Table of Content

    16 June 2013, Volume 68 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Some thoughts on the strengthening of geopolitical and geo-economic studies
    LU Dadao, DU Debin
    2013, 68 (6):  723-727. 
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    The rise and fall of the great powers undoubtedly is not dominated by geo-political and geo-economic rules. Since the end of the Cold War, with the rapid economic development of China and other emerging countries, the international power structure is undergoing profound restructuring and the world is entering the new geo-political and geo-economic era. At present, China's geopolitical environment has become increasingly complex and its peaceful development urgently needs geopolitical and geo-economic theoretical support. Based on analysis of the current world geopolitical and geo-economic development trend, this paper discusses the ideological origins on the fundamental role of geography in the development of geopolitics and geo-economics; analyzes the deficiencies of the Chinese geographers in the field of geopolitics and geo-economics; and then puts forward some suggestions how to strengthen the geopolitical geo-economic studies.
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    Features and causes of urban spatial growth in Chinese metropolises
    ZHOU Chunshan, YE Changdong
    2013, 68 (6):  728-738. 
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    Since China's economic reform in the post-1990s, urban spatial growth has experienced tremendous changes. By using methods, such as spatial econometrics and topological analysis, this paper analyzes the features and causes of spatial growth in 52 Chinese metropolises based on images of land use and relevant socio-economic statistical data from 1990 to 2008. The research results indicate that: urban space grows rapidly especially after 2000 in general but shows a decelerating trend with a lowering rank in the population-size hierarchy; the growth trend of urban spatial elements inclines to be new and diverse; the growth of urban spatial structure shows a zonary and polycentric pattern; the growth of spatial morphology displays a pattern of decentralization and fragmentation; the urban spatial growth patterns are mainly axial and jumping oriented. Furthermore, we find that the major causes of urban spatial growth in Chinese metropolises are fast economic growth, rapid urbanization and GDP-oriented view of achievement in city government. Finally, the paper argues that the main problems of urban spatial growth in Chinese metropolises are excessive growth of the scale, scattered structure and fragmented morphology. Thus we suggest that the urban growth policy should focus on scale control, structure optimization and spatial compactness.
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    Relational pattern of urbanization and economic development:The parameter revaluation of Chenery’s Model
    CHEN Mingxing, TANG Zhipeng, BAI Yongping
    2013, 68 (6):  739-749. 
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    On the basis of Chenery's Model and empirical data of 149 countries and regions during the period 1990-2009, the paper uses double logarithmic model and introduces the urbanizing time series variable, and finishes the regression analysis of the normal form of the relation between urbanization and economic development. Research shows that significant changes of the quantitative relation between urbanization and economic developments have taken place in the past 50 years, and the normal form of Chenery's Model is no longer capable of making a comparative analysis of them. Besides, during 1990 to 2009, with the per capita GNI between 1000 and 10000 US dollars, the urbanization rate changed from 17.78% to 60.36, and the relational matching data changed accordingly, while the urbanization rate remains at around 75%. Furthermore, urbanization in countries with smaller population sizes was likely to be affected by economic development compared with those with big and medium-size population.
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    Research on temporal and spatial decision-making process and influencing factors of residents’ shopping behavior in medium-sized cities:A case study of Wuhu City in Anhui Province
    JIAO Huafu, HAN Huiran
    2013, 68 (6):  750-761. 
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    As human geographers have paid more and more attention to practical problems of human and society, the focuses of urban geography have transformed from macroscopic level such as researches on city system to microscopic level such as studies on shopping space, living space and commercial space. At present, China is in a transitional period in which cities' main functions are changing from production to consumption. With the development of shopping behaviors, the complexity and the transformation of shopping patterns as well as their deep influences on society, economy, institution, culture and so on, residents' shopping behaviors have become a focus of certain fields such as urban geography, urban sociology and urban economics. Based on the residents' shopping decision-making theory, the data from the interview and questionnaire survey on Wuhu residents' shopping behavior in 2011, and the nested Logit model on residents' shopping tour behavior, the paper analyzes the residents' decision-making process and its factors influencing the decision-making in the following four aspects: shopping travel mode, shopping starting time, shopping destination, and shopping transportation mode. The results are shown as follows. (1) The characteristics of residents' attributes such as the gender, monthly income and family companions have a significant effect on residents' decision-making of shopping travel mode. The residents who live in the central city and those who live relatively far away are more likely to have a multi-purpose shopping tour. The residents living in the central city prefer shopping at noon, and their travel distance mainly extends from 1-2 km, while the suburbanites go shopping mainly after 19:00 p.m. to avoid the rush hour and tend to choose the shopping space in the range of 2-5 km. (2) The male residents who have private cars are more inclined to go shopping in the evening, 2.94 times as many as in the morning. They are more likely to have a long-distance shopping. Residents on and off duty prefer to go shopping on their way back home. Their shopping space is mainly confined in the range of 5-8 km. The residents shopping with companions are more likely to have a long-distance travel by the public transport facilities in the morning, which mainly focuses on the range of 5-8 km. (3) The residents who set out from their houses tend to go shopping in the evening rather than in the morning and are more inclined to go shopping after 19:00. Bus is still the main vehicle for the residents' shopping travel.
