB) ( )   Save
    Development of innovative cities has become one of the most important strategies of promoting the construction of an innovative country. By the end of 2010, the Yangpu District (Shanghai), the Haidian District (Beijing), the Binhai New Area (Tianjin) and the Shapingba District (Chongqing) had become the first nationally designated innovative urban districts in China. In this research, by classifying the postcodes of the enterprises as data sources, we investigate the spatial distribution and cluster modes of 6477 R&D enterprises in the four districts of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Chongqing and find that R&D industry has a high agglomeration in the Haidian District, Binhai New Area, Yangpu District and Shapingba District. All the four districts are located in the city centers, with developed market-oriented economy and superior environment of knowledge spillover provided by a large number of universities and research institutes. Under the influence of two important "endogenous conditions" of markets and resources, we call this mode of spatial agglomeration "endogenous cluster mode". According to the different stages of development, the mode of R&D industrial clusters can be divided into three stages. The primary stage is unipolar growth mode in Shapingba District. The medium stage is multicore collaborative mode in Yangpu District. The advanced stage is clustered network mode in Haidian District. However, the Binhai New Area is manifested as the satellite platform mode. To a certain extent, knowledge spillovers and industrial bases determine the formation of the R&D industrial clusters, which is also influenced by policy and urban planning.
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    Residence-employment structure analysis on spaces of geography and flows in Shenyang City
    XIU Chunliang, SUN Pingjun, WANG Qi
    2013, 68 (8):  1110-1118. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2827KB) ( )   Save
    This article makes a comprehensive spatial analysis of Shenyang City's residence-employment structure, using factor analysis method and residential and employment data from the Sixth Population Census and the Second Economic Census. Comparative analysis based on geographical space at urban scale and space of flows via flow variables reveals some key findings. (1) The four factors of Shenyang's geographical space are mass residential factor, comprehensive employment factor, grass-root floating population factor, and cultural elite factor, while the city's space of flows can be characterized by residential factor and employment factor. (2) The residential function plays a more important role than the employment function in shaping the city's geographical space, although the latter still accounts for noticeable variance across urban geographical space. Thus the analysis of integrated residence-employment space is crucial in understanding the city's spatial and functional structure. (3) The distribution of the elements of urban society is still largely organized within the traditional geographical space. Residential space is more differentiated than employment space, with the employment space demonstrating a higher degree of concentration. (4) Apparent differences can be observed between the residence-employment space of cultural elite and that of the ordinary urban mass. As a result of the development and distribution of universities, Danwei (working unit) is still one of the key spatial characteristics of the expanding mega-city. (5) The city's residential space is expanding almost ubiquitously, while the expansion of employment space is much limited. For example, the employment of elite class is located in urban heart and along the city's Golden Corridor, resulting in obvious residence-employment spatial mismatch. Several large-scale structures have formed in urban space, such as "residential sector", "employment corridor", and "flow sphere". (6) Universities and university towns, administrative offices, financial institutions, and other producer services are the main constituents of the city's space of flows. In the spatial organization of flow variables, no clear decentralization or polycentralization in employment has emerged.
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    A spatial econometric analysis of impact of ICT on service innovation:Based on analysis of 21 cities in Guangdong Province
    FANG Yuanping, XIE Man, LIN Zhangping
    2013, 68 (8):  1119-1130. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2477KB) ( )   Save
    ICT is changing the relationship between service producers and consumers and is altering the established geography of service provision. Conventional approaches to services place considerable emphasis on the co-location of service producers with consumers. ICT has the potential to sever the geographic relationship between production and consumption and to produce a ‘new’ service geography. This article focuses on the interaction between ICT adoption, service innovation and location. In this research, Guangdong Province was selected as the case region given it is one of the most important Chinese opening up and reform frontier regions. The empirical data comes from the Guangdong Statistical Yearbook, etc., which covers the period 2001-2011. This article employs factor analysis and spatial econometrics techniques to explore the impact new forms of information communication technologies (ICT) have on the emerging geography of services in 21 cities in Guangdong Province, China. This research was summed up from the following five findings. First, the results identify a positive correlation between the level of service innovation and the level of ICT between the 21 cities. The analysis shows that across the province services are either dispersed or agglomerated. These differences are explained by variations in the levels of investment in ICT. Second, under the impact of spatial disparities and spatial diffusion, the spatial distribution of ICT and service innovation was convergent and divergent across the region. Third, spatial regression analysis was used to check the determinants of service innovation and this identified that service innovation was positive in mutually promoting inter-city interactions in the province. Fourth, amongst the determinants of domestic market demand, information technology, industrialization level, traffic accessibility, economic openness, the level of urbanization of service innovation is important. Fifth, the analysis reveals that the level of service innovation grows by 0.716% with every 1% growth in ICT. This has important implications for regional policy as improvements in ICT have a direct and measureable impact on service innovation and growth.
