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    20 February 2013, Volume 68 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The simulation of spatial distribution patterns of China's HSR-economic zones based on the 2D time-space map
    LU Jun, SONG Jitao, LIANG Yusheng, XU Jie
    2013, 68 (2):  147-158.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4053KB) ( )   Save
    Based on "National Medium and Long-term Railway Network Planning" and "National Highway Network Planning", this study selected Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan and Chongqing as the fundamental cities; by using ArcGIS and program platform of Visual Studio of 2008, calculated the travel time from cities in HSR-economic zones to the fundamental cities and made a China's HSR multi-center shrinking time-space map based on the map-making principles of 2D time-space map. Analysis shows that: (1) the percentage of time saved could reach as high as 34% within the 5 HSR-economic zones. The percentage of time saved could reach 50% for cities within the scope of 2-hour economic circle along HSR lines, or else could only save 30%-40% if beyond that scope. The percentages vary because the further the spatial distance is among these cities, the less travel time would be saved. (2) The HSR would reconstruct the spatial patterns of urban system in China. The evenly distributed model will be replaced by the clustered distribution and accordingly the linear features will disappear gradually. The important urban agglomerations include the following: integrated region of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Jinan metropolitan area; the city-and-town concentrated area of Northeast China with Shenyang metropolitan area as a center; the city-town concentrated area in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, which includes urban agglomeration in the Central Plains with Wuhan metropolitan area as a center and Wanjiang urban agglomeration; urban agglomeration of the Yangtze River Delta; urban agglomeration of Pan-Pearl River Delta, which covers the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone and the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone. After 10-20 years, there will form some highly integrated metropolitan regions in China, while Beijing-Harbin and Urumqi-Xi'an and Chongqing-Nanning will become three major corridors. (3) There are significant differences in terms of the spatial organizational patterns of China's HSR economic zones, for instance, Shanghai and Guangzhou form a radial inflow model, Wuhan and Beijing belong to a "ring-layer" model, and Chongqing presents a centrifugal outflow model.
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    The intercity space of flow influenced by high-speed rail: A case study for the rail transit passenger behavior between Beijing and Tianjin
    WU Kang, FANG Chuanglin, ZHAO Miaoxi, CHEN Chen
    2013, 68 (2):  159-174.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4446KB) ( )   Save
    In the perspective of space of flows, the passenger flow of high-speed rail has become an important representation of functional linkage between the city-regions. Based on the interviews and questionnaires from the passengers of high-speed rail of Beijing and Tianjin, this paper analyzes the intercity space of flows and the spatial integration indicated by the individual micro behavior choice. The findings include: (1) Both of the metropolitan areas of Beijing and Tianjin are the dense areas of intercity passenger flow while suburban counties and districts are the sparse areas, which indicates the spatial polarization of HSR in the aspect of passengers' characteristics; The central city of Beijing-Tianjin is the dominant spatial association, while Beijing-Tanggu, Beijing-Wuqing and Tianjin-Wuqing corridors are the secondary spatial association axes, which presents a hub-and-spoke pattern. (2) Leisure activities, such as tourism, shopping, enhance the cross-city flows. Although intercity high-speed rail reduces the temporal and spatial distance to a certain extent, the effects on changing place of housing or work to another city are not obvious. (3) The frequency of cross-city activities is not very high, commuters across cities generally take 7 days as a cycle; Currently, passenger flows of intercity by HSR are mainly business travel and leisure tourism, which reflects HSR as the material foundation for the spaces of flows; the respondents who take the HSR are mostly male, business people with high education and prospective occupation, and the business travelers who have a higher cross-city frequency are more sensitive to travel time, which demonstrates the intercity space of flow has represented some of the elite space characteristics. (4) There is spatial asymmetry in the cross-city space of flow between Beijing and Tianjin, which could be found from the uneven distribution of O-D passenger flows, the differences on the proportion of the business travel flows and the unbalanced function linkage directions.
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    Competition and cooperation of high-speed rail and air transport in China: A perspective from spatial service market view
    WANG Jiao'e, HU Hao
    2013, 68 (2):  175-185.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3401KB) ( )   Save
    With a large-scale construction of high-speed rail, its safety, economy and competition with air transport have become the foci of scholars. Today, transport infrastructure is playing a more and more important role in economic and industry layout. Under the background, the paper conducts studies on the market competition and cooperation of high-speed rail and air transport in China. First, the paper measures the spatial service market of high-speed rail and air transport by road transport with GIS method. Second, the paper analyzes the service overlapping market of high-speed rail and air transport. A city having both a high-speed rail station and an airport or the area enjoying the high-speed rail and air transport service in 1/2 hours by road transport is defined as the overlapping market. Besides, the paper discusses and stimulates the spatial effect of competition and cooperation between high-speed rail and air transport. Results indicate that: (1) Both high-speed rail and air transport are inclined to serve economy and population, and they can cover most of the population and GDP in 2 hours by road transport; (2) Different technique characteristics in distance decide their own advantageous markets. The service market of high-speed rail spatially mainly cover economic belts in Eastern and Central China, and air transport has competitive advantage in Western China. (3) With the rapid construction of high-speed rail and air transport, their overlapping markets will become larger and larger; therefore urban clusters, metropolitan areas, and economic belts will become their major competitive markets. Considering the higher construction costs and a smaller number of passengers as well as its competition with air transport in Western China, we suggest the Central Government slow down the pace of high-speed rail construction in this region.