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    Temporal-spatial network of flight schedule in hub airport:A case study of Beijing International Airport
    WANG Wei, WANG Chengjin
    2013, 68 (6):  762-774. 
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    Aviation network is an express transport mode to link the cities, and the flight schedule is one of the major resources of airports and airlines. And examining the temporal-spatial network of flight schedule is an import approach to reveal the allocation mode of airport and aviation resources. Based on the conceptual definition of flight schedule, we choose Beijing International Airport as the study subject, and describe qualitatively the network mode of flight schedules and their differentiation structure from the perspectives of temporal and spatial dimensions to reveal the common characters and regularities of flight schedule resources for hub airport. First, from the perspective of temporal dimension, we choose different time intervals to analyze temporal distribution of flight schedules, especially its differentiation structure and developing mechanism. Second, we discuss the linkage network of flight schedules from the view of spatial dimension and the differentiation among different time intervals. Thirdly, from the dimension of airline, we probe the temporal-spatial regularities of flight schedules and analyze the advantages of major airlines in different flight intervals and cities. The results show that the flight schedule has temporal heterogeneous attribution and shapes into different types, such as the gold segment, peak segment, trough segment and so on. There is an obvious spatial differentiation in the schedule linkage network, with the aggregated distribution characteristics, which is related to the imbalance of urban development. The flight linkage network on each segment has significant differences in coverage scope and concentration degree. Differential market structure exists between airlines, which presents four levels. This study enriches the theory of transport geography, and provides guidance for the optimization of aviation resources.
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    Spatial agglomeration and regional shift of textile and garment industry in China
    WU Aizhi, SUN Tieshan, LI Guoping
    2013, 68 (6):  775-790. 
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    The textile and garment industry was the first manufacturing industry to take on the global shift, and is the most spatially dynamic of all industries with the evident relations across countries and regions. The study on China's textile and garment industry can help understand the characteristics of the regional industrial shift and the changes of the spatial distribution of industries in China. In this article, we use the locational Gini coefficient and the local Moran's I to analyze the spatial concentration of China's textile and garment industry using the prefecture-level data from 2001 to 2009, and depict the changes of industrial centers to track the relocation path of the industry. We find that the industries with the Gini coefficient larger than 0.95 are those highly dependent on the raw materials, while the industries that are not so dependent on the raw materials tend to be geographically dispersed. Overall speaking, the textile and garment industry is highly geographically concentrated, although the locational Gini coefficients have decreased a little bit in the past years. At the same time, we also find the declining positive spatial autocorrelation of the industrial distribution among regions. We can conclude that the regional shift of the textile and garment industry has emerged in China, especially among intra-province prefectures in Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces as well as from these prefectures to some cities in the Central China such as Henan, Anhui and Jiangxi provinces. China's textile and garment industry has shifted from the developed prefectures in the coastal areas of eastern China to their neighboring prefectures throughout the years. Meanwhile, industries closely related to each other tend to relocate together in space, but spatial heterogeneity still exists.
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    Study on inter-regional transfer of embodied pollution in China
    LI Fangyi, LIU Weidong, TANG Zhipeng
    2013, 68 (6):  791-801. 
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    Embodied resources and pollution in international trade have been drawing attention in environmental policies research area in the context of increased level of world economy integration. However, transfer pattern of embodied pollution of China is lack of detailed research. In this study, firstly, phenomena and modes of embodied pollution transfer across regions were analyzed from the geographic perspective. It was suggested that the primary reasons for embodied pollution transfer were regional division of labor and separation of production and consumption locations. Secondly, based on a multi-regional input-output table of 30 provinces of China in 2007, an assessment model was built to assess embodied pollution of regions and that in the trade across regions. Then, four types of industrial pollutants, namely SO2, COD, solid waste and heavy metal were selected as typical pollutants and quantified according to the model, after which the spatial pattern of embodied pollution transfer of China was clarified. The results revealed that China's mainland was a net exporter of embodied pollution due to international trade. On the other hand, embodied pollution was transferred from central and western regions to eastern region within domestic trade, while eastern China was much more developed than other regions in economy and urbanization. Actually, the burden of pollution abatement of eastern region was transferred to central and western regions through inter-regional trade. Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang were main regions of inputting embodied pollution, while Hebei, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi were main regions of outputting embodied pollution, where the development at the expense of environmental quality would be unsustainable. The spatial pattern of embodied pollution transfer of China, which goes against regional equity, will turn regional economic differences into regional environmental differences in the future. Finally, some suggestions on pollution abatement were made accordingly based on the analysis.
