Table of Content

    15 December 1999, Volume 54 Issue s1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    He Daming, Liu Changming, Yang Zhifeng
    1999, 54 (s1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (114KB) ( )   Save
    It is ranked in the front among the countries in the world that China owns a lot of international rivers andrich transboundary water resources.The reasonable utilization and coordinated management of internationalrivers affect the sustainability of about 1/3 territory land, the regional international cooperation of China with15 neighborly countries along the 2.2 x 104 km border, and the life of about 3.0 billion people in 19 ripariancountries (including China).There are more than 40 internr-tional rivers (lakes) in China, in which the tranboundary run-off is occu-pied by 40% of the tola! runoff of China. Each year, there are about 400 x 108 m water flowing out of Chinainto the neighbor countries. They could be classified into two basic types; the contiguous watercourses andsuccessive watercourses. The former concentrates in northeast part of China. The later distribute in northwestand southwest parts of China. Their natural, social, and economic conditions are oolite different each other.Since 1980s, the international river basins have been the major area of international regional cooperationof China with its neighbor countries. For example, the multilateral cooperation of economy and technology inTumen River area is related China, Russia, Mogolia, North Korea, South Korea and Japan; it is facilitatedby UNDP with total investment of US $ 40 billion.Many great international rivers in Asia originate in Qinhai-Tibet plateau and Yuiuian plateau, where iscalled as "Asian’s Water Tower. "The protection and conservation of the ecological environments is very im-portant to China, southeast Asia, south Asia, and West Asia.In order to facilitate the sustainable development of international rivers in the world, there are manypractical approaches to use.(1) Sharing approach. Based on the limited rights, riparian countries purchase the common benefits eachother through cooperative develpment and coordinated management of sharing international rivers.(2) Establishing the institutions of both international and national multi-level cooperation to coordinate the allactions of development and management in river basin area.(3) Integrated development and management in basin-wide.(4) Track-two diplomatic approach, Scientists or experts or scientific working group plays a very importantrole in faciliating information exchanges, knowledge, joint researches, and compromise of confilict mul-tiobjectives among riparian countries.(5) Development in river basin’s with complement of development beyond the basin. The competitive objectsshould be coordinated in a wide scope.(6) Participatory approach.
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    Liu Tianchou, Qimeiduoji
    1999, 54 (s1):  11-20.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (852KB) ( )   Save
    Qinghai - Tibet Plateau is major sources of many great rivers in Asia, such as Yangtse River and theYellow River in China, and some important international rivers as Mekong, Salween, Brahmaputra, Indi-an, Irrawaddy, and Ganges.Here is characterized by the highest elevation in the world; rich sunshine; and quite low temperature.These factors vary greatly between different regions in the same latitude in China.The precipitation and runoffis different between different areas and years. Hie forms of surface streamflow feed include precipitation feed,groundwater feed, and snowmelt feed.The sediment concentration is relatively lower and the water quality isgood.With the global trend of regional integrated economic development, it will benefit the Sustainability ofthe reparian countries, that the international rivers in Tibet are developed comprehensrively and coordinately,for supplying the high guality hydropower energy and water resources.
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    Tang Qicheng, Li Lijuan
    1999, 54 (s1):  21-28.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (414KB) ( )   Save
    There are many international rivers in northwest China, but main rivers are three; Ertis River, Di Riverand Akesu River. All of them are located in Xinjiang. Their common characteristics of water resources arerich of water, high diversity of river recharge, annual runoff with low Cv between years but varied greatly ina year. Based on its water resources, natural and economic conditions of the region, Ertis River should devel-op livestock husbandry as a main estate. Livestock, commercial grain products base shold be esthblished inDi River basin for Xinjiang and whole China, to form an industrial system of fabrics of wool and flax, leatherprocessing. In Akesu River, superiority should be given to establish cotton (special for plush cotton), food(special for high quality rice) base. Meanwhile, for sustainable development, people should pay great atten-tion to balanced ecological system and scial ?economic development. For this purpose, part of water re-sources should be served for ecological use and to build an artificial oasis economical system in the region.
