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Table of Content

    15 December 2000, Volume 55 Issue s1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Impacts of Unusual Climate on Key Project Construction
    HUANG Chao-ying, SUN Leng
    2000, 55 (s1):  5-10.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1002
    Abstract ( 423 )   PDF (420KB) ( 433 )   Save
    In this paper, the relationship between climate and key project construction and impacts of unusual climate on key project construction are illustrated and serious losses resulted from uncontemplated unusual climate in key project construction are emphasized according to a lot of facts.
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    Impact of Climate Change on Energy Demand
    CHEN Yu, HUANG Chao-ying
    2000, 55 (s1):  11-19.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1003
    Abstract ( 572 )   PDF (374KB) ( 786 )   Save
    In the paper, we calculate some elements about winter heating and analyses their variety characteristics in north of China, for example, start and end date of heating period, heating degree day, heating length and its variability. build the correlation equations between mean temperature in winter and variability of heating degree day, study the impact of different temperature changes on demanding for heating. analyses that the climatic abnormality change impact on demanding for heating in whole heating area and some places in the area. build relative model about temperature change impacting on heating energy consumption, We also have a attempt to use variability of heating length in place of energy consumption in the model.
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    The Evolutionary Law of Autumn Rain in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    SUN Leng, HUANG Chao-ying
    2000, 55 (s1):  20-25.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1004
    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (344KB) ( 553 )   Save
    Based on the data of daily precipitation from October to November from 1960 to 1996 at 28 stations including Yichang, Wufeng, Lvchongpo, Enshi, Fengjie, Wanxian, Liangping, Fuling, Chongqing, Daxian, Liangzhong, Mianyang, Chengdu, Doujiangyan, Yaan, Emeishan, Leshan, Leibo, Yibin, Nanchong, Shuining, Neijiang, Luzhou, Xuyong, Jinfoshan, Tongzi, Zunyi, Sinan in the Three Gorges reservoir area, the status of autumn rain was analyzed and the evolutionary law was studied. The results showed that autumn rain mainly concentrated from early October to early November during the river closure period in the Three Gorges dam area. The main conclusion were as follows: (1) Mean rain days during October --November are 25 ~ 30days. Particularly, rain days are 30-38 days in western and southwestern plateau of Sicuan Province. And the most area with 45 rain days is Emei Mount. Though the rain days are abundant, the total Precipitation amount is small which is less than that in summer and the intensity is weak. The largest rainfall area with precipitation of 242 mm locates in Lvchongpo. (2) Rain frequency during October~November is decreasing. And there is one thing to be mentioned that the frequency of serious autumn rain is as lower as 10% in dam area of the three Gorges. (3) From the viewpoint of the distribution of autumn rain frequency, it is smaller in western reservoir area of the three Gorges than in eastern part, and it is much frequent in southern part than in northern part. The lowest area is center northern part and the most frequent area is center western part. (4) There is 21 years with serious and normal autumn rain with the frequency of 56. 8% during 1960--1996. Yearly, autumn rain is evident every year in 1960s and every2 year in 1970s. And it is not evident in 1980s. While in 1990s it alternates between the evident year and not evident year. (5) In addition, the features of autumn rain in 1994 and in 1996 are analyzed in this paper due to the evident autumn rain occurrence.
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    Impacts of Climate Chane on Risk in Running of the Three Gorges Reservoir
    ZHANG Jian-min, HUANG Chao-ying, WU Jin-dong
    2000, 55 (s1):  26-33.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1005
    Abstract ( 430 )   PDF (328KB) ( 1247 )   Save
    Climatic factors are one of the most important elements in deciding the running of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Therefore it is of high value to study the impacts of climate change on the Three Gorges Reservoir for the proper management, the shipping of the Upper Reaches, the flood control of Middle and Lower Reaches of the Chang Jiang River, and the electrical power supplying for Center China and East China. The Monte Carlo experiment is used to analyze the change in monthly precipitation patterns under the climate scenario derived from a coupled general circulation model (CGCM). Results indicate that the flood risk in the running will increase in the early and mid summer. Although the drought risk in mid and late winter due to climate average change will be generally lessened, the frequency of extreme drought occurrence will increase as the result of changes in precipitation variability, which will lead to an increase in risk.
