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    15 April 1985, Volume 40 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE DRAWING REGIONS, ITS MODELS AND DELIMITATION
    Yang Wuyang, Liang Jinshe
    1985, 40 (2):  97-108.  doi: 10.11821/xb198502001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (696KB) ( )   Save
    The drawing region, or hinterland, is an area being attracted by transportation line, depot or port. Its theory and application are provided with immediate significance for transport techno-economic investigation and nodal economic regionalization in current Ghina ’s modernizations.Having referred to domestic and foreign documents, authors conclude a system of drawing regions with typology and hierarchy. The nature of a composite drawing region and its division into pure ones are fully expounded and paid attention to some ports’ hinterland in China. An outstanding achievement of this paper is using the symbol method of graph theory to delimit direct, coordinative and indirect drawing bounds.The authors design a table of correspondence between types of drawing region and kinds of freight volume. It can be used as the fundamental quantitative model for fre-ight forecast of transport points, lines and networks, thus provides planning work with economic basis for decision making.
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    SOME KEY PROBLEMS IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF SHENZHEN SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE
    Cai Renqun, Deng Yuyou, Zhong Ying
    1985, 40 (2):  109-118.  doi: 10.11821/xb198502002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (730KB) ( )   Save
    Shenzhen Special Economic Zone, which covers an area of 357.5 square kilometers with a population of 160,000(1983), is the earliest in its exploitation, the largest in size and the quickest in its economic development among the existing four special economie zones in China.1. Geographical locality is closely related to the development of the special econo-mic zone. The city’s adjacency to Xianggang (Hong Kong) its vast expance of land for construction, sufficient supply of power and water, rich farm produce and develop-ing transportation and communications, particularly its closeness to the oilfields under exploration at the mouth of the Zhu Jiang (Pearl Eiver) provide Shenchen Special Economic Zone with an extremely favourable geographical conditions its for its econo-mic development.2. Industry is the core of economy in the special economic zone. Consequently, to speed up imports of technology in industry is the key point in the construction of the zone. The priority of its industrial development should focus on that of household ele-ctronic industries so that they may coordinate with the rapid development of those in-dustries recently mushrooming in the Zhu Jiang Delta area nearby, forming the biggest centre of the household electronic industries in China. Meanwhile, industries such as building materials, foodstuffs, textiles, costumes, furnitures, fodders and processing in-dustry of daily necessities should also be appropriately developed. With the opening up of the oilfield at the mouth of the Zhu Jiang, there is a broad prospect for the develop-ment of petro-chemical works and the sea-oil service industry.3. Agriculture is an important component of the economy in the special economic-zone. However, so far as its foundation is concerned, it is still weak. From now on, the emphasis should be laid on the development of three main fields such as horticulture, poultry and products so as to build Shenzhen into a supply base of live and fresh farmproduce and non-staple food for the whole city and for Xianggang (Hong Kong) as well.4. Shenzhen has a coastal line as long as 248 km with several natural deep-weter bays, which have advantages for the development of sea transportation. Up to now Shekou port has already completed and Chiwan port is under construction. Judging from its geographical locality, natural conditions, communications with the inland and a comprehensive comparison of relationships between a port and a city, Mawan Bay Chiwan Bay is regarded to have better condition for a port, and is advisable to have it built first; the feasibility research on Yantian deep-water port in Dapeng Bay on the eastern coast will to be continuously conducted.5. Shenzhen is abundent in resources for tourism, which is a newly-developed business with bright prospect. Although the development of tourism requires imports of modern ficilities, the area for tourism in Shenzhen can never be developed into just a reproduction of a certain scenic spot abroad. In terms of housing, playing, eating, and shopping the Chinese styles and traditions and the strong local colors sliould be consistently maintained. Concerning all the quint essences in China, it is suggested to turn Shenzhen into a "shopwindow" and an "epitome" of China.6. To determine the size of the city development (including the population and the scale of the land to be used) is the essential prerequisite for city planning. The planned population in Shenzhen by 2000 is 800,000 and the land to be used is 110 square km. But there are still different views on the proposed plan. Judging from an ove-rall analysis of all the factors relating to the city’s geographical locality, its attraction of the inland, natural resources, land capacity and developing economic efficiency, convensent communications with foreign countries, water and power supplies, original economic foundation, source of population and its relationship with nearby cities, it is predicted that a population of 500,000 by 1997 is relatively reasonable. An increase of population up to 800,000-1,000,0