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    He Daming, Yang Ming, Feng Yan
    1999, 54 (s1):  29-37.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (434KB) ( )   Save
    The major big international rivers and its transboundary water resources concentrate on southwest China,mainly in Yunnan Province. Yunnan province owns five big international rivers out of its six big rivers. Itstransboundary water resources is very plentiful. The annual average run-off flowing into the neighbor countriesis up to 2 230 x108m3 , which occupies about 60% of the annual outflow to other countries in China. Thetransboundary water resources is very important for the sustainability to the broad areas of Southwest Chinaand lower riparian countries of Cambodia, Laos, Myamar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Especially, it benefits tothe development for agriculture, hydropower generation, navigation, and bio-diversity conservation in theseareas.Because of the control and interaction from Southeast monsoon and Southwest monsoon in Yunnanprovince, the water resource changes a lot in both time and space. The annual mean water quantity yieldingin Yunnan province, for example, is 517 x ICr m in Lancang River basin (the upper Mekong), 472 x 108m3 in Red River basin, 280 x 108 m3 in Lu River basin (upper Salween River), and 263 x 108 m3 in Irrawad-dy River basin. Simultaneously, the annual mean outflow to the neighbour countries of these rivers is sepa-rately 771.9 x 108m3, 489.6 x 108m3, 701.6x108m3, and 358..3 x 1088m3. So, its objectives of develop-ment and management are quite different among each river basin.In the past period of planning economic system, the reasonable utilization and coordinated managementof transboundary water resources has seldom been studied in China. Now, it is faced on many problems: allsituated to the lower development levels and existing in a great difference between each other; no clear re-source rights at different levels from central government and local government to the villages; and no enoughcommon data for using.The whole Yunnan Pn>vince has been included in The Greater Lancang - Mekong Subregional EconomicCooperation (GMS) since 1992. The reasonable utilization of water resources in international river basin is akey factor for the international cooperative development and management of the transboundarv water re-sources. As the international rivers flow in the way from the north to the south, the social, economic, andenvironment conditions related water resources are quite different along its flowing trips. In order to obtain thecomplementary development, each river should be handled as a unit. All objectives and problems related tothe competitive utilization and conservation of water resources should be compromised and soluted in basin -wide level.
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    He Daming, Gou Junhua, Hsiang - te Kung
    1999, 54 (s1):  38-46.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (600KB) ( )   Save
    The competitive utilization, conflict and solution of water resources in international rivers /lakes has al-ready attracted the widely concern from the international communities, and it will become a major factor deal-ing with the sustainable development of human societies and avoiding of the regional conflicts. In Africa andAsia, where the distribution of international rivers concentrates, the competitive utilization and conflict of thetrans boundary freshwater resources will be serious in the future.Towards the 21st century, the major factors, which cause such competitive utilization and conflict, willbe the rapid growing of economy and population in Asia and Africa; the increase of trans boundary regional e-conomic cooperation; the protection and conservation of the global biodiversity, the trend of the global sus-tainability; the lack of snaring freshwater resources in the world, and the global changes of climate and theincrease of its uncertainty. Among them, the key major factor is the rapid growing of population. In 1990, forexample, there are 18 countries with lower than 1 000 m annual water supply per person in the world. But to2025, this number will go up to 30 caused by only the population increase.The conflicts or disputes of snaring freshwater among riparian countries resources possibly appear inthose international river basin areas as follows; (1) Jordan River between Israel and Palestine; (2) the NileRiver among the riparian countries of Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia; (3) the Tigris- Euphrates River amongSyria, turkey, and Iraq; (4) the Ganges River between India and Bangladesh; (5) the Mekong River amongThailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam; (6) the Aral Sea among Afganistan, Iran, and the countries di-vorced from the former Soviet Union; , and the Evros/Maritza between Greece and Albania.There are approaches for us to solute these conflicts: (1) Signing agreement and establishing coordinateinstitution based on the international laws or the international cases; (2) through the implementation of inte-grated development and management of river basins, the objects of water resource utilization could be coordi-nated with those of other resources; (3) the conflicts of water resources could be solved in the wider scope bymeans of application of new theory or technology.