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    Relationship between Daily Energy Consumption and Temperature in Central China
    CHEN Zheng-hong, HONG Bin
    2000, 55 (s1):  34-38.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1006
    Abstract ( 602 )   PDF (300KB) ( 569 )   Save
    The linear correlation analysis are adopted on the daily energy consumptionand average air temperature, the maximum and the minimum air temperature of central China electric network in 1991, 1993 and 1995,the following are the foundings: 1) Thecorrelation of daily energy consumption and dally average air temperature is remarkably positive in 85% months in the summer half year (from May to September), but about two--thirds months in the winter half year (from October to April), the correlation is not remarkable; 2) by 1℃ effect of daily energy consumption of everymonth in summer half year increased year by year, and the largest appeared in the month which is hot and dry It appeared in June in Henan, and in July or August in other three provinces; 3)In summer half year, timely varying curves of daily energy consumption and daily average air temperature are unanimous, and the peaks or gorges of the former is about one or two days later than that of the latter. The correlation coefficient is 0.89 (Hubei). Finally the evaluation models for monthly daily energy consumption--air temperature correlation of summer half year are built.
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    Abnormal Drought Climate Events and the Assessing model of impacts on agriculture
    LI Cui-jin
    2000, 55 (s1):  39-45.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1007
    Abstract ( 449 )   PDF (418KB) ( 407 )   Save
    In this paper, the characteristic of drought disaster in China is analyzed. It’s pointed out that droughts are major meteorological disasters in this area. The standards of drought grade for single station and area are defined by using the percentage of precipitation anomalies and drought index. In addition, the main drought events and their intensity (grades)are assessed in this area for recent 40years. Finally, assessment the model of area covered by drought, the area affected by drought and the economic losses of agriculture by drought is established according the drought index. The assessing results coincide with the facts in the main.
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    The Abnormal Waterlogging in the Lower Reach of Changjiang River and the Evaluation of Effect on Agriculture Production
    JIANG Ai-Jun, ZHOU xu-dong, ZHOU Gui-xiang, XUAN De-wang
    2000, 55 (s1):  46-51.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1008
    Abstract ( 396 )   PDF (237KB) ( 392 )   Save
    The precipitation data of 21 stations in the lower reach of Changjiang River are used for analyses of regional abnormal waterlogging events. The indexes to judge the serious level of the abnormal waterlogging events are determined based on the historical agricultural waterlogging disaster in this region. A simple. convenient and practical model is established, which can be used in routine climatic business and service.
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    The Evaluation of Disastrous Losses Caused by Tropical Cyclones
    FAN Qi, LIANG Bi-qi
    2000, 55 (s1):  52-56.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1009
    Abstract ( 403 )   PDF (201KB) ( 617 )   Save
    In this paper, the Fuzzy composite evaluation method was applied to evaluate the damage caused by tropical cyclones making landfall in Guangdong during the period of 1990-- 1996. The index of the disaster of every tropical cyclone have been obtained, and have been divided into five parts. The result shows that this method can relatively evaluate the losses caused by tropical cyclones with different density.
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    Model Studies of the Impacts of Climate Change on Land Cover and Its Feedback
    LI Ke-rang, CHEN Yu-feng, HUANG-Mei, LI Xiao-bing, YE Zhuo-jia
    2000, 55 (s1):  57-63.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1010
    Abstract ( 616 )   PDF (495KB) ( 1948 )   Save
    It is revealed through principal component and factor analysis methods that there exist four types of seasonal patters of spatial differentiation of land corer change in China. The relationship between NDVI and seasonal and interannual precipitation and temperature change were studied for 17 typically vegetation types in China. The results show that impacts of precipitation and temperature interannual change on vegetation growth are different for regions of different vegetation types. The data of temperature and precipitation are used to predict NDVI in selected areas in China by methods of artificial neural networks and stepwise regression. The result shows that combining the two methods is helpful in improving prediction accuracy. Land cover change and climate change interaction through biophysical processes that involve the transfers of energy and water at the land surface and biophysical cycles that affect the concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. The impact of land cover change on the mesoscale boundary layer structure of the midlatitude semiarid area has been investigated by using a mesoscase biological meteorological model coupled with a cumulus ensemble parameterization scheme. A new China climate-vegetation model is developed, in which soil is taken as a limiting factor and elevation as an affecting factor. As a result, not only is the total precision of the model improved, but also is the precision of each vegetation type amended significantly.
