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    15 November 1993, Volume 48 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE CHANGE OF REGIONAL INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE REGIONAL GROWTH AND SPECIALIZATION IN CHINA
    Yang Kaizhong
    1993, 48 (6):  481-490.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306001
    Abstract ( 488 )   PDF (552KB) ( 530 )   Save
    Since 1979 , regional industrial structure in China has entered a drastically changing era. In this paper,I have mode a systematic research on the characteristics of the variation and its effect on the regional growth and specialization,and revealed aome rules and trends. They ate mainly as follows:1. In most regions,the variation level of industrial structure is higher than the national level,but because of the differences of per captia income and locational and the structural characteristics in each regions,the variation shower obvious geographic difference. In the South,the East and the West of China , the variation is larger , whereas in the North and the Middle , it is smaller. The variation direction of industrial structure tends to be similar. The status of heavy industry ascended,but the status of mining,raw materials and light industries descended in most of the regions. Regional industry trends to persue higher additional value and the status of heavy processing industry is ascending compared to other processing industries. 2. There is a beneficial structural adjustment in regions such as Guangdong,Jiangsu,Fu jian,Hebei,Anhui,Hunan, Shaanxi,Zhejiang,Gansu,Yunnan and Sichuan during 1980一1990,and these regions have gained economic growth. While the adjustment in other regions is relatively unbenefical,and they have losed economic growth. 3. The status of each region in geographic division of labour is changed with the variation of regional industrial structure. An geographic labour division pattern is preliminarily formed.
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    PAPAEOGEOGRAPHIC STUDY IN THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE NORTHERN SOUTH CHINA SEA DURING THE LAST STAGE OF THE LATE PLEISTOCENE
    Wu Zheng, Feng Wenke, Liao Bingliang, Jin Zhimin
    1993, 48 (6):  491-496.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306002
    Abstract ( 529 )   PDF (1102KB) ( 865 )   Save
    According to the synthetical investigations in geology and geophysics, the results, obtained from the analysis of particle sizes of sediments and mineral composition , quartz grain analysis by scanning electorn microscope,dating 14C and nannofossils,show that: 1. During the last glaciation,most parts of the continental shelf area in the northern South China Sea were land. the climate was cold and arid in the winter. Northeast monsoocn wind prevails during that period. Sand were blown strongly by winds in the continental shelf area and sand dunes were widely distributed. 2. The micro-geomorphological occurrences such as remaining sands,seafloor sand dunes and sand ribbons,were mainly the wind sand and palaeo-sand dunes formed during the low sea level period in the last stage of the Pleistocene. They also were remoulded by the dynamic forces of the modern sea water.
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    SOME THEORETICAL PROBLEMS ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT IN UNDERDEVELOPED REGIONS
    Wang Yiming
    1993, 48 (6):  497-504.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306003
    Abstract ( 462 )   PDF (540KB) ( 439 )   Save
    The expanding economic difference between UR(developing countries)and developed regions (developed countries ) has always been a serious problem that perplexed the development in the world of today. Based on the practical experience from China and the universal principles of regional development,this paper gives an analysis to the particularity of development in UR according to spatial difference ( geographic environmental differentiation ) and temporal process (late development effect). Three prerequisites are presented for the economic leap forward in UR ; deepening the economic and social reform,propelling economy forward through intellectual and technological development,and further opening to the outside world. The author affirms the important role of the effective governmental interventions to the development of UR. It is pointed out that in UR,the targets of regional development should be the permanent improvement of systematic efficiency and the optimization of the benefit at a macro and integrated level. The regional intergtated development strategy suitable to the UR was also advanced,i,e,to combine the development of key sectors with the coordinated development. The omphasis should be the penetration of economic development and the optimum combination between the development of key sectors and coordinated development,according to the specific conditions in different areas and at developmental stages- this is also a key problem in formulating a regional developmental policy for the UR.