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    The financial services industry development level and spatial pattern of urban agglomeration in China
    LIU Hui, SHEN Yuming, LIU Kun
    2013, 68 (2):  186-198.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3441KB) ( )   Save
    Urban agglomerations construction has become increasingly important in the national economy. Under the background of how to meet the needs of the city's industrial development and infrastructure construction funds, and how to optimize the rational allocation of financial resources between the urban agglomerations, it is important to get a clear understanding of the development level of the financial services. By the use of the index system as the financial interrelations ratio, the financial development efficiency, insurance density and insurance depth, the paper conducts studies on the spatial disparity and pattern of the financial services industry development level in 23 urban agglomerations. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The financial services industry comprehensive development levels are different. The highest level is seen in the urban agglomerations of the Yangtze River Delta, Capital Metropolitan Circle, and Pearl River Delta. (2) The financial services industry development level mismatches the growth level of the urban agglomerations. For the financial services industry comprehensive development level, the factors of the financial development efficiency and insurance density have more influence than the factors of the practitioners in financial services industry and savings of urban and rural residents. In addition, the regional industrial structure, especially the industrial structure of the listed companies (tradable products) has a close correlation with the financial services industry development level. (3) There are great differences between the banking, insurance and securities services industry. In the 23 urban agglomerations, there is at least 50% of financial resource in urban agglomerations of the Yangtze River Delta, Capital Metropolitan Circle and Pearl River Delta, which has much influence on the financial development of China.
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    Quantifying location condition of resources-exhausted cities in China
    SUN Wei, LI Hongsheng
    2013, 68 (2):  199-208.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2452KB) ( )   Save
    It has been widely acknowledged amongest domestic scholars that resources-based cities on a whole are located in remote and peripheral areas, which has become a major obstacle to successful transformation of these cities to sustainable development. Yet little attention has so far been given to quantitatively estimate whether these resources-based cities suffered from being remote and peripheral location, and how far. In this paper, we use 78 resources-exhausted cities identified by the State Council as the case cities to evaluate the location condition of resources-exhausted cities under different resources types and regions, based on the calculation method of spatial distance and time distance. The distance is how far these resources-exhausted cities are from the corresponding provincial capital cities and three regional central cities (Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou) to which are closely linked resources-exhausted cities. The research findings include that: (1) From the perspective of overall sample cities, the location of resources-exhausted city is really remote. In the term of spatial distance, the location remoteness degree α1 is 1.36 (relative to the provincial capital city) and β1 is 1.14 (relative to regional center city), and in the term of of time distance, the location remoteness degree α2 = 1.65 (relative to provincial capital city) and β2 = 1.16 (relative to regional central city). (2) From the perspective of classification, location remoteness degrees of resources-exhausted cities show significant differences among different provinces and different resource types. The location remoteness degrees of resources-exhausted cities located in Western China and forestry-based cities are the largest. (3) From an integrated analysis of spatial distance and time distance, the number of resources-exhausted cities whose locations are very remote, namely α > 1.5 ∩ β > 1.5, respectively is 18 and 23, accounting for 23.1% and 29.5% of the total resouces-exhausted cities. The number of resources-exhausted cities whose location remoteness degrees are α ≤ 1.0 ∩ β ≤ 1.0, is 30 and 35 respectively, accounting for 38.5% and 44.9% of the total in China.