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    Climatic Forecast Models of Land Cover
    HUANG Mei, LI Ke-rang, LI Xiao-bing, CHEN Yu-feng
    2000, 55 (s1):  64-70.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1011
    Abstract ( 496 )   PDF (410KB) ( 472 )   Save
    Observed data of temperature and precipitation are used to predict Normalization Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) in eight selected areas which is Dongbei, Huabei, Huazhong, Xinan, Huanan, Xibei, Xinjiang and Tibet in China by methods of artificial neural networks and stepwise regression. The climatic factors are 24 months ahead of NDVI. The testing forecast shows that the method of artificial neural networks is much better than that of stepwise regression in prediction of NDVI. Meanwhile above two methods are combined to predict NDVI, that is the factors selected by stepwise regression are used to be the input factors of artificial neural networks in predictions. The result shows that combining the two methods is helpful in improving forecast accuracy.
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    Numerical Experiments on the Impact of Land Cover on Climate
    YE Zhuo-jia, LI Ke-rang, HUANG Mei
    2000, 55 (s1):  71-81.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1012
    Abstract ( 438 )   PDF (671KB) ( 498 )   Save
    The impact of vegetation coverage on the mesoscale boundary layer structure of the midlatitude semiarid area has been investigated by using a mesoscale biological meteorological model coupled with a cumulus ensemble parameterization scheme over both a flat terrain and a complicated terrain under conditions with- and without-synoptic flow and different background atmospheric humidity. The investigation indicates that regional perturbations in temperature and specific humidity over vegetation covered area from an adjacent dry, hair soil, caused by the water transpiration from vegetation and more evaporation from the underlying soil surface as compared to the adjacent dry, bare soil, since the soil covered by vegetation will be humider as compared to the bare soil. As a result, a positive pressure perturbation was created over vegetation area. A mesoscale circulation (called as vegetation breeze circulation, VBC) is forced over a flat terrain under calm synoptic condition by the horizontal pressure gradient with a wind speed reaching about 3. 2 m/s, directing from the vegetation area to the bare soil in the lower boundary layer. The regional climate over a flat terrain is greatly impacted by the VBC. Simulations also indicated that the convective precipitations were initiated and organized by vegetation -breeze circulations. The timing, location and strength of the precipitations will probably be controlled by the convergence zone associated with VBC’s fronts and their interaction. Synoptic flow, atmospheric specific humidity and landscape changes played a significant role in modifying the structure and distribution of perturbations in wind, specific humidity, temperature and deep convective features (including convective clouds and precipitation). That is the reason why the deep convective precipitation event was considerably different day by day. The climate over a complex terrain is determined by the interactions between upslope flow circulation (UFC) and the VBC. Over a terrain defined as plain-slope- plateau, when the plain is covered by vegetation the UFC will be enhanced because the UFC is in phase with the VBC; when the vegetation covers the slope and plateau area, the VBC is out of phase with UFC, the simulated UFC will decrease; when the terrain is completely covered by vegetation, the intensity of the thermally forced upslope flow circulation is decreased; when the terrain in the east of the plateau and west of the plain are covered by the canopy, the mesoscale climate will depend upon the interaction between VBC and UFC.
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    NDVI Sensitivity to Seasonal and Interannual Rainfall Variations in Northern China
    LI Xiao-bing, WANG Ying, LI Ke-rang
    2000, 55 (s1):  82-89.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1013
    Abstract ( 664 )   PDF (470KB) ( 697 )   Save
    It is very important to research on global change to predict vegetation green--up information showed by NDVI using climate variations, because the relationship between NDVI and climate variations can be used to predict past and future status on earth. In this research, the relationship between NDVI and seasonal and inter -- annual precipitation change from 1983 to 1992, and impact of spatial distribution of precipitation on vegetation were studied for several typically vegetation types in northern China. The results showed impact of precipitation inter--annual change on vegetation growth were very different for regions of several vegetation types. Seasonal precipitation distribution was different for different vegetation types in 10 years, vegetation growth were influenced strongly by seasonal precipitation distribution. NDVI was sensitive to temporal -- spatial change of precipitation.
