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Table of Content

    15 January 1989, Volume 44 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    LOESS-PALAEOSOIL AND CLIMATIC CHANGES ON SOUTH-ERN LOESS PLATEAU IN LATE PLEISTOCENE
    Huang Chunchang
    1989, 44 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (647KB) ( )   Save
    A detailed subdivision is made in the Late Pleistocene loess-palaeosoil on Southern Loess Plateau in this paper. By means of stratigraphical structure, sporopollen analysis and geoche-mical analysis in the loess strata, we recognize six stages of vegetation, soil and climatic changes as well as loess-palaeosoil which belong to thiec climatic cycles, each with a duration of about 40000 years. Meanwhile, comparing with the different Palaeoclimatic records of Northern Hemisphere, three climatic cvcles recorded on Southern Plateau seem universal in Northern Himisphere.
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    MAPPING OF SOIL BACKGROUND CONTENT IN BEIJING AREA
    Li Tmgfang, Liu Baoyuan
    1989, 44 (1):  11-21.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (709KB) ( )   Save
    Mapping of soil background content in Beijing area is comprehensively and systematically presented in this paper. Basic data in mapping soil background content has 302 analytical data of soil elements and regional distribution which are mapped with computer plotting and factor analysis. The soil background content map is in statistic form and divided into grades; Criteria for dividing grades are parent rock in mountains and soil parent material and soil texture in plain area. Counties and districts are used as mapping units. Significant test is used by dividing grades of background content Maximum values of statistic error of background content in soil is mercury element in brown earth and cha soil, 18.4% and 12.9% respectively: All others are below 10%.
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    A STUDY ON THE SOURCE AND QUANTITY OF SEDIMENT AT THE YANGTZE RIVER ESTUARY
    Lin Chengkun
    1989, 44 (1):  22-31.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (636KB) ( )   Save
    According to the regional geologic and physiographic characteristics and their effect on minerals composition of sediment, the sources of the sediment at: the Yangtze River Estuary can be divided into 3 supplying regions, namely, the Yangtze River upstream of Jiangyin (x1), the abandoned Yellow River Delta at the north of Jiangsu Province (x2) and the Hangzhou Bay (x3). The converging region is the Yangtze River Estuary (y). Sampling sites have been set up at the supplying regions and in the converging region. Based on evaluations of heavy minerals and clay minerals, the author holds that mineralogical characters of sediment of the Yangtze River Estuary are governed by the geologic and physiographic conditions of the supplying regions. According to the principle of equilibrium of sediment load, equations of the heavy mineral or the clay mineral classification are presented. By means of least square method, a normal equation for calculating the converging percentages from all the supplying regions is give below: [aa]x1+[ab]x2+…+[at]xm=[ay] [ab]x1+[bb]x2+…+[bt]xm=[by] [at]x1+[bt]x2+…+[tt]xn=[ty] Where ,they are the coeffcients related to heavy minerals or clay minerals, By which the converging percentage of each of the supplying regions is calculated. The result of calculation shows that over 92.1% of silt and fine sand, 94.6% of clay sediment, come from the Yangtze River. The research shows that most sediments are deposited in the Yangtze River Estuary, the remainder to be transported to the southeast. As the converging percentage of the Yangtze River upstream (x1) is known and the total amount of sediment supply from Datong Station is also known (475.00 million tons per year), the amount of sediment at the Yangtze River Estuary is computed, which is 460.50 million tons per year. This numerical value agrees quite well with the value of 460.10 million tons per year by comparing with the topographic map of the Yangtze River Estuary in 1915 and in 1963.
