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Table of Content

    20 April 2012, Volume 67 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    A Study on Detecting Multi-dimensional Clusters of Infectious Diseases
    LIAO Yilan, WANG Jinfeng, YANG Weizhong, LI Zhongjie, JIN Lianmei, LAI Shengjie, ZHENG Xiaoying
    2012, 67 (4):  435-443.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204001
    Abstract ( 849 )   PDF (850KB) ( 845 )   Save
    To indentify early signs of unusual health events is critical to early warning of infectious diseases. A new method for detecting multi-dimensional clusters of infectious diseases is presented in this paper. Ant colony clustering algorithm is applied to classify the cases of specified infectious diseases according to their crowd characters; then the cases belonging to the same class in terms of the space adjacency is separated; finally, the prior information about previous diseases outbreaks in the study area is applied to test the hypothesis that there was no disease cluster at various sub-regions. The detection ability of the method shows that this method does not need to accumulate case data within a long time period to detect irregular-shaped hot spots. It is useful for introducing spatial analysis to detection of infectious disease outbreaks.
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    Temporal and Spatial Differences of Resources Depletion Value & Environmental Cost of Xi'an City in China
    REN Zhiyuan, MA Caihong
    2012, 67 (4):  444-454.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204002
    Abstract ( 459 )   PDF (1296KB) ( 652 )   Save
    This paper accounted the main components of resources depletion value & environmental costs (R-E cost) of Xi'an city in western China from 1997 to 2009 based on SEEA, analyzed temporal and spatial differences of R-E cost at city and county scales respectively, and calculated the ratio of R-E cost to GDP. The results are obtained as follows. (1) The R-E cost of Xi'an city has soared from 1.771979 billion yuan RMB to 3.960318 billion yuan RMB at comparable prices of 1990, with an annual rate of 10.29%, more than the GDP growth rate (7.25%) of the same period. (2) Resources depletion value is higher than environmental degradation cost. The proportion of resources depletion value reduced from 84.84% to 69.45%; (3) R-E cost proportion of each county was different. In 2009, Yanta District accounted for over 15%, Weiyang District, Lianhu District and Huxian County had 10%-15%, Chang'an, Baqiao and Lintong districts had 5%-10%; other counties took up less than 5%. 4) The R-E cost distribution can be divided into three circles according to cluster analysis of R-E density. Beilin, Xincheng and Lianhu districts are located in circle I, districts of Baqiao, Weiyang and Yanta are situated in circle II, and other counties are in circle III. The density of R-E cost in circle I is much higher than that in circles II and III. However, the amount of R-E cost in circle I is much lower than that in circles II and III. Energy consumption cost in circle I is lower than that in circles II and III. Land consumption cost occurred mainly in circles II and III. Pollution cost is listed in the order of circle I < circle II < circle III, and the ecological cost is mainly observed in circle III; 5) R-E cost accounted for 7.58% of GDP in 1997, this figure was up to 11.27% in 2005 and fell to 9.05% in 2009, presenting a "Kuznets curve" pattern; the ratio of R-E cost to GDP is listed in the order of circle I < circle II < circle III.
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    The Evolution of Spatial Displacement Pattern of China's Crude Oil Flow Source-sink System
    ZHAO Yuan, YANG Zuying, HAO Lisha, NIU Hailing
    2012, 67 (4):  455-466.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204003
    Abstract ( 418 )   PDF (1617KB) ( 581 )   Save
    Taking provinces as the flow nodes, this paper examines the spatial evolution of China's crude oil flow in five typical years selected from the research period 1985-2009. According to the oil self-sufficiency ratio and liquidity ratio, flow nodes are divided into three types: source regions, sink regions and transit regions in five typical years, respectively. Then, adopting the gravity center and standard deviational ellipse, this paper analyzes the central tendency and dispersion pattern of the spatial distribution of the sources and sinks, in order to clarify the spatial displacement and shape change of source-sink system. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows.
    (1) Although mainly located in the northeast of China, the gravity center of source system of crude oil flow had moved northwest from 1985 to 1995, and then southwest from 1995 to 2009. As a whole, its moving speed in the north-south direction was higher than that in the east-west direction. The gravity center of sink system of crude oil flow was mainly located in east China, its moving ranges were relatively small compared to the source system, and it mainly moved in the north-south direction from 1985 to 1999, while mainly in the east-west direction from 1999 to 2003, and lastly inclined southwest.
    (2) The analysis of standard deviational ellipses shows that the spatial pattern of source system became centralized in 2003-2009 after decentralized in 1985-1999, and its dominant distribution direction had changed from northeast-southwest to approximate northwest-southeast. The distribution pattern of sink system was relatively stable, which became slightly centralized in 1985-2003, and then somewhat decentralized, and its dominant distribution direction has always maintained as northeast-southwest.