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    He Daming, Hsiang - te Kung, Gou Junhua
    1999, 54 (s1):  47-54.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (577KB) ( )   Save
    China ranks in among front row countries in the world in terms of number of international rivers and itswater resources quantity. Every year, about 4 000 x 108 m3 run-off goes out of China. The reasonable alloca-tion and equitable utilization of this portion of water resources among China and the lower riparian countrieswill have impacts to the regional cooperation between China and the fifteen neighboring countries as well asthe sustainable development of the nearly one third territory of China.In order to deal with the allocation of international water resources, there are usually three lawful docu-ments to be needed; (1) signing the agreement which certifies the water rights and principles of water alloca-tion; (2) institutions for implementation and monitoring; (3) the technological plans of water allocation (thetechnique agreement) .When we allocate the international water resources, we usually coordinate the conflicts of four major ob-jects of social, economic, environmental and safety. And also, we should fully take account of three majorfactors; (l) the present purposes of water uses; (2) the future purposes of water uses; (3) the priorities ofwater uses.there are often three models of international water allocation; (1) the global allocation; (2) the projectallocation; (3) the integrated basin plan allocation.The first one is to allocate all water resources certified in river basin to all riparian countries according totheir acceptable rules.The second one is to allocate the water resources, which is developed and controlled by a special pro-ject, to those parties related to the project without taking account of the basin - wide comprehensive planningand its global water allocation, The last one is that the treaty parties of river basin area allocate the water re-sources certified in the development planning among them.Which one of these allocation models is the best and should be chosen in practice? It depends on thestatus of development and management of a river, the relationship between riparian countries, and the cooper-ative levels of them. According to the trend of integrated development and coordinated management of riversystem, and for the purposes of sustainable utilization of water resources and the conservation of river’ s eco-logical system, the integrated basin plan allocation model is the best choice.
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    Chen Lihui, He Darning
    1999, 54 (s1):  55-64.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (713KB) ( )   Save
    Reviewing the history of river basin development, it changes from the single objective way to the multi-objective way, and then, to development the river basin in the integrated way is accepted when the people’ srealization improved and the needs for resources increased. This paper concludes the four characteristics ofthe integrated development of the river; the base of integrated idea, the correct realization to the river basin,and the capable organization and community participation. As a case of the Lancang - Mekong River basin,some aspects are analyses to support the view of the integrated development; Firstly, the importance of theriver basin development is put forward; Secondly, favorable condition for cooperation to the riparian countriesare analyses; Tnirdly, it is essential factor to deal with the conflicts of the countries; Fourthly, the reason forthe present problem in resource development is no integrated view; Finally, the pressure on the resources andthe environment in the future also facilitate the integrated development. Furthurmore, author lists aspectswhich is benefit to the future prospect;(1) the beginning of cooperation, dialogue and research;(2) possibility of river basin institution establishing for river basin management;(3) AGREEMENT ON THE COOPERATION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEKONG RIVER BASIN has being passed though as an institutional frame work;(4) to adjust the industrial structure with range of the riparian countries;(5) mutual benefits from individual superiority.At last, some problems for the river basin integrated development is draw up as following;(1) lack of the collection and exchange of the information for the correct realization;(2) limitation of the organization;(3) incapable institution;(4) unreasonable and lower lever of the industrial structure;(5) no compensation to the community which do better to the integrated benefit;(6) unsuitable approach.