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    Synthetic Operational Assessment System of Climatic Abnormality Impacting on National Economy
    SUN Jia-min, GAO Ge
    2000, 55 (s1):  90-97.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1014
    Abstract ( 425 )   PDF (512KB) ( 332 )   Save
    On the bases of studying on many assessment models and methods, we study the whole technique and method of synthetic operational assessment system of climatic abnormality impacting on national economy by means of the computer technique, network communication technique and database technique. We also introduce the whole framework of the system, work principle and software/ hardware running environment, further show out the basic operational flow process about climate impact assessment system and main functions of subsystems, including data received and cured subsystem, synthetic information query subsystem, climate impact assessment models analysis subsystem, models of agriculture, water resources and other aspects of national economy are involved, countermeasure integration assessment subsystem and monthly, seasonal, annual climate impact synthetic assessment subsystem. At last, we initially found and achieve the synthetic operational assessment system of climatic abnormality impacting on national economy.
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    Integrated Strategy Assessment Model For Climate Abnormally
    WANG Shou-rong
    2000, 55 (s1):  98-105.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1015
    Abstract ( 392 )   PDF (404KB) ( 476 )   Save
    In order to adaptate and mitegate the impacts of climate abnormally on socioeconomic development, not only the policy strategies and technical measures should be studied, but also the strategy assessing methologogy should be developed. The integrated strategy assessment model is specially designed for thet purpoes. The model consists of index system, cost -- bent fit analysis, social and ecological effect analysis, uncertainty analysis, expert evaluation and strategy comparison submodel systems. Using both qualitative and quantitative method, the model system can evaluate the imput- output effect and derive specific value for each strategy plan, then give comparison conclusions for vaions strategy plans. After some case studies, the model system has been successfully put into use for assessing water resources and weather modification strategies.
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    1784~1787 Drought Occurrence over East China in a Warm Climatic Background
    ZHANG De-er
    2000, 55 (s1):  106-112.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1016
    Abstract ( 615 )   PDF (390KB) ( 626 )   Save
    This paper presents the 1784--1787 successive drought events in the farming land of east China as a case study done in such a way that the dryness sitation is reconstructed in the context of historical works and documents by drawing the dynamic development of disaster--hit and food famine zones on an annual basis. Results show that the rerrible events took place dominantly in 1784--1786 for the years 49th-51th of Qianlong Emperor of Qing Dynasty, covering the provinces of Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Henan, Anhui,Hubei (to the north of the Yangtze River),and later extending into Jiangxi, Hunan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan and Gansu, with the maximum seventy lasting 5 years in the lower valleys of the Yellow River where drought was relieved as late as the autumn of 1788, which was given in local chronicles and confirmed by the Weather Record of that time as another meteorological dataset, As indicated for Suzhou in the Record, the number of wet days were 28 days, reconstructing the total rainfall of 174 mm for June-August, 1785 as the sub--maximum in that century, arriving at an anomaly near -60% and smaller than the climatic extremum in the past 50 years. This article present tabulated description of the drying up of the rivers and lakes in that time over the research region, showing that the seventy has never been experienced in modern times. The drought events occurred a climatic warming background, i. e., in a warm phase of the Little Ice Age, as revealed by the reconstructing winter temperature series of Shanghai for the last 500 years. In comparison to the reconstructed curve of northern temperatures in history, the study droughts fall into a stage of warm climate. Also, the historical recording shows that the extensive band of east China saw no snowfall in 1784-1786 in succession even in the normally snow--rich provinces of Jiangsu and Anhui, and we find warm winter to be in 1778 and 1779. Moreover, the work discloses that the droughts are related to sunspot activities and El Nino episodes: they happened in the week--4 low--valued span of the activities and the year of 1785 as the prime period of the events was in the year before the 1786 event. The resulting drought features in east China are in good agreement with relevant studies. It is noted that the long--term drought disasters were followed by large--scale food famine, which was relieved by the government and with the aid of the act to help refugees from the populace. However, locust plagues and epidemic diseases ensued, with the affected regions given in a diagram for 1784--1786 calamities. The 1784-1787 drought study can be used for reference in our future combat against drought.