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    DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTIC OF SNOW COVER IN WESTERN CHINA
    Li Peiji
    1993, 48 (6):  505-515.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306004
    Abstract ( 465 )   PDF (630KB) ( 617 )   Save
    The dynamic characteristics of spatial distribution,annual cycle and secular variation of seasonal snow cover in western China were investigated by using the best information concerning microwave derived snow depth charts produced by NASA data from SMMR(1978一1987),operational NOAA digitized weekly snow cover extent charts(1973一1987),short wave DMSP imagery(1978一1987),in conjuction with daily snow depth records in 175 ground climate stations covering the period from 1957 through 1987. Of all seasons,winter(dec. ,Jan. and Feb. )has the greatest snow volume and areal extent. It is the most variable season too. Year一to一year variability of snow volume is more prominent than that of snow area. The increase in snow cover area is succeeded by the increase in snow volume during growing progression of snow cover .whereas in decaying phase,the decrease in snow volume is followed by the decrease in snow cover area. The large interannual snow cover anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau are the most ,striking feature. The seasonal progress of snow covet in the Tibetan Plateau is opposite to that in the lowlands. It is characterized by a rapid grow and a slow decline. All generated time series of snow volume,snow cover area,and number of snow covered days by using SMMR snow charts。NOAA snow charts ,and ground station data demostrated that the periods with above normal snow cover have included the late I970s and mid 1980s, while the mid 1970s and early 1980s were on the low side. The years with greatest snow volume and snow cover extent in western China were 1976/1977,1977/1978 and 1985/1986,while winters with the least snows were 1973/1974。1984/1985. There is a clear indication of long term trend in 30一year records over the Tibetan Plateau .increasing with the global warming. Time evolution for the recent 30-year events suggests that both excessive Tibetan snow cover and poor Indian summer monsoon rainfall are mainly result from the global anomalies of oceanic and atmospheric pattern referred as the El一Nino一Southern Oscillation. The eastward excursion of the West Pacific warm pool leads to a poor Indian summer monsoons. The wintertime atmospheric anomalies and the northern hemisphere teleconnection with ENSO events bring more snowfall on the Tibetan Plateau. Empirical and modeling studies indicate that snow cover over the Tibetan Plateau plays a significant role in seasonal atmospheric conditions. Our study fails to confirm the widely-accepted view. Perhaps,the fact is that the dearth of snow cover limits the snow-albedo effect and snow-hydrological effect on climate. The implication of these results for the Ice Age issues are also briefly discussed.
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    IMPACTS OF SEA LEVEL RISE ON COASTAL EROSION IN THE CHANGJIANG DELTA AND NORTH JIANGSU COASTAL PLAIN
    Ji Zixiu, Jiang Zixun, Zhu Jiwen, Yang Guishan
    1993, 48 (6):  516-526.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306005
    Abstract ( 678 )   PDF (759KB) ( 781 )   Save
    At present,approximately 30% of coasts are experiencing net erosion in the Changjiang Delta and the North Jiangsu coastal plain. Future sea level rise will accelerate the process of coastal erosion. According to the ratio of the calculated value of coast retreat by Bruun rule to the estimated value by using measured data,the proportion affected by sea level rise in total coastal erosion has been estimated in this paper. When sea level rises 20cm,the proportion determined by sea level rise will increase from 1.0% at present to 2. 2%in the future in the coasts of the Abandoned Yellow River Delta and from 8. 5%一9. 6%to l 3. 5%一15. 2%in the north and south coasts of the Changjiang Delta. This result is lower than that from the similar research in the world,and this phenomenon is related with the special development process of the coasts in this area. In the coasts of the Abandoned Yellow River Delta,coastal erosion is due to the sediments deficiency since the Yellow River returned to its north route in 1855,but in the coasts of the Changjiang Delta,there are rich in sediments,coastal erosion is mainly due to strong hydrodynamic action. Judged by the range of near-future sea level rise,sea level rise will not become a controlled factor of coastal erosion in this area. The mechanism of accelerating coastal erosion by sea level rise is that sea level rise will increase the intensity of tidal current,wave and storm surge and decrease the ability to reduce the force of waves on the tidal flat and coastal wetland due to the loss of their areas. Therefore ,the length of erosion coasts will increase,the sedimentation rate of accretion coasts will decrease or even turn accretion into erosion,the width of tidal flat will reduce and coastal slope will increase. So the project of coastal protection of this area must be reinforced.