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    Chen Cai
    1999, 54 (s1):  65-75.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1009
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    The lower reaches of Tumen River is situated in the central part of Northeast Asia Region where isadjacent to China, Russia and DPRK, and it is the adjoining point of horizontal division and verticaldivision among the regions of Northeast Asia, and it is also the northern starting point of the future newcontinent bridge between Asia and Europe. The port clusters of Russia and DPRK in the area link withthe vast hinterlands of Northeast China, Russian Siberia and Russian Far East closely. Today, theworld economic integration and regional grouping are going continuously, the model of multi - coopera-tion will be the best choice to develop the lower area of Tumen River, and the trans boundary free eco-nomic and trade zone will be the highest regional organization model. So, in order to facilitate thistrans- century project as soon as possible, it is necessary to coordinate geo - economic relations ac-cording to the developing principals of economic region step by step.
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    Li Xiumin, Chen Cai
    1999, 54 (s1):  76-83.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (81KB) ( )   Save
    Northeast China is in the center of Northeast Asia Economic Region. The cooperative development andcoordinate management of its international river is becoming one of the most important parts in the cooperationof Northeast Asia Economic Region. This paper is mainly about the physical conditions, history, present,prospect of cooperative development and coordinate management of the international river in Northeast China,which include Heilong River, Songhua River, Wusuli River, Suifen River, Tumen River, Yalu River, andso on. The models, characters, and potentiality of the cooperative development are also analyzed.With the improvement of the political and economice environments, in Northeast Asia Economic Region,the international cooperation development of these international rivers in the region is going Well. All the ri-porian countries in the region will obtain a lot of complementary benefits through cooperation.
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    Tang Chuan, Zhu Jing
    1999, 54 (s1):  84-92.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (588KB) ( )   Save
    Landslides anddebris flows in Langcangriver basin have the characters of widespread distribution andfrequent occurrence. The navigation construction of hydroelectric power station and reservoir, cities andtowns, as well as mines and farmland in the basin, have been seriously affected. After detailed investigationsin detail in recent years, it has been confirmed that there are more than 490 landslides and 662 debris flowravines in the Laneang Watershed in Yunnan Provience. Among them, about 60% of landslides and debrisflow ravines conceny trates in the middle - lower reaches of Laneang River. Landslides and debris flows inthis area are the result of a complex interaction of geological and geographical environments, and have a vari-ety of causes; weak rocks, rugged topogtaphy, heavy rainfall, and human activities.In order to reduce landslide and debris flow disasters, earth - science technology has been applied wide-ly for the prediction. One of the most important work is hazard zoning of Landslides and debris flows, whichis concerned with establishing the general probability of slope instability and zones of differing grade of threatby evaluating the triggering factors and recorded landsliding. Therefore, hazard zoning of landslides and de-bris flows is significant to provide useful information for different applications, such as planning and construc-tion, as well as stabilization and maintenance in the Laneang River. In this paper the author discussed theapplication of three methods for assessing landslide and debris flow hazards in the study areas. Trie final zona-tion results show that the high hazard area takes up 19.3 % of total study area of 57 530 km2, the middle haz-ard area is 26.2% , and the low 25.8% .