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    Countermeasure of Mitigating and Preventing Climate Disaster of mostly Crops in China
    ZHANG Hou-xuan
    2000, 55 (s1):  113-118.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1017
    Abstract ( 479 )   PDF (412KB) ( 458 )   Save
    China is a country with many climate disasters in Agriculture. In this paper we study and analysis the climate disaster of mostly crops (winter wheat in Huabei, double harvest rice in South, maize in Dongbei, cotton in Xinjiang ), and discuss the countermeasures of mitigating and preventing every climate disaster, then advance some useful opinions of police.
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    Impacts of Climate Disaster on Beijing Sustainable Development and Relevant Strategies
    ZHENG Shui-hong, WANG Shou-rong, WANG You-ming
    2000, 55 (s1):  119-127.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1018
    Abstract ( 355 )   PDF (580KB) ( 481 )   Save
    Beijing is located in one of vulnerable climate zones in the world. In last decade, climate extreme events and meteorological disasters frequently happened, causing economic losses as high as 1-1.5 billion yuan every year in this city. In this paper, the main climate disasters such as droughts, floods, high temperature, sandstorms and lightning are analyzed with observed data sets for last 50 years in Beijing, respectively. The characteristics of each disaster are summarized and then their impacts on socioeconomic development studied. Finally, some adaptating and mitigating strategies are put out as references for decision making.
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    Impacts of Extraordinary Climate on Water Resources in China
    YUAN Ru-hua HUANG Tao-zhen, HU Wei
    2000, 55 (s1):  128-134.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1019
    Abstract ( 480 )   PDF (426KB) ( 493 )   Save
    Climate is the important factors impacting on water resources. Otherwise, it is can’t be determined accurately between extraordinary climate and water resources, the trend and the degree of impacting extraordinary climate on water resources is obvious. The extraordinary climate impacting on runoff, supply and demand water are quantitative analyzed in This paper. Difference and fluctuation in when and where for water resources will be enlarge. Activities for retarding and avoiding to impact extraordinary climate on water resources are put forward.
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    Impacts of Climate Abnormality and Countermeasures on Water Resource in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebel
    WANG You-min WANG Shou-rong
    2000, 55 (s1):  135-142.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1020
    Abstract ( 506 )   PDF (483KB) ( 412 )   Save
    The climate abnormality in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei in recent 50 years is analyzed, and the obvious effect on water resource decreasing mainly caused by precipitation decrease is discussed. Annual temperature has risen about 1. 77’℃ precipitation reduced about 13.9 percent, water resource decreased about 50 percent in this area since the 1950s’, the serous inconsistency between water demand and supply has caused a series of problems. Some countermeasures to mitigate the water resource crisis are put out, but the measures can only resolve about 50 percent of the water shortage. To thoroughly resolve this problem, cross valley water resource attempering is necessarily.
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    The Countermeasure about Abnormal Climate Influencing on Taihu Water Resources and Social Economy
    HUANG Tao-zhen YUAN ru-hua
    2000, 55 (s1):  143-149.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1021
    Abstract ( 447 )   PDF (424KB) ( 385 )   Save
    Countering the environment of physical geography and the characteristic of hydrologic meteorology for Taihu basin, we have analyzed the influence of abnormal climate on water resources. Besides them, we have inquired into floods and droughts that were made by abnormal climate. On the base of these, we have studied the influence level brought about by abnormal climate on social economic, so we have advanced appropriate countermeasure.