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    IMPACTS ON SEA LEVEL RISING ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ZHUJIANG DELTA AND COUNTERMEASURES
    Li Pingri, Fang Guoxiang, Huang Guangqing
    1993, 48 (6):  527-534.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306006
    Abstract ( 576 )   PDF (515KB) ( 993 )   Save
    The natural environmental characters of the Zhujiang Delta are:1. The area is crisscrossed by waterways and many outlets. 2. Rivers and sea water act alternately. 3. The area has very low altitudes,almost half of the delta area is below+ 0. 9m Zhujiang Datum(mean sea level in the mouth of Zhujiang)and 803. 65km2 of the delta area (or 12. 99% of the delta plain)is below Zhujiang Datum. The economic environmental characters of the Zhu}iang delta are:1. A number of important commercial centers lies within the delta area which has high population densities and intense economic activity. 2. It is close to Hongkong and Macao,and is the biggest native place of overseas Chinese. 3. It has important external trading ports. The possible physical, social and economic effects of future sea level rise are considerable. The average rate of sea level rise along the coast of Guangdong(in the past 100 years) is 2. 19mm/a,and 2. 31mm/a in the past several decades,4. 8mm/a in the last decade and 9. 7mm/a in the last three years in the Zhujiang Delta. The acenario of sea level rise for the next 50 years is 50一60cm. It is a great threat on the delta. The immediate harmfulness from sea level rise will be:1. A large area would be submerged. About 1500km2(23. 76%of the delta plain ) will be submerged,if the sea level rise 0. 4m. 2. Many important commercial centers,such Guangzhou,Fushan,Zhuhai, Zhongshan,Jiangmen,Dongguan, Panyu and Shunde,will suffer from the threat of flood. 3. Many impotant economic facilities and factories will be hit by flood. Also it will cause the increase in the investment in capital construction,increase the strength and frequency of the incidence of storms especialy storm surges,increase flood level,raise the salty table of water enter,and threat the agriculture. All this will postpone the economic development. We have to do some researches on the impacts of sea level rise on each city in the Zhujiang Delta,rearrange rationally the distribution of macroeconomics,investigate the land use program work out a appropriate national economic plan to suit the rising of sea level,reconsider the environment construction standard,and do some researches on the water transportation , channel evolution,and the environment for water supply and drainage in advance.
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    RESEARCH ON MAP COMPUTER COLOR MODEL (MCCM)
    Liu Shulou, Chen Baowen, Shi Zuhui, Lu Feng, Wang Ce, Han Peijun, Liu Bing
    1993, 48 (6):  535-543.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306007
    Abstract ( 356 )   PDF (687KB) ( 424 )   Save
    Research on MCCM includes the formulation of printing color standards of applied color chart,Screen reproduction of color standards and printing restoration,expert system of color design and etc. Through the crucial techniques and technical difficulties,the paper depends on the principle of chromatics and experimental analysis to explain exactly the general concept that the range of RGB colors on screen is more than that of printing colors. It not only accounts theoretically for the erroneous phenomena which are produced when printing color standards are reproduced on screen,but also solves the technical problems which longly exist in the research for screen reprodution and printing restoration of printing color standards.
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    DESIGN AND COMPILATION OF URBAN GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPS IN CHONGQING CITY
    Diao Chengtai
    1993, 48 (6):  544-551.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306008
    Abstract ( 556 )   PDF (489KB) ( 431 )   Save
    Urban geomorphological mapping the important method in landform studies and for urban construction. The author approaches the design and compilation of urban geomorphological maps of urban landforms in Chongqing:1)On the basis of the detailed study and the purpose of the maps,urban geomorphological maps are designed at a large scale in Chongqing. Base maps for mapping are at the scale of 1:10000 and the compiled maps are at the scale of 1:50000;2)Urban geomorphological maps are divided into series maps of basic ones and applied ones,and are composed of several thematic maps. In the basic maps the geomorphological elements were taken as mapping objects,and in the applied maps special uses were taken as mapping objects. In general,the appplied maps are compiled by mathematical syntheses on several basic maps;3)A grid method is used in mapping. According to urban landforms and needs of the city,0. 04kmz (200m X 200m)is fixed for the area of a mapping unit,and the mapping region is divided into 3732 mapping units in Chongqing. The thematic maps are compiled after various data were mathematically treated for each mapping unit;4)The mapping in Chongqing City indicates that cruxes to compile basic maps lie in the extraction of data and the determination of classificatory indices,and the keys to compile applied maps lie in the scientific quality of mathematical synthesizing and synthetic indices.
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    AN STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF EARTH SURFACE CHANGE ON CLIMATE
    Lin Xianchao, Yin Siming, Li Kerang
    1993, 48 (6):  552-562.  doi: 10.11821/xb199306009
    Abstract ( 759 )   PDF (624KB) ( 340 )   Save
    In this paper,from the thermatic energy equation,water vapour conservative equation and the empirical relation between precipitation and water vapour as well as relative humidity, under the hypothesis that large scale circulation condition is not affected by earth surface change,the energy processes in atmosphere and earth surface is parameterized without considering the feedback effect of water vapour and temperature on radiative absorption,and a explicit relation between the change of temperature and rainfall in 'd region which is induced by the variation of albedo and Bowen ratio on the earth surface is finally established. For the North China plain with a linear scale about 550km,the results of a sensitive experiment indicate that if earth surface turned from current state to a desert,annual average temperature would increase 2. 14℃,and yearly rainfall would reduce 536. lmm,i. e. yearly rainfall would be 62. 5mm at that time. On the other hand,if the North China Plain were all covered with forests,the annual average temperature would almost not change ,and yearly rainfall would increase 21. 2mm.
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