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    Spatial evolution of economic development at county level in Jiangsu based on multivariate drive
    KE Wenqian, LU Yuqi, YU Zhaoyuan, WANG Han, MA Yingyi
    2013, 68 (6):  802-812. 
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    The present research on the evolution of regional spatial pattern has focused less attention to the interaction relationship between the spatial pattern variable and its influencing factors. This paper aims to establish a variable-relationship model of economic development at county level in Jiangsu from 2000 to 2010, and uses the ESDA analysis model to conduct a study on the evolution process of its spatial pattern. The conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The spatial association features of all variables in the regional pattern evolution tend to be more remarkable, but different variables differ from each other in spatial differential features in different periods. (2) The ESDA detects that the variables in economic development and its influencing factors have different spatial corresponding degrees in the evolution process, which indicates different probable potential relationships between them. Furthermore, quantile regression gives different marginal effect degrees of different influencing factors on the economic development during 0.1~0.9 quantile points, which confirms the existence of the relationship mentioned above. (3) The result achieved by quantile regression optimal fitting reveals the evolution pattern of regional economic development is featured by the following aspects. Firstly, a "layered structure" of the "Suzhou-Wuxi" core hotspot and the "Huaian-Suqian" core coldspot will be formed. Secondly, the evolution pattern exhibits a greater evolution differentiation trend in low value cluster than in high value cluster, which manifests the prominent inland characters of core coldspot areas and the prominent coastal characters of sub-core coldspot areas. Lastly, the boundary of high and low value clusters is generally stable in the central Jiangsu. The results obtained above show that the evolution pattern of regional economic development by quantile regression optimal fitting has a high consistency with the realistic spatial evolution pattern.
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    The spatial coupling of land use changes and its environmental effects on Hotan oasis during 1980-2010
    YANG Yitian, ZHENG Du, ZHANG Xueqin, LIU Yu
    2013, 68 (6):  813-824. 
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    Under the background of climate warming, implementation of China's Western Development Policy, and aids from 19 provinces and municipalities for economic development in Xinjiang since 2009, Hotan oasis has faced great challenges for demands of water and land resources. The visual interpretation method was used to process TM/ETM+ image on some field surveys in this region. Then the land use changes in Hotan oasis and their environmental effects were analyzed by using spatial coupling. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) There have been some obvious spatiotemporal changes in the land-use structure of Hotan oasis. The areas of cultivated land and urban-rural-land increased by 32.32% and 142.27%, respectively; while those of bushland and desert grassland reduced by 23.12% and 18.82%, respectively. The former came mainly from the grassland and forest and unused-land reclaimed during the period of 1980-2010. Because of the expansion of cultivated-land towards the northwest, the gravity center of cultivated-land shifted 4.96 km with a direction against the prevailing wind. (2) The spatial coupling, which is linked by water consumption, exists between middle and lower reaches, which show a rise and a fall of the integrated index, information entropy and balanced degree, as well as the oasis areas. For the excessive water consumption in middle reaches, there is less and less water in lower reaches, resulting in serious land degradation. (3) Expansion of cultivated land in oasis exploitation increased the comprehensive level of land use; while the information entropy also increased, which severely damaged the vegetation in transitional zone, resulting in ecosystem instability, then posed a threat to the ecological security of Tarim River. It is suggested that the agricultural restructuring should be carried out. To be specific, sown area of the high water consumption crops should be reduced. At the same time, the laws and regulations on water resource distribution in Tarim River Basin should be implemented to ensure water resource balance, eco-water resource increase, as well as to prohibit expansion of cultivated land and over-exploitation of groundwater.
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    Village transformation development, resources and environment effects and their optimal regulation in the metropolitan suburbs:The case of Beicun in Shunyi District, Beijing
    LI Yurui, LIU Yansui, LONG Hualou, GUO Yanjun
    2013, 68 (6):  825-838. 