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    Spatial form and spatial cognition of traditional village in syntactical view: A case study of Xiaozhou Village, Guangzhou
    TAO Wei, CHEN Hongye, LIN Jieyong
    2013, 68 (2):  209-218.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1645KB) ( )   Save
    The spatial form of traditional villages take shape under the environment and long-time historic accumulation, and the rapid urbanization has changed their patterns of space as well as injected new functionalities into villages. To develop a traditional village in a reasonable way, it is significant for planners to well understand the object itself. Space syntax is a term that is used to describe theories and techniques concerning the relationship between space and society. And spatial cognition research focuses on the acquisition, organization, utilization, and revision of knowledge about spatial environments. They have areas overlapped. Space syntax theory offers a more objective and efficient image research method on spatial cognition. Studies linking space syntax with cognitive science claimed that the spatial configuration affects users' activities through spatial cognition and subsequent movement behavior, such, we can understand our cognition by studying space. There relatively few studies on traditional villages. This paper interprets spatial cognition in a traditional village in syntactical view, taking Guangzhou's Xiaozhou Village as a typical case, to discuss how village's spatial form affect the spatial cognition of its users. Research method of space syntax analysis linking mental map is applied. Main results can be obtained as follows. Some characters of configuration which have higher value, can be considered as salient elements such as landmarks, and play a more significant role on spatial cognition; Differences exist in users' cognitive modes, locals can easily recognize the ancient grid while others cannot, rapid urbanization has changed the original spatial form of the traditional village, which is defensive and intrinsic, spatial aggregation center has turned from inner to the edge of the village, and this kind of change is one of the key factors that lead to cognitive differences among locals and other users. The paper also introduces a new method and view for the traditional village spatial form and spatial cognition research, as well as provides enlightenment for village's further development and plan.
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    Spatial pattern of landscape genes in traditional settlements of Hunan Province
    HU Zui, LIU Peilin, CAO Shuaiqiang
    2013, 68 (2):  219-231.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302007
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    Settlement is a special area for people to live and work in. For human beings, traditional settlements play an important role due to its unique historical and cultural characteristics or their historical landscapes. Hunan Province, located in Southern China, is one of the provinces of the country with its traditional settlements centralized and well preserved compared to other provinces of China, which are mainly attributed to its long history of culture and favorable geo-environments. This paper, taking the 30 historical and cultural ancient villages declared by the Central Government or Hunan Province government as cases, aims to interpret the spatial patterns of traditional settlements in this province according to Traditional Settlements Landscape Genes' Theory (TSLGT). By TSLGT, in order to further interpret the relationships in history or culture of traditional settlements, this paper takes the following steps firstly: (1) to construct a special index system of traditional settlements landscape genes, which is composed of residential buildings characterizations, cultural symbols characterizations, geo-environmental characters, distribution patterns of settlements; (2) to define a workflow procedure to identify the landscapes genes of traditional settlements in Hunan Province by integrating some extraction methods such as landscape elements extraction method, pattern analysis method, structure identification method, conceptual extraction method, etc.; (3) to identify all the vital landscape genes of the 30 major samples of traditional settlements in order to construct a traditional settlements landscape genes dataset with GIS software. By the former research foundation, the author draws the laws of landscape genes' spatial patterns of traditional settlements in Hunan Province by according to the following three outstanding characterizations, building genes, site selection or distribution genes and totem culture genes. The research results of this paper provide some sense advices to conservation or reasonable development or management decision of traditional settlements in Hunan Province. Of course, these results or analysis methods of this paper can also provide some crucial references to the other provinces of China to preserve or develop their own traditional settlements.
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    The spatial distribution of reclaimed and abandoned land in Luopu of Hotan River Basin during the period of Republic of China based on the historical data
    XIE Li
    2013, 68 (2):  232-244.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302008
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    On the basis of the extant maps of Luopu reclamation area, Hotan District, in the period of the Republic of China (ROC), the archives of historical and geographical data were used in this research to reconstruct the historical evolution of the administrative division of Luopu reclamation area, to represent the story about the spatio-temporal changes of reclaimed land and abandoned land, and to rebuild the corresponding schematic maps of spatial patterns in the area during the ROC. The research would provide the foundation for spatial analysis of the cause-effect relationship between human factors and natural impetus affecting arable area at Luopu during the ROC. The results show: the activity of wasteland reclamation extended outward in the Luopu reclamation area during the ROC, and the places where the wasteland was reclaimed were mostly in the northwest, northeast to east of transitional belts from oasis to barren desert in the main reclamation area at oasis. The patches of reclaimed land were superimposed to the patches of abandoned land to a high degree, proving that the abandoned land was mainly produced from the newly reclaimed land and the strength of reclaimed wasteland was significantly correlated positively with that of abandoned land. The factors inducing land abandonment came from the combined effects of human driving force and biophysical effects.