    (3) As expressed by the evolution of the link between the gravity centers of source system and sink system, the mean direction of crude oil flow in China had gradually changed to north-south from northeast-southwest, and the mean flow length tended to decline. As shown by the evolution of the links between the principal axes of source system and sink system, the dominant direction of crude oil flow in China gradually changed from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast and east-west.
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    Relocation Mechanisms of the Ceramics Industry Impacted by the Environmental Regulations in Foshan City
    SHEN Jing, WEI Cheng
    2012, 67 (4):  467-478.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204004
    Abstract ( 602 )   PDF (838KB) ( 815 )   Save
    Recent studies show that environmental regulations play a crucial role in the decision making of firm location. The methods in these empirical studies, however, are mainly quantitative models based on statistical data, and the way the environmental regulations work in the location decision are debatable. In this article, we analyze the relocation decision of the ceramic industry in Foshan City against the context of intensive environmental regulations through semi-structured interviews. The 'push-pull' model in the firm migration research is used to explore the way the environmental regulation works on to push firms from the old location and pulling them to the new sites. The conclusion is that the influences of the environmental regulation on the firm location decision cannot be ignored, and the effects of the environmental regulations depend on the social and economic conditions of the old and new sites. It is an interconnected process when the firms relocate from the old location to the new one that is heavily shaped by environmental regulations. The change of environmental regulation in the old place will not only affect the behaviors of the firms when relocated, but also the arrangement of environmental regulation in the new place. Besides the cost of pollution abatement, a possible interpretation of the effects of the environmental regulation upon the location decision is the behavior of the local governments and the firms. If the environmental regulation is lax, the pollution abatement cost is important for the firm to choose a new place, otherwise the sunk cost will be considered for risk prevention. It is confirmed that environmental regulation has become an important policy for local governments in China to promote the development of local industries under recent economic decentralization. Nevertheless, in this case study, the 'Pollution Havens' hypothesis is not yet confirmed
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    The Challenge of Wide Application of New Information and Communication Technologies to Traditional Location Theory
    SONG Zhouying, LIU Weidong
    2012, 67 (4):  479-489.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204005
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (914KB) ( 697 )   Save
    The wide application of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) has been argued to be critical to spatial transformation of firms. Recent advances in the studies along this line have challenged traditional location theory. Existing literature, however, focuses mainly on the impacts of new ICTs on locational conditions and industrial spatial distribution. Dynamics behind such changes have not yet been given sufficient attention by geographers. It is against such a background that this paper takes Metersbonwe as a case to look into the impacts of new ICTs on traditional location theory and the dynamics of industrial re-location enabled by new ICTs. The paper argues that the application of new ICTs has been a key location factor in the information age, and time-cost is becoming critical to the spatial organization of firms as a result of shorter product life and mass customization in particular among other dynamics.
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    Integrated Correction and Calculation of Rural Residential Consolidation Potential: A Case Study of Pinggu District, Beijing
    QU Yanbo, ZHANG Fengrong, SONG Wei, LIANG Fachao, JIANG Guanghui
    2012, 67 (4):  490-503.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204006
    Abstract ( 530 )   PDF (2108KB) ( 781 )   Save
    According to the calculating results from the Ministry of Land and Resources, the theoretical increase potential of cultivated land is 48 million hectares via rural residential land consolidation in 2020. However, because of restraint factors like natural conditions, economic development, land use plan, there is discrepancy between the actual and theoretical goals. So it is important to calculate the cultivated land increase potential accurately pre- and during rural residential land consolidation planning. In view of the current calculating methods such as simple arithmetic and measuring results deviated from the process of per capita construction land use standard method. After analyzing and summarizing previous calculation methods, this paper, taking Pinggu District of Beijing as a case, establishes a filtering correction mathematical model, in consideration of account natural suitability, ecological security, economic feasibility, social acceptability and planning guidance. In order to correct the realistic potential of land consolidation in rural residential areas, the correction coefficient of realistic potential were refined by the theory and method of agricultural land gradation, "one-vote negative system" of ecological land, index and method of economic-social evaluation and conceptual assignment method. The results show that, the natural limiting correction coefficient of rural land consolidation potential in Pinggu District is 0.4757~ 0.8628, the ecological limiting correction coefficient is 0.3004~0.8852, the economic limiting correction coefficient is 0.3943~0.8939, the social limiting correction coefficient is 0.4643~ 0.8165, and the plan-oriented limiting correction coefficient is 0.2877~0.8858. Effects of ecological security and plan guidance factors on rural residential consolidation potential and its regional difference are more remarkable than those of the other three factors. By multiplying the five above correction coefficients, the net cultivated land increase potential via rural residential consolidation is 614.13 hm2 and the coefficient of cultivated land increase potential is 10.77%. This study sets up a more mature and logical evaluation index system for rural residential land consolidation, which can improve the methods of regional rural residential land consolidation plans.