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    CHARACTERISTIC INDEX AND STATISTICAL MODEL OF SEDIMENT YIELD IN SMALL DRAINAGE BASINS OF LOESS PLATEAU IN CHINA
    Yin Guokang, Chen Qinluan
    1989, 44 (1):  32-46.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (859KB) ( )   Save
    On the basis of extensive field investigation, the paper incorporates and analyses over 4000 observation data including 21 variables in 1954- 1982, which come from 58 small watersheds with basin area from 0.193km2 to 329km2 located in three pro-vinces (Figure 1.). A few findings are obtained:1. An effect of runoff and its rate on sediment yield is much more obvious than that of rainfall and its intensity. Analysis indicates that the relation between mo-ludus of total volume of runoff Mw (m3/km2) and that of sediment yield Ms(m3/ km2) during a single flood may be expressed as Ms~Mw1.5 and that the relation between modulus of total volume of runoff during all of annual flood series producing sediment and that of annual sediment yield Msa(m3/km2) may also be expressed as Msa~Mwa1.5Considering runoff rate, i. e. the modulus of peak discharge during a minute Mq (m3/km2) and the annual mean modulus of peak discharge during a minute for each of annual flood series Mq(m3/km2), the relations between modulus of sediment yield Ms, Msa and the composite factors (Mw + Mq), (Mwa + Mq) may respectively be expressed as Ms~(Mw+Mq)1.5 Msa~(Mwa+Mq)1.5 And they all have better correlation coefficients.2. Characteristic factors of watersheds surface influencing sediment yield are mainly relief ratio Rh, ruggedness number Dh, basin elongation Re, regulation range (including the amount of vegetative cover) Rp and resistance of ground layer to erosion and permeability Rs. With the observation data from 58 of small catchmentbasins of loess region in China (Table 4.), two regression equations can therefore be derived, in which Msa/Mwa1.5=0.26772Rh0.586*Re-0.560*Dh-1.418*Rp-0.703*Rs-3.864 Msa/Mwa=16.6188Rh0.548*Re-0.486*Dh-0.719*Rp-0.809*Rs-4.509 3. In view of the fact that basin elongation Re is directly related to relief ratio of catchment basin Rh, the variable Re may therefore be omitted. And the exponent values in regression equations can suitably be modified. Thus, a composite index of basin surface characteristics is given as follows:I=Rh0.6*Dh0.2*Rp-0.8*Rs-3.5 In order for both sides of equation to be nondimensional number, and from the data of 58 small catchment basins shown in table 4, an equation may be expressed as follows:Msa/Mwa=31.82910.83 It is, in effect, a model of sediment yield, which represents the general relationship among the regime of runoff, basin surface characteristics and sediment yield. It is possible that as quantitative basis classifying erosion regions and as a model predicting sediment yield in small watershed with macroscopic approach, it can be employed.4. From Figure 4 it may roughly be seen that the composite index I values of surface characteristics for various basins with different erosion intensity can be given as follows: I value‰ Erosion intensity >20 Very high 4-2 0 High 1-4 Medium 0.5一1 Low <0.5 Very low
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    SERIES WATER QUALITY MODELS OF RIVER NETWORK IN SUZHOU CITY
    Gao Weizhen
    1989, 44 (1):  47-56.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (561KB) ( )   Save
    Non-static series water quality models of Suzliou’s River Network are proposed in this paper by means of water quality prediction for the purpose of integrated control of water pollutionin Suzhou City. The models inclode the following ones:1. "Water quality model of network water body" to predict seasonal variations of water quality in Suzhou’s network water body;2. "Water quality model of different river reaches" to predict spatial variations of water quality in different river reaches;3. "Water quality model of river network" to predict hourly variations of water quality in different sections of the river network.The accuracy of these models has been proved to be satisfactory. Simulation and prediction of water quality in this network have been carried out as well.