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    Village is definitely the window to understand and transform rural China, especially the main battlefield of solving problems related to farmers, agriculture and rural areas (so called "San Nong Wen Ti" in Chinese or three rural issues in English) and building new countryside. It is of great theoretical and practical value to carry out studies on the resources and environment effects and their optimal regulation path during the course of village transformation development. This paper aims to explore the theoretical points, evolutionary processes, common features and inner mechanism of village transformation development, resources and environment effects and their optimal regulation in metropolitan suburbs where significant changes have taken place in recent years, based on a systematic case study of Beicun in Beijing's suburbs. The main contents and results were summed up as follows: (1) Beicun has experienced three development stages since 1978, namely slow development stage, gradually starting stage and transformation development stage. (2) During the course of village development, the resources and environment effects showed periodic differences. The efficiency of resources utilization changed from low level to high level, environmental pollution from high degree to low degree, and the change trends of environmental pollution index displayed an inverted "U"-shaped curve. (3) The optimal regulation process of resources and environment effects could be divided into six links, namely problematisation, observation and assessment, mobilization, function endowing, joint action and system restructuring. (4) The inner mechanism of achieving the goals of optimal regulation successfully can be concluded as follows: the core actors of local rural development, including cadres, rural elites and corporative organizations, have actively inspired the endogenous demand of ordinary villagers and village-based enterprises, effectively integrated the external powers of government and technical support units, spontaneously taken optimizing resources and environment elements as the common goal, and thus successfully built a well-targeted, functionally distinct and technically feasible actor-networks from which all the actors could benefit. As such, it is suggested that the rural construction and optimal regulation of resource and environment effects in new era should strive to enhance inner response mechanism, optimize outward intervention mechanism, and in particular, pay attention to the upgrading, improvement and coupling of environmental protection awareness, development ability, social responsibility, science and technology support and relative regulation mechanism.
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    The coordination modes of ecological tourism in prohibition development zones of the juncture area of Hunan, Guangdong and Jiangxi provinces:A case study of the world natural heritage Danxia Mountain
    HUANG Jingbo, XIAO Haiping, LI Chun, JIANG Erping
    2013, 68 (6):  839-850. 
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    The ecological tourism coordination evaluation index system was established by Delphi method and the synthetic evaluation mode was constructed by analytic hierarchy process method (AHP) in this paper. Accordingly, the ecotourism comprehensive coordination and their respective coordination of the evaluation indexes of Danxia Mountain were quantitatively analyzed based on the stakeholder theory. The results showed that: (1) The relationships among the different ecotourism stakeholders of Danxia Mountain are not coordinated; (2) The development levels of evaluation indexes of the stakeholders, especially those of the tourism enterprises and local governments are not balanced; (3) Some major stakeholders are lack of effective mutual horizontal and diagonal communication, in particular the coordination between the stakeholders located in the macro- or medium layers and those of micro-layer is poor. Therefore, from the point of view of the profit subject and their spatial relationships coordination, all round channel communication mode and the "ring-layer" mode are put forward for the ecological tourism coordinated development of the prohibited development zones of Danxia Mountain respectively. The synthetic evaluation index system of ecological tourism coordinated development in Danxia Mountain, evaluation results and implementation modes can provide references for ecological tourism coordinated development of other prohibited development regions, and further expand the application of the stakeholder theory.
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    Evaluation of rural human settlement quality difference and its driving factors in tourism area of southern Anhui Province
    YANG Xingzhu, WANG Qun
    2013, 68 (6):  851-867. 
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    Rapid development of tourism has led to unprecedented changes in the economic, social and environmental conditions of tourism destinations. Under the background of the rapid tourismification, quality of rural human settlements is one of the manifestations of rural transformation development. By choosing the infrastructure, public service facilities, energy consumption structure, living conditions, and environmental sanitation as the evaluation factors, this study built an evaluation index system of the rural human settlement quality. Then, this paper presented an empirical analysis of rural human settlements in tourism area of southern Anhui Province, with the method of factor analysis, entropy method, and canonical correlation. Results show that the overall score of the quality presents "dual-core structure, the rise of central region and the collapse of the periphery" phenomenon. The infrastructure has the pattern of "triple-core structure and more dense than the south". The higher level spatial units are mainly located in Tunxi District, Qingyang County and northern part of the province. The public service facilities have the pattern of "dual-core structure". The mononuclear structure of energy consumption structure and living conditions were concentrated in Tunxi District. However, the core of environmental sanitation is mainly concentrated in Shexian and Ningguo counties. Meanwhile, a variety of influencing factors interact to determine quality of rural human settlements. The paper focused on natural environment, socio-economic development, tourism development, and regional culture. Based on the differences between their effective way and degree to quality of rural human settlements, these influencing factors are classified into positive and negative factors. Climatic conditions, poverty level and spatial distance have direct negative impact on quality of rural human settlements, while the remaining factors have direct positive impact. Natural environment and regional culture play a relatively stable role in rural human settlements evolution. Tourism development is a key driving force to generate the rural human settlement quality difference. Tourism development factors including the level of tourism economy, the endowment of tourism resources, tourism services and facilities, and tourism location, are able to significantly explain quality differences of rural human settlements. At the same time, the two sets of variables between influencing factors and evaluation factors have the typical mutually dependent and interacting relationship. The influencing factors have direct effects on the quality of rural human settlements, and generate the indirect effects on quality of rural human settlements by the evaluation factors.
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