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    Impacts of Difference among Livelihood Assets on the Choice of Economic Compensation Pattern for Farmer Households Farmland Protection in Chongqing City
    LI Guangdong, QIU Daochi, WANG Liping, WANG Ping, LUO Dongqi
    2012, 67 (4):  504-515.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204007
    Abstract ( 634 )   PDF (1537KB) ( 906 )   Save
    Economic compensation plays a crucial role in promoting farmland protection and raising farmland utilization ratio. Farmer households' willingness is one of the most important factors that determines the economic compensation pattern for farmland protection, and their difference in livelihood assets has influence on pattern choice of economic compensation for farmland protection significantly. Through participatory rural appraisal method, three villages and 392 households were investigated and sampled in Tabular mountainous and hilly areas of western Chongqing City. A quantitative analysis framework of household livelihood assets of hexagon is constructed; through Gray relation analysis model and Probit regression analysis, the existence and influencing degree of coupling relationship between the divergence of farmer household livelihood assets and compensation pattern choice were analyzed. Furthermore, differential patterns of economic compensation for farmland protection were designed. The results are shown as follows. (1) There exist different qualities and spatial heterogeneity in household livelihood assets. We can find a general trend that the total assets transfer from pure self-sufficiency households to off-farm households, and a spatial trend that the higher the altitude, the less household livelihood assets. (2) There is a trend that household choice willingness about compensation pattern varies from Chengdu Pattern to Foshan Pattern, and there exists spatial heterogeneity in their choice willingness in different areas. (3) The coupling relationship exists between household livelihood assets and compensation pattern. Negative correlation is observed between natural assets value and household pattern choice and the other livelihood assets have different positive impacts on compensation pattern, which from the top are psychological assets, human assets and physical assets, financial assets, and social assets. (4) Based on seven types of the lack of household livelihood assets, the paper designs a conceptual compensation pattern system. Moreover, compensation method, compensation basis, compensation standard and the source of compensation funds are discussed.
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    Morphological Difference and Regional Types of Rural Settlements in Jiangsu Province
    MA Xiaodong, LI Quanlin, SHEN Yi
    2012, 67 (4):  516-525.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204008
    Abstract ( 954 )   PDF (3666KB) ( 994 )   Save
    Based on the SPOT satellite images of Jiangsu Province in 2007/2008, using models such as exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial metrics, the paper conducts a quantitative analysis of the space differentiation of rural settlements in Jiangsu Province, and further identifies the regional types. The results are shown as follows. In spatial distribution, the rural settlements in Jiangsu are characterized by obvious concentration with evident spatial variability, which is shown in the ladder-like sparse distribution towards the north and south in areas along the Yangtze River with high correlation in the overall distribution and geomorphic types. In the scale, the rural settlements in Jiangsu are generally in small scale with small difference in the scale of small villages and large gap in the scale of large villages which account for a small proportion. The rural settlements in Jiangsu are characterized by low concentration in size distribution, and is obviously presented in the "dumbbell" structure, namely, the rural settlements in northern and southern Jiangsu are in a large scale, and those in the central part are in a relatively small scale. In the spatial change of form and pattern, through the measurement of the pattern indices of the five transects in the northern, central and southern Jiangsu, the coastal area and areas along the Grand Canal, it was found that the form of the rural settlements in central Jiangsu is more complex than that in the northern and southern parts of the province, and the form of coastal area is more complex than that in areas along the canal. The rural settlements in southern Jiangsu and areas along the canal are characterized by good connectivity. The rural settlements in the five transects are significantly differentiated in distribution. Finally, through establishing the morphological measurement index system of the rural settlements, by adopting the method of hierarchical cluster, the rural settlements in Jiangsu are divided into eight types: Xulian hillock (low-density large-mass type), Suhuai plain (medium-density broad-band type), coastal reclamation area (high-density stripe type), polder area in central Suzhou (medium-density arc-belt type), plain south of the Yangtze River (medium-density small-mass type), lake mound land (low-density point-scattered type), Ningyi hilly region ( cluster-like dispersal type), and Lixiahe area (low-density cluster-like type).