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    You Lianyuan
    1999, 54 (s1):  93-100.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1012
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    Lancang River is one of the most important international rivers in the world.Development and utilizationof its water resources are getting more and more important in recent years. This paper deals with changes ofriver sediments thnough time and the reasons.The main research methods used are as follows: 1) Dividing the Lancang River above in China into threereaches; the upper reach above Jiuzhou, the middle reach between Jiuzhou and Gajiu, and the lower reachbelow Cajiu, then studying and analyzing the change processes of runoff and sediments thnough time and ’cor-relation ship of the sediments to the runoff in each reach respectively. 2) Taking population and total produc-tion value of industry and agriculture as index to show intensity of human activities; at first, to establish cor-relation of population to the total production value, then together with the runoff; to analyze correlation of thetwo to river sediment situation, again in three different river reaches respectively.The results are as follows:(1) Since 1950s, the changes of the runoff with time has maintained basically stable, but the silt con-centration and the sidement discharge modulus increased slowly; Silt concentration at the samedischarge condition increases with time. That is to say, the source of sediment from the basin in-creases also.(2) Comparing the value of sediment discharge modulus of these different river reaches, it is discov-ered that the value of the middle reach is the largest, then the lower reach and the upper reach isthe smallest.(3) There is very good relationship between the population and the total production of industry and a-gricultuie. The correlation coefficients of three different river reaches are 0.893, 0.97 and 0.97respectively. So it is reasonable that the population may take the place of the total value of indus-try and agriculture in studying correlation between river sediment and population growth.(4) Multi - correlation analysis of sediment discharge modulus (Qsm) to population (P) and comingwater volume (Q) shows that the correlations among them are good.So the conclusion is that the coining water volume and intensity of human activities have influences onthe coming sediments from the basin. The later and acceleration erosion, resulted from human activities, aretwo important reason causing the coining sediment and the sediment discharge modulus increase.
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    Tang Haixing
    1999, 54 (s1):  101-109.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1013
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    Lancang-Mekong River is the longest international river in Asia. It flows through China and SoutheastAsia and passes many climate regions as well as geographical units. It is very rich in natural and ecological re-sources . With the economic development of all riparian countries, human activities are causing great impacton the environment.In order to maintain basin-wide sutainable development, the corresponding actions are suggested.Suchas, riparian countries should cooperate each other for integrated development planning and coordinated man-agement and basin-wide environmental protection. With the watershed development and natural resource uti-lization, it is especially necessary to control basin-wide environmental degradation and resource squandering.
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    Fan Yezheng
    1999, 54 (s1):  110-118.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (622KB) ( )   Save
    In the Lancang-Mekong River subregion, the economic cooperation is mainly in two sectors - eneigyand transportation. All of the six countries considered it important to cooperate in the energy sector, becauseall of them will get a lot of interests from the cooperation. The hydropower is richest in Yunnan Province of China, and the next is Myanmar and Lao PDR. The coal resource mainly distributes in Yunnan Province ofChina, Viet Nam, Thailand and Myanmar. The oil and gas of Lancang-Mekong River subregion are mainlystored in Viet Nam, Thailand and Myanmar. The amount of energy demand is decided by the degree of eco-nomic development, the stronger economy is, the more energy demands. So Thailand is certainly the largestenergy consumer while Viet Nam is the second one.After the electricity supply and demand of Thailand and Viet Nam in the future was analyzed in this pa-per, the rational scheme of energy dispatch was gained according to the principle of geographic adjarcencg.
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    Huang Yong
    1999, 54 (s1):  119-126.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (886KB) ( )   Save
    The Lancang River, which is also called Mekong River outside China, is an international river. It is o-riginated in the northern range of Tanggula Mountain Range in Qinghai - Tibet Plateau of China. It runsacross the Indochina peninsula including Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. This basin isabundant in water power and minerals; the most part of this basin are growing tropical rain forest. Meantime,this area has captivating tropical scenery and interesting customs of cultural minority. However, local re-sources are hardly used, so it is one of un developed regions in the world. Up to now, the area has poor com-munication and transportation systems, poor education and low living standards.So, how to boost the development of Lancang River Basin becomes a more and more important project tothe local government. Yunnan provincial government of China has put forward a plan, in which the region a-long Lancang River is an important development zone, and has invested much fund for undertaking investiga-tions of water power, minerals and biological resources, developing international novigation, extending high-way and improving investing conditions. However, exploring resources may bring some side affects, it maydestroy the natural environment, then the disturbed environment can make harm to human.In the world, there also have some rivers with abundant resources. We should summarize the experi-ences and lessons for the development and management of such rivers. Some of them could be used to the de-velopment of Lancang River Basin and to obtain largest economic and ecological benefits.In this paper, the author gives experiences and lessons of world river s development, and then analysesthe beneficial factors and the restrictive conditions of sustainable development of the Lancang River Basin. Fi-nally , the author gives the development model, discusses its sustainable development ways, and the means ofLancang-Mekong River Basin.