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    Tourism Geography
    Creative destruction and transformation of place-based identity in ancient town of Zhouzhuang
    JIANG Liao, SU Qin
    2013, 68 (8):  1131-1142. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2789KB) ( )   Save
    Place-based identity is constituted by the interactions between the extra-local forces of political economy and the historical layers of local social relations. This paper analyzes the transformation of place-based identity of Zhouzhuang by a creative destruction model. Results show that Zhouzhuang meets the three main variables of this model. Unlike western model dominated by entrepreneurs, Chinese government is powerful in promoting tourism, not only as decision makers and investors, but also for creation of symbol capital, extension of social capital and maintenance of cultural capital. Accompanied by an increase in the number of visitors and diversification of motivation, commercial landscape spreads rapidly, all these hit heritage landscape identity constantly. People's attitude towards tourism development has experienced a regression process of positive- negative- positive. Finally, this paper explains transformation of place-based identity of Zhouzhuang from the angles of cultural hegemony and representation, tourist gaze, the replacement and social identity complexity. Place-based identity is the product of negotiation and compromise between stakeholders, and representation of mainstream ideology. Sakeholders recreate place-based identity discursively in order to meet the tourist gaze. The results of replacement increase complexity of social identity, and it brings some problems such as fragmentation of social relationships, decline of social identity and loss of place sense, which lead to transformation of place-based identity of Zhouzhuang.
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    Exploring conditions, determinants and mechanisms of rural households’adaptability to tourism development:A case study of Jinsixia in Qinling Mountains
    YU Zhonglei, YANG Xinjun, YANG Tao
    2013, 68 (8):  1143-1156. 
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    The social-ecological system, as a theoretical-framework, provides an original approach to study of tourism impacts, tourism and rural sustainability. It has been a hot topic in the tourism and rural research for its integrated and dynamic perspective linking social and ecological elements. This paper takes the tourist destination and farmer household in rural areas as a complex social-ecological system, and explores a social-ecological adaptive framework for tourism impacts analysis based on understanding adaptability in the framework of social-ecological resilience and vulnerability. The adaptability here refers to the farmer households' behaviour and ability to adjust livelihood against the tourism impacts. Then, we take the villages near Jinsixia in Qinling Mountains as an example to explore the households' adaptability through analyzing the conditions, determinants and mechanism. The data employed in this paper was collected by household investigation and authoritative interview in August and November, 2011. The results are shown as follows. (1) The agriculture in Jinsixia has declined a lot in the last decade, and the tourism accelerated the marketization of agriculture, but has not improved the agricultural growth. The farmers choose to participate in tourism and migration for jobbing throughout the year as main adapting measures, and hire themselves out in the locality or migrate for jobbing during low season for tourism as auxiliary measures. Based on the differences in adaptive measures, the households can be divided into 4 groups, which are households depending on tourism, majored in tourism, depending on both tourism and migrating for job, and majored in migrating job. (2) The key factors driving adaptability include psychological factors, labor, social capital, location factors, natural and material resources. The indicators driving households' adaptability through the purpose of systematic regimes include farmers' perceptibility of development opportunities from tourism, householder diploma, aggregate of labor, neighborly relations, house types, location predominance. And the indicators driving adaptability through regime stability are as follows: awareness of development opportunities and compensatory system related with tourism, cultivated area, total employment, aggregate on labor force, accessibility of households' location and neighborly relations. (3) The adaptation is a rational choice facing survival pressure which results from tourism, and the compensatory system (Financial Compensation and Policy of Pro-Poor Tourism) is an important push-driver. The adaptive strategy is influenced by the adaptive capacity and social rationality or economic rationality. The results of adaptation are determined by the adaptive capacity, and lead to the future adaptation and social-ecological system state. Finally, the effectiveness of studying tourism impacts employing the social-ecological adaptation framework is discussed in this paper. The future research directions and adaptive management suggestions for the rural based-tourism are proposed.
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