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    Gravity Model for Tourism Spatial Interaction: Basic Form, Parameter Estimation, and Applications
    LI Shan, WANG Zheng, ZHONG Zhangqi
    2012, 67 (4):  526-544.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204009
    Abstract ( 1025 )   PDF (1214KB) ( 1149 )   Save
    Spatial interaction between tourist origin and destination is a key factor affecting tourist behavior and tourism industry. Usually, such a spatial interaction was described by gravity models. However, tourism gravity models used to adopt power deterrence function to describe the spatial friction effect, which is an analogy with Newton's gravity model, are hard to overcome some inherent defects. Therefore, Wilson's model with exponential deterrence function becomes a possible alternative. Based on Wilson's model, a basic form of tourism gravity model is presented with three main explanatory variables: attractiveness of tourist destination, emissiveness of tourist origin, and spatial damping between the destination and origin.
    Two coefficients, α (income elasticity) and β (spatial damping) in this model are also need to be evaluated. We used the traditional regression method to estimate the value of α. As to β, two new methods, "population particle pattern method" and "integral method on tourist amount" are used to estimate it. The results show that: 1) α = 0.64 and β = 0.00322 are at the national average level in the 2000s; 2) α becomes larger as the field-pixel becomes smaller. For provincial, municipal, county, and township levels, the values of β are 0.00044, 0.0014, 0.0044 and 0.014, respectively; 3) affected by spatial damping, the average travel radius of domestic residents is about 300 km.
    By the application of this model, attractiveness of each province of China and provincial tourist market shares of Chengdu city are calculated. The results show that: 1) from 2004 to 2008, the average tourism attraction of Sichuan, Liaoning and Yunnan rank the top three, while Ningxia, Qinghai and Inner Mongolia rank the bottom three; 2) from 1999 to 2008, in terms of tourism attraction at provincial level, Xizang has the biggest increase in the ranking, while Shanghai has the greatest decline in the ranking. 3) The results of theoretical calculation on Chengdu city are in accordance with empirical experiences and sampling data, which demonstrates the applicable potential of the tourism gravity model proposed in this paper.
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    A Study on Tourist Cognition of Urban Memory in Historic Sites: A Case Study of Alley Nanluogu Historic Site in Beijing
    WANG Fang, YAN Lin, XIONG Xinkai, WU Bihu
    2012, 67 (4):  545-556.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204010
    Abstract ( 816 )   PDF (932KB) ( 1139 )   Save
    Urban memory is the significant source of the formation of urban features, including historic sites related with the past and present of the city. Thus, research on the rules of how people recognize urban memory in historic sites will provide a new method for conservation of urban memory and renewal of historic sites. According to a case study of Alley Nanluogu Historic Site in Beijing and questionnaire by the tourists onsite and online, the paper sums up the cognition variables correlated urban memory of tourists and establishes a cognition-measuring index system of two level-one variables (including two variables of information and carrier), 20 level-two variables and 89 level-three variables. On a sample pool of 272 pieces of available dates, the orderly Logistic regression model is used to examine the relevant factors influencing cognitive degree of urban memory and then induce the characteristics of tourist cognition of urban memory. The result shows that tourist age and visiting time have a strong positive relationship with high cognition level of urban memory while the shopping motivation has a significant negative one with it. The detailed analysis of cognition level of urban memory shows that the variable of information is more easily recognized than that of the carrier by tourists. According to the above conclusions, this paper summaries tourist cognitive rules of urban memory in the historic district, and provides suggestions on conservation and renewal of historic sites.
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    The Research on American Tourists about Their Cognition of Color Image of Urban Destination
    BAI Kai
    2012, 67 (4):  557-573.  doi: 10.11821/xb201204011
    Abstract ( 684 )   PDF (1047KB) ( 992 )   Save
    Colour is very important for the explicit form and structure of tourist destination imagery, although it has been widely used in the construction and development of tourist destinations, the theory research is still nearly blank. This article takes the American tourists in China as objects and the cross-cultural cognition of color image of urban destination as content, and acquires the research material through 10 batches of passengers tracking in the whole journey. Then it constructs the American tourists' cognitive dimensions of color image of destination by using the grounded theory, furthermore, tests the theory saturation of this research by way of fixed-point.
    The results show that: (1) the major factors affecting tourists' cognition of color image of destination are the fundamental key of urban color and construction, tourism attractions, interpersonal influence, perception of cultural differences, travel experiences, cultural and natural environment in tourism destination; (2) the tourists' cognition of color image of destination have two components, that is, visual colour and conceptual colour; (3) the personal preferences and tourists emotions affect their cognition of color image of destination directly, moreover the affection generates behavior intention directly; (4) tourists' cognition of color image of destination will stimulate their behavior intention. Finally, this paper has discussion on the concept model of the mechanism and process of cognition about color image of urban tourism destinations.
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