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    Li Lijuan
    1999, 54 (s1):  127-132.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (448KB) ( )   Save
    Lancang - Mekong River is an important international river in south - east Asia, which flows through sixcountries. Lancang River Basin is rich in natural resources and wildlife, most part of the basin is the naturalconservation area of rare and endangered animals and plants in China. Hie basin area is still an undevelopedregion at present. However, due to deforestation and pollution from industrial, agricultural and domestic sec-tors, water quality of the river has been deteriovating in resent years.In this paper, the author has analyzed present water quality status of Lancang River both in mainstreamand its tributaries based on the data during 1990-1997. The results have shown that water quality status ofthe river is not good enough although industrial estates are not many in the region. The pollutants of the riverare mainly organic matters. The main pollution sources are wastewater from paper plant, sugar plants, domes-tic wastewater from Dali City and Jinghong City, as well as fertilizers and chemicals from agricultural fields.Heavy metals from Lanping Lead & Zinc Mine and Lancang Lead Mine are main pollutants in the tributaries ofBijiang River and Nanlan River. Water quality of the mainstream is better than its tributaries. It is better indry season than in rainy season in the river.The author thinks that pollution control in the basin should be down as soon as possible to improve waterquality. Some measures should be taken to reach the goal. They are the population control, wastewater treat-ment to reach the emission control standard, water quality monitoring enhancement and so on.
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    Gan Shu, Zhang Jun, Zhang Peifang
    1999, 54 (s1):  133-138.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1017
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    Land cover monitoring based on remote sensing is an effective way to supervise land use condition and itschange in basin-wide comprehensive development. Acquisition of thematic information is important content ofbasin land cover remote sensing monitoring. In order to completely monitor Lancang River basin land coverchanging condition by remote sensing technique in its integrated development, we choosed Puer county as atypical studing sample in Lancang River basin.During the process of sample study, by measuring and drawing multispectral response curve of samplecounty and analysing this multispectral response curve, we can find the responsed differance between themain land cover classification. Based on this, an organizational comprehensive way of monitoring land coverby multistep classification of remote sensing is used. Through all this study, the sample county’s land coverclassification is aquired. Combined with GIS analysis function, more complicated application is possible,such as statistics, query, mapper, dynamic analysis and etc.A number of conclusions can be drawn from this study. But as a sample study, preliminary results indi-cate that, compared with simple pattera recognition such as supervised classification and unsupervised classi-fication , or only completel manual interpretation, the classification outcome in this way has many advantagesand much better classification precision. Especially in mountain area of Lancang River basin, the way ofmonitoring land cover by remote sensing multistep classification based on analysis of multispectral responsecurve is one of the practicable, easy method.
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    Zhang Peifang, He Weiren, He Xiang, Zhang Jun, Li Yimin
    1999, 54 (s1):  139-145.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (402KB) ( )   Save
    Xishuangbanna is a special area in China because of its original tropic rain forest and monsoon forest.With the development of regional economay and society, forest change caused by human action largely affectlocal enviromental condition. This will obstract local social economy development . It also influence the localstability and prosperity. In this project, by integrating technology of CIS and multi - temporal remote sensingimages, using digital map scaled 1:200 000 , taking two temporal periods of satellite remote sensing data assource, combined with field survey and social - economic investigation, the authors try to analyze the forest’sspatial structure types, dynamic change of Xishuangbanna forest in the past 30 years, and try to find the re-sults and causes of the change of spatial distribution pattern of forest.