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    Strategies against Impacts of Abnormal Climate on Key Project
    SUN Leng HUANG Chao-ying
    2000, 55 (s1):  150-156.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1022
    Abstract ( 426 )   PDF (460KB) ( 320 )   Save
    The impacts of unusual climate on key project and their strategies are studied in this paper. Main conclusions are as follows: Abnormal climate, with occurrence in the form of climate disasters or extreme climate events, is threatening the key project. However, the climate disasters with the features of many kinds, high frequency, regional and seasonal distribution, widespread area affected and large economic losses impact on key project in varied scope and extent. It is an effective way to study the impacts of abnormal climate on key project by establishing the meteorological preparedness system. Five aspect contents need to be studied, including the research on impacts of abnormal climate on key project in the stage of designing, construction and operation, and the research on measurements and integrated assessment of the impacts. Measurements and strategies are also one of the important division of climate change sciences. Finally, Administrative strategies in & aspects such as legislation, education and service are given. And technological strategies directly against each stage of key project are probed in this research.
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    Assessment and Countermeasures Study on Reducing the Impact of Climate Abnormally on Transportation System
    CHAO Qing-chen
    2000, 55 (s1):  157-162.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1023
    Abstract ( 468 )   PDF (364KB) ( 386 )   Save
    Climate abnormally has significant impact on each period of transportation systems, from line surveying, designing, construction and operation. So, itis of momentous significance to make thorough investigations and studies on theimpact mechanism of climate abnormally on transportation systems and put out perfect proposal to mitigate the impacts. Due to the different meteorological and geographical condition in each area, theresponse of each transport to abnormal climate is different. It is necessary toestablish a set of analysis and assessment system of forecasting, defense or reducing of abnormal climate. The system includes three parts: a] the forecasting model of possible burst of climate disaster; b] the judging model of order of climate disaster seventy; and c] the analysis model of transportation system safety. According to this system, the impact of abnormal climate on transport is to be overall given. In order to reduce the impact of abnormal climate, the establishment of unified system to coordinate and manage is suggested. The system contains six parts: a] the command system of transport defending climate disaster, hi the forecasting system of abnormal climate, c] the construction system of transport infrastructure, d] the rescuing and mediating system of disaster or accident, e] the insurance system of providing disaster relief, and f] the database of transport defending and reducing climate disaster. In view of different transport, the countermeasures on people, transport means and line environment to improve the ability of defending and reducing abnormal climate are respectively suggested.
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    Predicting Model for Direct Economic Losses Caused by- Climate Abnormality
    WANG Shou-rong, YANG Xin, DA Qing-li, HAN Yong
    2000, 55 (s1):  163-168.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1024
    Abstract ( 581 )   PDF (378KB) ( 444 )   Save
    In order to enhance the pre- assessment of disaster reduction, a statistic predicting model is developed for simulating direct economic losses caused by climate abnormality. The model consists of time sequential term T(t), climate abnormality impact term P (t) and random variation term S (t). After parameter adjustment with statistic data, the model is run for the economic simulation losses from 1989 to 1999. The simulated results are quite consistent with the observed ones (R2: 0. 9847, F: 150.45). The economic losses in 2000 are predicted by. using the model with different SAAO/ GDPPI. In terms of the prediction results. the economic losses in 2000 will be higher than the ones in 1999. If the investment ratio of agriculture and disaster reduction, SAAO/ GDPPI, increases, the economic losses caused by climate abnormality would decrease by a wide. margin.
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    Impacts of Climate Abnormality on Dust Devil in North China and Countermeasures
    ZOU Xu-kai, Wang Shou-rong, Lu Jun-tian
    2000, 55 (s1):  169-176.  doi: 10.11821/xb2000S1025
    Abstract ( 467 )   PDF (491KB) ( 515 )   Save
    s: The evolvement tendency of dust devil in North China was analyzed and the mechanism for the formation of dust devil was discussed in this article. In 2000 spring, the dust weather occurred frequently in North China. The impacts of climate abnormality on that was studied by using the data of temperature and precipitation from 1951 to 2000. To mitigate the negative influence of dust devil on soot--economic sustainable development, it is important to carry on scientific research on dust devil, and develop a system to monitor and predict dust devil. It is concluded that the damage of dust devil can be mitigated by taking some steps to prevent the worsen conditions of desert area through scientific methods.
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