Table of Content

    15 March 2001, Volume 56 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    An Analysis of Spatial Structure and Optimal Regional Development
    LU Da dao
    2001, 56 (2):  127-135.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (115KB) ( )   Save
    This paper is a further analysis of the “Pole Axis Theory” and related “T shaped” spatial structure of the industrial allocation in China, which was developed by the author a decade ago. It starts with an analysis of the relationship between different types of spatial structure and regional development, and of how to achieve optimal regional development through optimal spatial organization as well. Then, based upon existing theories and practices in China, it discusses the formation of the “pole & axis” system by disclosing the evolution of socio economic organization and demonstrates that such a system is the most efficient spatial structure that can lead to optimal regional/national development. Lastly, the paper concludes that the strategy of a “T shaped” spatial structure of industrial allocation, which is an application of the “Pole Axis Theory”, has played a very important role in the spatial economic development in China in the last decade.
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    County Level Economic Disparities of China in the 1990s
    LI Xiao jian, QIAO Jia jun
    2001, 56 (2):  136-145.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (355KB) ( )   Save
    This paper analyses regional economic disparities in China using nationwide county level data. Firstly, in contrast to the enlarging trend indicated by provincial level studies, economic disparities between counties were narrowed in the 1990s. This finding does not apply in the comparison between coastal and inland areas. The disparities between the two parts were continuously widened. Secondly, the counties with faster growth rates than the national average were spread from several growth centers to outside. Consequently, three growth corridors gradually appeared, namely, the Coastal Corridor (along the nation’s coastal line), Beijing-Guangzhou Corridor (along the railway from Beijing to Guangzhou), and the Changjiang River Corridor (along the Changjiang River from Chengdu to Shanghai). Thirdly, regional disparities exist within each corridor. There were numbers of relatively underdeveloped counties in the Coastal Corridor. Similarly, relatively developed counties were found in Western China. Fourthly, general speaking, the less developed counties were mainly located in the western part of China. The distribution pattern of less developed counties is consistent with the disadvantageous development conditions in mountainous, cold and dry areas, as well as with the isolation in the provincial border regions. Finally, this paper classifies counties into four categories by using their development status in 1990 and their growth rates from 1990 to 1998.
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    Spatial Distribution of Aeolian Erosion of Soil and Its Driving Factors in China
    ZHANG Guo ping, ZHANG Zeng xiang, LIU Ji yuan
    2001, 56 (2):  146-158.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (410KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the remote sensing and geographic information system, the spatial distribution of national wide soil erosion of wind are studied, and the 1:100 000 national soil map of wind erosion is made. Wind speed, soil dryness, NDVI, soil property and land surface slope are the key factors to the soil wind erosion. The relations between the soil wind erosion and each factor are discussed. The method of Principal Component is used to pick up the information included in the five factors, and the Soil Wind Erosion Dynamic Index (SWEDI) is established. Its comparison with the RS/GIS derived data shows that SWEDI can reflect the potential capacity of the soil erosion by wind. The dynamic process of soil wind erosion is studied, to reveal the distribution of the most intense heaviest soil erosion regions and the dominant factors in these regions. All these studies may greatly help for the mitigation of the aeolian erosion of soil.
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    Climate Variation in the Sanjiang Plain Disturbed by Large Scale Reclamation during the Last 45 Years
    YAN Min hua, DENG Wei, MA Xue hui
    2001, 56 (2):  159-170.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (361KB) ( )   Save
    Farmland instead of marsh wetland has become the main landscape in the Sanjiang Plain after large scale reclamation since 1949. The underlying surface of the Sanjiang Plain has been changed tremendously. Based on the data of monthly mean air temperature, atmospheric pressure, monthly precipitation and sunshine time from 21 meteorological stations in the Sanjiang Plain from 1955 to 1999, the climatic variations and tendencies of the Sanjiang Plain have been analyzed during the last 45 years. The climate jumps have been examined in terms of 5 year moving averaged seasonal and annual series of 4 factors using Yamamoto method and Mann Kendall method. The annual mean temperature was tending to go up and increased +1 2℃ to +2 3℃ in the Sanjiang Plain during the last 45 years. The warmest center was located in the plain field of the Sanjiang Plain. The departure values of annual mean temperature have been positive since 1988. The liner tendency values of annual precipitation in most part of the Sanjiang Plain were negative during the last 45 years. The decrease center in annual precipitation was located in the plain part of the Sanjiang Plain. The largest decrease amplitude of annual precipitation was 90 mm during the last 45 years. The variation of annual precipitation in the Sanjiang Plain during the last 45 years had gone through two increase periods that occurred from 1955 to 1965 and from 1980 to 1999. Between them there was a decrease period from 1966 to 1979. Climate jumps tested by both Yamamoto method and Mann Kendall method in the Sanjiang Plain during the last 45 years are as follows. According to the annual mean temperature, an abrupt warming occurred in the mid 1980s, the amplitude of abrupt variation was +0 9℃. The seasonal abrupt warming in spring, autumn and winter all took place in the 1980s, and abrupt warming in summer occurred in the late 1970s. Of variation amplitude of all the seasonal abrupt warming, the largest one was +1 8℃ in winter since 1987. The abrupt change of summer precipitation occurred in the 1980s. The abrupt changes of spring and winter sunshine time took place in the late 1980s and the early 1980s respectively. Based on the facts of climate changes of the Sanjiang Plain, it is held that the abrupt warming of the Sanjiang Plain during the last 45 years probably resulted from the large scale reclamation of various kinds of wetlands.