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    LAND TYPES AND THEIR ASSESSMENT ON THE LOESS PLATEAU OF NORTHERN SHAANXI PROVINCE
    Liu Yinhan
    1985, 40 (2):  119-130.  doi: 10.11821/xb198502003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (765KB) ( )   Save
    This article discusses the charactristics and structure of the land types on the Loess plateau of northern Shaanxi pronince, and points out the utilization trend of each land type. It is composed of four sections:1. The land types in this area are maily determined by meso or micro-landforms,including valleys, loess or rock mountains, smcl lands, loess "mao", "liang", "yuan", etc. as well as by human impact upon physical environment.2. A hierarchical scheme for land classification: is suggested Land is chiefly classified by two categories. 10 first level land types are dilimited and identified by macro-landforms. 68 second-level types are characterized by homogeneous meso-or mi-cro-landfonn, soil subtype, vegetation subtype or formation.3. Evolution and structure of land types: are discussed. There are 5 patterns of land type evolution in this region: loess "yuan", loess "liang", loess "mao", loess or rock mountains and sand banks types. Again, there are four types of land structure: ladder-like, recurrent, dendritic and concentric.4. Finally, features and sutability eavaluation of 10 first-level land types are bri-eflv discussed.
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE RECLAMATION PROBLEMS IN THE DONGTING LAKE AREA
    Bian Hongxiang, Gong Xunli
    1985, 40 (2):  131-141.  doi: 10.11821/xb198502004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (780KB) ( )   Save
    The history of the dykes built to reclain land from marshes in the Dongting Lake area can be dated back to the Neolithic Age. In Han and Jing Dynasties the construc-tion of such dykes began to take shape. In Tang Dynasty the protective embarkments in the lakeside area underwent three renovations of pretty long scale. In Southern Song such construction got a steady development, but the ability of the lake to adjust the flood from Yangtze was weakened, hence the flood became more serious. In the early period of Ming Dynasty some defensive walls surrounding the villages were re-novated Yuan Jiang, Hua Kong, but it often happened that the walls collapsed and merged with the lake. In Qing Dynasty it was first of all encouraaged and supported to build dykes in the lake area to reclaim land from marshes, but later because of the constant flooding, such dykes were prohibited. The abovementioned history proves that past dykes so built were the natural tendency of the accumulation of the increasing of population, but too many such dykes will cause the drastic revenge of the nature.After liberation, the construction of such dykes in the lake area saw a new deve-lopment. From 1949-1979, the dimensions of the inner lake were reduced by nearly 1 500 000 mu, The dimensions of the outer lake were reduced by 1610 km!. The cul-tivated fields were increased by 2 750 000 mu. The total outputs of the main crops like food, cotton, bast-fibre plants and so on were increased and certain amount of econo-mic effect was achieved. But at the same time a series of complicated prpblems came out:1. The accumulation of silt at the bottom of the lake was quickened.2. The water source for fighting the drought were cut down.3. The calamity of flood, waterlogging and soak became more serious.4. The navigation channel was blocked up.5. Fishery was squeezed out.6. The economic effect of production was reduced.Based on the above discussion, the author presents his suggestions concerning the renovation of the lake area:1. Before the flood from Yangtze is completely under control, the blind construc-tion of the dykes to reclaim land from marshes should be strictly prohibited.2. To make a plan for channelling flood and emptying the silt, gradually changingthe passive situation of the lake above the fields.3. To merge the fields with the lake properly.4. To further raise the ability of the lake area to fight the flood and to drain the logging water, and set up a good system of planting as well as adjust the layout of the crop5. To raise the output of the single crop greatly and develop a diversied economy in agriculture. Then the construction of the base of the marketable grain could be assured.