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    A STUDY ON THE GRADE TYPES AND STRUCTURE FEAT-URE OF INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
    Liang Rencai
    1989, 44 (1):  57-67.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (750KB) ( )   Save
    Industrial regions form an important part of the state economic region system and are the most basic units of production territory in the combination system of industrial production territory. They are the results of the concentration of industrial productive forces caused by the interaction of various factors on each other within a certain geographic range. The formingof industrial regions nevertheless is related to the fact that the development of industries within a range of territory of certain scale enjoys the priority.Based on the size of territorial scope and the characteristics of the system of production territory formed in fact, industrial regions can be defined in the following 3 grade types: (1) industrial regions of Grade One (great industrial zones); (2) industrial regions of Grade Two (main industrial districts); (3) industrial regions of Grade Three (basic industrial districts). Industrial regions of different grade types possess respectively different structure features.Industrial regions are the system of grades with multiple types and levels, within whichthe regions of the lower level form part of the higher level while the regions of the higher level are based on those of the lower level. Both the regions of the higher level and those of the lower level have very close internal links with each other during the process of industrial development.Industrial regions, when being constructed, not only should have their own regional characteristics but meanwhile should have a reasonable structure of production. In order to achieve this, the enterprises within the industrial regions must be reasonably combined.
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    CHANGE OF RURAL ECONOMIC STRUCTURE, TRANSFORMA-TION OF SURPLUS RURAL LABOR FORCES AND URBANIZATION IN NANTONG COUNTY, JIANGSU PROVINCE
    Zeng Zunga, Yu Caipin
    1989, 44 (1):  68-76.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (502KB) ( )   Save
    In this artical a case study of Nantong County is carried out to illustrate the current rural changes in China. Some conclusions are drawn from detailed analysis of changing rural economic structure, occupational transformation and spatial movement of surplus rural labor forces and urban development in this county.1. Up to now, rural industry has made the biggest contribution to rural development in more developed parts of China. One major problem to be solved is the coordinate development of industry and agriculture, and the important measure is to expand those categories of rural industry, which are closely related to agricultural production.2. Currently, a great amount of surplus rural labors is continuously released from agriculture. However, due to restriction by existing socioeconomic conditions the occupational transformation is not always accompanied by their spatial movement, and the process of urbanization is delayed. It is only the appearance of the present stage. With the improvement of socioeconomic conditions rural-urban movement of labors will gradually increase and process of urbanization will be accelerated.3. The accelerated rural-urban movement and urbanization will not only help land agglomeration and agricultural development, but also promote regional economic development through further growth of secondary sector. For this reason, more attention should be paid to the development of existing small towns in rural area, as well as several rural settlements with greater industrial potential.4. Until recently, the rural tertiary sector has lagged far behind the demands of commodity production and exchange for it. The accelerated development of this sector will help a lot to further transformation of surplus rural labors and to urban development.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ZHUHAI CITY
    Cai Renqun
    1989, 44 (1):  77-85.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (691KB) ( )   Save
    Zhuhai, just like Shenzhen, is a new city developing rapidly. It was originally a small fishing village on the Pearl River mouth. Since it was established as a spepcial economic zone in 1980, its geographic advantages of connecting with Macao and Hong Kong has been obvious and its manufacturing industry and tourism industry have been rapidly developing. A new outlook has appeared for the city.For its further development, industry and export should be taken as its major economic structure. To fulfill this purpose, chief measures are: to strive to develop light manufacture, especially food processing and electronic industry; to develop a local special tourism by utilizing its beautiful coastal environment and the location adjacent to Macao and Hong Kong; to use its more than 20,000 hectare tidal flat to set up agricultural export bases; to build the highway between Guangzhou and Zhuhai into a speedway, a medium-sized international airport shared by both Zhuhai and Macao as well as a dock.The relationship between Zhuhai and Macao must be well treated. Cooperation of them should cover on industry, commerce, tourism as well as other aspacts. They should cooperate to construct the infrastructures such as water supply, airport, deepwater harbour, speedway, and even jointly to exploit Wanzai district.