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    Composition, Susceptibility and Input Flux of Present Aeolian Dust Over Loess Plateau of China
    SUN Dong huai, SU Rui xia, CHEN Fa hu, YUAN Bao yin, David Rea
    2001, 56 (2):  171-180.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102005
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    Present aeolian dust is collected at 7 sites in different parts of the Loess Plateau of China. Investigation on the composition indicates that mineral dust makes up the dominant part of the dust. Magnetic susceptibility of the dust varies in range of 80~150 units (10 -8 m 3/kg), which is higher than that of glacial loess. The high susceptibility of present dust implies that original material of dust has been modified to certain extent by climatic condition. Seasonal variability of dust input flux exhibits a gentle decrease from northwest to southeast with strong seasonal variety in the northern margin of the Loess Plateau. Accumulated input flux of the dust remains consistent over most regions except for northern part where possesses obvious high input flux. Meteorological analysis on transportation and deposition process reveals that most dust material is produced in non storm deposition rather than in dust storm deposition. Aeolian dust is mainly transported by low level winds in step wise way to deposit in destination sites, and therefore its input flux offers an indicator to ground aridity of depositional as well as the source areas. Long suspension dust from desert regions plays an important role in fine port of the aeolian dust. Compared to the other seasons, dust flux resulted from winter monsoon rises obviously in the northwestern part of the Loess Plateau, whereas other parts possess limited increase of dust input.
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    Decision on Reforesting and Regrassing Some of the Dry Sloping Cultivated with Support of GIS and Remote Sensing in Yunnan
    YANG Cun jian, LIU Ji yuan, ZHANG Zeng xiang, DANG Cheng lin
    2001, 56 (2):  181-188.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (354KB) ( )   Save
    The strategy to develop China’s western region has been proposed by the central Governmant and ecological environmental construction constitute a very important part of the strategy. In order to improve the ecological environment of China’s western region, a great deal of the dry upland must be reforested and regrassed. Where the dry upland must be changed into the forestland or grassland is quite essential GIS is identified as a useful tool to find the place where the dry upland must be changed into forestland or grassland in Yunnan province, Southwest China. Four steps are included. Firstly, relevant databases are established including land use database, elevation database, slope database, soil erosion database, water body database, precipitation database and temperature database. Secondly, the dry land from landuse database was overlain with slope database, soil erosion database, normalization vegetation index(NDVI) database. The distribution of the dry land of different slopes was analyzed. The distribution of the dry land of different slopes under different soil erosion conditions with different NDVIs is also analyzed. Thirdly, the expert knowledge about the upland cultivated was collected, and the model for finding the suitable place for being returned back to forestland or grassland is formulated on the basis of the knowledge. Finally, the suitable place is overlain with the precipitation layer and temperature layer to decide where trees need be planted and where grass need be planted. It shows that the results are very useful for the ecological environment construction in Yunnan Province.