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    Liu Jiaqi, He Rongfa
    1999, 54 (s1):  146-151.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (707KB) ( )   Save
    Nearly 1980 effective data were obtained through 72 times observation on DO, COD, BOD, NO3--N,NO2--N, NH3-N, Cu2+, Pb2+, Cr6+, T- As and SS in three water periods, namely dry, normal andwet, in four years. After studying 5 monitoring section, optimizing the most representative contrast sectionand exit section, temporal change for various kinds of pollutants is analyzed and control index for nitride is proposed.
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    Huang Guobiao
    1999, 54 (s1):  152-156.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1020
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    The impact of climate change on the river runoff of the international rivers in northeastern China was as-sessed by a monthly water balance model. It is found that the snowmelt process is difficult to simulate, but the calibration and validation result was satisfactory and it was applied to evaluate the response of river runoff to the climate change produced by several GCM models (GFDL, GISS, LLNL, MPI and OSU) . The annualrunoff is changed by - 3.72% to 5.82% , and seasonal variation is even greater.
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    Liu Tianchou
    1999, 54 (s1):  157-164.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1021
    Abstract ( )   PDF (268KB) ( )   Save
    Yalungzangbo River is the upper reach of Brahmaputra River. It s an important international river inChina as well as in Asia. Besides, it’s the highest elevation river in the world, with an basin area of about240 000 km in China and a river length of 2 239 km. Precipitation, snowmelt and groundwater are all sup-ply to the river. Runoff’ s division is charaterized by diversified runoff terrain and vertical stepschanges. Runoff depth changes from 5 000 mm to below 200 mm toward Northwest. Runoff changes are smallin years but large in a year. Trie runoff from June to September takes more than 65% of the total in ayear. The flood of main river has the feature of two-peak figure. The runoff calculated at the border is 150 bil-lion m3, ranks the third following the Yangze River and Pearl River. The sediment of the mainstream is below1.0 kg/m3. But owing to sevre cold and wind in the highest terrain, the bank sand become the sand source ofvalley of windy and sandy landform. It has a low mineral rate with an amount between 40 mg/1 ~ 250 mg/1and total hardness, so that water source of clean and better quality is availabe for industrial, agricultural, andlife water supply. Besides, it’s one of the region which has the lowest water temperature in China.The iceagebegins in winter, and band ice, flowing ice-flower rise much in main river and most of tributaries inYalumgzangbo River, and it’ s daily circle varies clearly.The abundant water energy and natural depositsranks second in China, especially at the big turn in lower reaches it has a big drop.Moreover, a dam withthe most installed capacity in the world could be built there.
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    Feng Yan, He Daming
    1999, 54 (s1):  165-172.  doi: 10.11821/xb1999S1022
    Abstract ( )   PDF (487KB) ( )   Save
    Tlie international water law is guiding activities and theoretic basis of coordinating and managing the de-velopment and utilization of international rivers, is used to coordinate the rights and duties among the coun-tries in developing and utilizing international rivers; the national water law is the rales and policies to managethe development and utilization of water resource, is a law to control and guide the activities of developmentand utilization in the state. In the paper, Combining the present situations of the competing utilization andconflicts in sharing water resource of international rivers, the relationship between the rules and its developingtendency of the international water law is analyzed and the following principles are ansidered necessaryly; eq-uitable and reasonable utilization; obligation not to cause significant harm, general obligation to cooperate;obligation to regular exchange of data and information; obligation to protect and preserve the water resourceand ecosystems, etc.. In the rules of Chinese Water Laws system, it is considered that there are some prob-lems: no strict managing institution; no completed basic rules of developing, utilizing and protecting waterresource; especial lack of the rule to protect aquatic - ecosystem which has close relation with water re-source; To conclude, it is proposed that, in order to strengthen reasonable development, utilization and pro-tection of the sharing water resource of China, and to achieve regional sustainable development, the ChineseWater Law should stipulate clearly the basic rules like the equitable and reasonable utilization, etc., improvemanaging institution, strengthen the planning of integrated river basin development and coordinated manage-ment.
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