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    A NEW EXAMINATION ON THE FLOWING AREA OF YU GONG JIUHE (NINE TRIBUTARIES)
    Zhang Shuping, Zhang Xmgui
    1989, 44 (1):  86-93.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (461KB) ( )   Save
    In the Yu Gong period, there were two major branches in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, the northern one was Yu Gong River (the Yellow River written in the book Yu Gong), the northeast one was one of branches of Hanzhi River (the Yellow River written in the geography chapter of Hanshu). Each of the two major branches formed a tributary system that is, the Jizhou Jiuhe and the Yanzhou Jiuhe.The Jiuhe, explained in Erya, was the Yanzhou Jiuhe and was the same as described in Hanzhi. It was located in the triangle area from Gaotang, Huanghua to Lijing. The Jizhou Jiuhe, written in Yu gGong, was located in the area from Shenxian, Huanghua to Tianjing, Rongcheng. The two different Jiuhe have been Jumbled ever since the Erya period.The disappearance of ancient Baiyangdian Lake was caused by the depositing of the silt transported by the Yu Gong Yellow River. The Yu Gong Yellow River has been choked with silt already in the later stage of the Warring States.
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    PRACTICE ON MAPPING AND CODING OF ITUM OF TENGCHONG
    Dai Xu
    1989, 44 (1):  94-100.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (431KB) ( )   Save
    The method of Integrated Terrain Unit Mapping (ITUM) has been developed quickly in the world. ITUM is one of the important bases of computer mapping and geographicanalysis. It will increase greatly the capability of synthetical and quantitative analysis. The emphasis of the present article is placed on the introduction of this approach with Tengchong area as an example.
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    A DISCUSSION ON POLYFOCAL PROJECTION
    Wu Zhongxing
    1989, 44 (1):  101-104.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (225KB) ( )   Save
    One of (he current requirements on some maps is that the projection center has a larger scale and the margin has a smaller one. The difference in scale may be as large as several limes, with the aim of achieving more detailed representation of the ground objects which are near the projection center. To solve this problem, some authors worked out radial- changing scale projection, i.e., the scale changes radially from the projection center going all around. This paper gives a description of this projection on this basis, than deals with polyfocal projection in which the scales change radially from respective projection centers, which are mere than one, going all around, thereby leading to a belter represcntetion of the varying details of ground objects according to their distances from the projection centers. The principle and the process of effecting this projection are the same as the redial-changing scale projection.
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    A STUDY OF ANISOTROPIC DIFFUSE RADIATION ON COMPLEX TERRAINS
    Wang Hao
    1989, 44 (1):  105-116.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (341KB) ( )   Save
    Anisotropic model for calculating diffuse radiation on complex terrains is presented in this paper. There is slight difference between calculated values and observed data.Two parameters of the present model ,independent of terrains, only depending on the scattered materials in atmosphere column with solar beam past through, are of regularity. Present model may be used not only for calculating diffuse radiation fluxes on varied slopes, but also for extending short-term field observed data.
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    GEOGRAPHY AND POLICY RESEARCH IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
    Wu Qiutao, Wang Weifeng
    1989, 44 (1):  111-117.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (469KB) ( )   Save
    In regional development, geography should not restrict its applied studies to comprehensive survey, regionalization and planning. It should also take part in policy research and play a role of brain trust.It is very important for geographers to make policy research in regional development: (1) Promoting planning -implementation; (2) Raising the status of geography in social practice; (3) Improving the academic level of geography; (4) Strengthening the rationality of policy.Geographers Can make policy research in two aspects. First, evaluating the effects of policy and predicting its positive and negative influences in the future. Second, putting forward specific suggestions for policy-makers to modify the present policy and formulate a new one.The policy in regional development has the basic features of localizability, phasibility, and relative stability.Geography should focus on the comprehensive policies related to natural, economic and social factors, such as resources exploitation and utilization policy, environmental protection policy, and production allocation policy.
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    THE STATE AND TRENDS IN CIS
    Liang Qizhang
    1989, 44 (1):  117-121.  doi: 10.11821/xb198901016
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    Geographical information system as a new and advanced technology system has been used in the area of spatial information processing for more than ten years, This paper discusses the state and problems of GIS and than suggests the following six aspects of development trends;1. Spatial relations theory2. The application of artificial intelligence and development of expert system3. Data aggregation and generalization4. Exploratory data analysis5. Data basa queries6. Modeling
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