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    The Surveying on Thermal Distribution in Urban Based on GIS and Remote Sensing
    ZHOU Hong mei, ZHOU Cheng hu, GE Wei qiang, DING Jing cai
    2001, 56 (2):  189-197.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (511KB) ( )   Save
    This research utilizes meteorological and resources satellite remote sensing as the main monitoring means. And by using the GIS logicial algorithm and synthetical analysis technology, dynamical monitoring and spatial analysis models are studied and established, which help us to synthetically analye the thermal space distribution character, forming mechanism and the relations of zone configuration, synchronously set up the correlative model of the ground luminance temperature and air temperature. The steps of realization is as follows: (1) Pretreatment The pretreatments include concluding calibration, location of data, correction of sun angle, side darkening and pickup of thermal dynamic character with NOAA AVHRR. Pretreatments also include classifying of TM remotesensing image, format conversion and register of remotesensing images of different platforms and special map. (2) Studies and establishment of dynamic analysis models Spatial analysis model is set up based on GIS logicial judgement and levels analysis. With the data of NOAA luminance temperature factor as main factor, classification image of TM, meteorological data and landuse as auxiliary factor, we have built a dynamic monitoring and spatial analysis model to synthetically anylyze the thermal dynamic distribution character and forming mechanism of city heat island. (3) The analysis of spatiotemporal change rule of thermal dynamic character based on GIS The forming mechanism and distribution rule of heat island effect is related to the following factors according to the synthetic analysis of GIS mulitifactors. ① The thermal dynamic distribution is mainly related to the underground medium and the change of city distribusion. ② The heat resources of a city have some effect on the heat island. ③ Meteorological factors, such as weather, climate and so on, have some influence on thermal dynamic. (4) the enactment of the correlative model of luminance temperature and air temperature Based on the data of seventemporalphase of fourchannel (10 5~11 5 um) NOAA satellite at 14:00 in summer of 1998 and the observed air temperature of 30 points, we have built a correlative model between luminance temperature and air temperature by different methods of ground medium modelling and the satisfied results have been made.
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    Regionalization of Salt-affected Land for Amelioration in the Yellow River Delta Based on GIS
    GUAN Yuan xiu, LIU Gao huan, WANG Jin feng
    2001, 56 (2):  198-205.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (399KB) ( )   Save
    Soil salinization is the major land degradation problem and has seriously influenced the sustainablal agricultural development. Regionalization of salt affected land is the precondition for effective amelioration. The present saline land situation is obtained by remote sensing image processing. The cause that leads to land salinization is analysized. Especially, the two key factors, ground water depth and mineralization degree that control land salinization, are analysized by using long term observation data. Previously, regionalization of saline soil was done descriptively and artificially. Based on the present saline land situation, ground water depth and ground water mineralization degree, the regionalization of saline land for amelioration in the Yellow River Delta is done quantitatively. Four different saline land amelioration regions are delineated, namely, easy amelioration region, relatively difficult amelioration region, difficult amelioration region and unfavorable amelioration region. Countermeasures for ameliorating saline soils are put forward according to ecological conditions of different saline land regions. This not only greatly improves regionalization speed but also accuracy.
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    An Analysis for Market Area of Chinese National Park Based on Railway Corridor
    WANG Zheng, ZHOU Wei, LI Shan, WANG Ying, HUANG Tao, JIANG Yi hong
    2001, 56 (2):  206-213.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (237KB) ( )   Save
    This paper introduces concept of market area of national park and its analytic model, i.e. spatial interaction model between national parks and cities, and developed a technique to calculate the solution of the shortest distance between national parks and a city. Then, we get the market area of national parks of China after identifying and dividing the market area of Chinese national parks with GIS environment in technology. The following conclusion were reached: 1. In China, ten national parks that have the largest market area in order are Badaling in Beijing, Westlake in Hangzhou, Taihu lake, Lishan in Lingtong, Chengde, East Lake in Wuhan, Taishan Mountain, Songshan Mountain and Zhongshan Mountain in Nanjing, Beidaihe in Qinhuangdao. 2. The resource conditions of every national park in China have great influence on the size of its market area such as Badaling and West Lake in Hangzhou. 3. Because of dense population tourism visitor resource index is much higher in eastern of China. Therefore, there is promising commercial prosperities in tourism in the eastern region. 4. The size of market area of every national park is closely related with special location of city groups where they are locateed. 5. It’s hard to develop efficient tourism in west China as it is dependent on current railway transportation. So the key to promote the development of tourism in the west region is to speed up the development of aviation industry; or develop more airlines like Yunnan.