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    Research on cropland data recovery and reconstruction in the Qing Dynasty: Method and case study
    CAO Xue, JIN Xiaobin, ZHOU Yinkang
    2013, 68 (2):  245-256.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302009
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    The global environment has changed significantly since the beginning of the human civilization, especially after the industrial resolution when the world population explosion started. Historical land-use and land-cover changes caused by human activities during the last three centuries have been regarded as one of the five key frame issues in the LUCC project. As a country of 5000 years of history, China has its population boom ever since the prime Qing Dynasty (around AD1700), and becomes an area of active land-use and land-cover changes. Currently, there are two global historical land use datasets, generally referred as the "RF datasets" and "HYDE database". However, at the national level, these global datasets have coarse resolutions and inevitable errors. International and domestic scholars tried to reconstruct China's historical land-use and land-cover quantitatively and spatially. But the remarkable differences among their results bring a lot of difficulty to relevant researchers. Considering various factors that influenced the cropland tax records, this study developed a revised system to transfer historical records into real cropland area. Then, to inspect and calibrate these revised cropland area, we built an examination and calibration system from the aspects of population limitation and reclamation trends. Finally, as a case study, we applied the system to Shandong province, reconstructed its cropland data in the Qing Dynasty and obtained three main results. (1) Historical land tax records were not equal to the real cropland area. Despite the fact that the data revised by the first system can pass the population test, it cannot pass the reclamation trends test. (2) To calibrate them through reclamation trends, the revised system should consider the differences in reclamation policy, cropping system and natural conditions among various areas, and build a provincial factor revision form according to its historical situation. (3) In the early period of the Qing Dynasty, the key factor that limited Shandong's cropland growth was labor supply, so the cropland area approached to the labor supply line. As the population grew, cropland area went towards grain demand line. At the end of Qing Dynasty, the cropland yield of Shandong could not meet its requirement. Thus, Shandong turned into a grain importing place in the mid-19th century.
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    Land use change flow and its spatial agglomeration in the loess platform region
    MA Caihong, REN Zhiyuan, LI Xiaoyan
    2013, 68 (2):  257-267.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302010
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    The conception of land use change flow was put forward in this paper, and the dynamics of land use change in the loess platform region was analyzed with the models of land use change. In addition, the spatial agglomeration of land change flow was studied. The results are obtained as follows. The proportion of cultivated land is predominant in the study area, however, that of unused land is very low, which means that reserved cultivated land resource is scarce. The proportions of forest land, grassland and waters are low, indicating that the ecosystem is at risk. The land use change flows relationships of cultivated land and built-up land, cultivated land and grassland, cultivated land and forest land played key roles in the land use change of the loess platform region. The flow of cultivated land to built-up land was the main reason for the loss of cultivated land resources, and the flow of grassland to cultivated land was the main complement source of cultivated land. The land use change flow of cultivated land to built-up land was 26668.80 ha from 1985 to 2010, accounting for 40.75% of the total. The flow of grassland to cultivated land was 18923.90 ha, accounting for 28.91% of the total. The disturbed degree from high to low is water ecosystem, forest ecosystem, and grass ecosystem. Land system was relatively stable from 1985 to 1990, yet it changed significantly from 1990 to 2000. The spatial features of land use were different at different scales. The land use change rate around cities was higher than that of other regions at a 25-year scale, however, the region with a high land change rate changed from the central part of loess platform region to the marginal zone at a 5-year scale.
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    The strategic directions for geography
    SUN Jun, PAN Yujun, TANG Maolin, WU Youde, ZHAO Jianxia
    2013, 68 (2):  268-283.  doi: 10.11821/xb201302011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (653KB) ( )   Save
    Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences (UCP), prepared by the U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) ad hoc Committee on the strategic directions for geographical sciences in the next decade, is an original and agenda-setting document that speaks to transdisciplinary Geographical Sciences in order to get a better understanding of our rapidly changing planet. But for NRC's decision to devote some of the ‘precious space’ in the report to relatively uncontroversial matters, and UCP was written for the audience which includes people who have little sense of what a geographical ‘take’ on issues and problems means, as a result the role of technologies and tools is likely to be dominant. The most important contribution of UCP lies in the point of progress of geography in modern times, putting forward the question of Geographical Sciences, and successfully constructing it with the aid of technologies and tools. Another contribution of UCP is the proposed eleven strategic directions for the emerging transdisciplinary field of Geographical Sciences in the next decade. Just a few months later, The Professional Geographer, in a Focus Section, invites five geographers to evaluate UCP briefly, followed by a response from Alexander Murphy on behalf of the NRC Committee, and this focus section initiates a new conversation among geographers about the future of geography. These comments about UCP rediscover and make up the defects of UCP, especially much attention is paid to the methodology of Geographical Sciences. This paper discusses the progress of Geographical Sciences in Chinese Mainland. It illustrates that Chinese Geographical Sciences: (1) are a more complex disciplinary system, well arranged and have a strict category; (2) are balanced in ‘discipline’ and ‘task’; (3) develop some effective methodologies; (4) have showed some far-reaching, concatenate influence. Through reading UCP, the comments and response, and the progress of Chinese Geographical Sciences the paper comes to three conclusions. (1) Geography is just at a crossroad, geographers should take some effective measures to promote it. (2) The balance of ‘discipline’ and ‘task’ is the key to the future of Chinese geography. (3) Geographical Sciences should be constructed by disciplinary system, methodology, technologies and tools, and all these three dimensions should be scientifically humanism-based on scientific spirit and directed by humanism.
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