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    EDVAET: A Linear Landscape Evaluation Technique——A Case Study on the Xiaoxinganling Scenery Drive
    WU Bi hu, LI Mi mi
    2001, 56 (2):  214-222.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (180KB) ( )   Save
    In the process of planning and design for China’s first scenery drive, from a special perspective of tourists’ experience along linear scenery drive, this paper develops a new method for tourism landscape evaluation, which is called Equal Distance Visual Assessment by Expert Team (EDVAET), being considered a simple, low cost, but scientific landscape measurement. To develop the EDVAET, a data base was at first built up by field survey along the scenery drive, which included data of topography, visual quality, visual width, and typical landscape photographs, and all these 139 sets of data were got at equal distance sampling spots along the studied itinerary, the Xiaoxinganling Scenery Drive, Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. The EDVAET itself consists of three evaluation procedures that include assessments of: (1) landscape cover, (2) visual quality, and (3) visual width at each set of those sampling spots. Results of evaluating could be demonstrated in several curves or charts, showing where could be considered best sites for tourists’ experiencing landscapes. An application of this model has been made in the planning and designing for the Xiaoxinganling Scenery Drive, and the outcome displayed that the EDVAET is not only a useful tool helping planners to set site selection along tourist itinerary, but also a suitable method in linear tourism landscape evaluation.
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    Origin of Pots in Inner Mongolia and Northern Hebei ——Also about the Classification of Pots
    LI Hong jiang, CUI Zhi jiu, ZHAO Liang
    2001, 56 (2):  223-231.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (374KB) ( )   Save
    Newly discovered pots in Inner Mongolia and Northern Hebei was detailedly measured and analysed. Based on the correlative research materials, we believe that pots of these areas are not formed by the glaciation but by weathering erosion. Their development is controlled by many factors such as wind, temperature, precipitation, moisture, vegetation, landform and rock structure, etc. Weathering, especially chemical weathering such as salt weathering, has an important implication to their form. Wind not only can facilitate weathering and erosion, but also can carry weathering products out. Based on many scientist researches about pots and our own analyses, the pots can be divided into three different types according their forming cause. Their causes reflect the special environment background. In these areas, ancient culture developed very well. Pots are in the relatively stable stage in the period of Xiajiadian Culture. There exist good responsive relationship among climatic environment, geographic processes and cultural types. This study has an important implication to the regional and global plaeoclimate reconstruction.
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    A Study of Noetics and Geographical Cognized
    MA Ai nai
    2001, 56 (2):  232-238.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (259KB) ( )   Save
    Academician Qian Xuesen raises that “noetics” only studies processing and treatment law of intellectually related information instead of “cognize”, which is studied psychologically and physiologically. Such as the report of “Explaining the Ineffable: AI on the Topics of Intuition, Insight and Inspiration” given by Professor H. Simon in 1995. Essentially, computer is expected to simulate human brain, but it differs greatly from brain. Noetics discusses abstract thinking, which is logic thinking, visualized thinking, which is intuition and insight, and creativity thinking, which includes inspiration. The geographical thinking includes geographical abstract logic thinking, geographical visualized image thinking, and creativity virtual thinking. The study is approached in 4 sections: (1) about computer limitations; (2)about noetics; (3) about geographical noetics; and (4) about electron computer, photon computer, and gene computer.
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    Spatial Analysis for Reducing Uncertainties in Human Health Risk Assessment
    Nina Siu Ngan Lam
    2001, 56 (2):  239-247.  doi: 10.11821/xb200102013
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    Combining spatial, temporal, and statistical methods in assessing human health risks near a potential source of environmental pollution has been a central research topic attracting researchers from various disciplines. Existing data and methodological problems of human health risk assessment, however, have contributed significantly to the uncertainties in the assessment results. An integrated spatial analytical framework that can provide strategic evaluation and reduce uncertainties in human public health risk assessment is very much needed to help reveal the underlying relationships between suspected pollution sources and human health outcomes, so that sensible and effective health and environmental policies can be devised. This paper identifies four major problems in human health risk assessment, including data availability and scale, methods of analysis, interpretations, and reactions to interpretations. Unlike other environmental analyses, human health risk assessment must require both health and demographic data, therefore, the very nature of it requires spatial analysis and GIS. In order to reduce uncertainties in the assessment results, the spatial analytical framework must be comprehensive, integrative, and interactive. A framework that has four groups of functions is proposed, including visualization and measurement, cluster detection, scale analysis, and focused exposure modeling. Using an example from a previous study on the relationship between a Superfund hazardous waste site in Louisiana and the cancer incidence statistics surrounding the site, this paper demonstrates that ambiguity and uncertainties occur in many analysis steps, confirming further the need to develop a systematic spatial analysis framework to reducing uncertainties in the public health risk assessment process.
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