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    MODERN GLACIERS IN ALTAY MOUNTAINS OF CHINA
    Wang LiLun, Liu Chaohai, Wang Ping
    1985, 40 (2):  142-154.  doi: 10.11821/xb198502005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1260KB) ( )   Save
    In the summer of 1980, the Lanzhou Institute of Gkciology and Cryopedology of the Acadomia Sinica, was organized by the first Altay Grlaciological Investigation Team, and carried out the field project at the Youyi Peak area and the projected route in the eastern part of Altay. It was found that this area had a larger precipitation in cold season and the glaciers belonged to the sub-cold-season nourishment type. The glaciers have the characteristics of warmer ice temperature, stronger ablation and faster move-ment, classified as sub-continental glacier. According to the newly compiled Glacier in-ventory of Altay Mountains in China, the total number of glaciers in this asea is 416 with an area of 293.2 KM2 and an ice storage of 16.49 KM3. The content of chemical elements in the ice and snow body is very low, and supplies a good quality of water. In recent score of years, the amount of retseat of the large glaciers is maeh large than the small glaciers but a few specific small glaciers are still advancing.
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    THE QUATERNARY MICROPALEONTOLOGICAL FOSSILSIN TIANJIN PLAIN AND THEIR PALEOGEOGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE
    Li Yuanfang, An Fengtong
    1985, 40 (2):  155-168.  doi: 10.11821/xb198502006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (876KB) ( )   Save
    70 species of beuthonic foraminilVras and 36 species of ostracodes arc found in tlu Quaternary sediments from 21 drilling cores in the Tianjin Plain.According: to the niicropaleontological assemblages related to the features of these cores, three sedimentary facies can be recognized, i.e. continental, transitional between marine-continent (five subfacies) and offshore facies.Based on the distribution, diversity and ecological characteristics of the fossil fora-minifera in the sections of the bore holes, there existed at least three transgressive la-yers in the Tianjin Plain, hence three corresponding transgressions can be confirmed.The first transgressive layer, 0.5-20 in depth, formed in the post-glacial period, the middle Holocene. During the maximum of the transgression, between 7000-6000 years B. P.. its boundary extended to Baodi and Wuqing counties. The foraminiferal fossils contained in this layer are very rich. But their assemblages in the eastern part of the area are quite different from those in the western part. In the former, the re-presentative species are Ammonia beccarii (Linne) Var. Portelphidium granosum(d’Orbigny), Elphidium simplex Cushman. Ammonia globosa (Millett) and Quinquelo-culina akneriana rotunda (Gerke), etc., they subsisted in a coastal shallow sea water environment about 10 metres in depth. In the western part of the area, the main species are Ammonia beccarii (Linne) Var. Nonion akitaense Asano, Pseudononionella variabilis Zheng and Pseudoeponides anderseni Warren, etc., featured a beach or littoral plain environment. However, the foraminiferal assemblage in the northern part of the area represents a littoral environment with stronger marine features, and it may suggests a fleet environment.Tlie second transgressive layer was formed at 20 000-50 000 years B. P. at the depth of 20-55 m, corresponding to an interstadial stage within the Wiirm glacial pe-riod. The foraminiferal assemblages of this layer (in Gaoshaling and Junliangcheng) represent an off-shore environment with 10-20m deep in water. The occurrence of large number of Pseudorotalia gaimardii (d’Orbigny) shows that the sea-water was a little bit warmer than today, and the extent of the activities of the coastal warm cur-rent was limited to the south of Hai He.The third transgressive layer. 60-105m in depth, formed in the Riss-"Wiirm in-terglacial period, contains a weak marine facies foraminiferal assemblage, which featu-res a littoral marginal environment.In summary, the first and second transgressive layer are off-shore shallow water deposits distributed in the southeastern part of the area. The third transgressive layer are marine-continental transitional one with weak marine features. Its intensity in-creased gradually with its maximum occurred the mid-Holocene.
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    THE REGIONAL CLIMATE DIVISION OF HAINAN ISLAND
    He Dazhang, Zhang Shenglin
    1985, 40 (2):  169-178.  doi: 10.11821/xb198502007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (629KB) ( )   Save
    Hainan Island is a part of tropical China. The differentiation of temperature within Hainan Island is not significant, but that of rainfall distribution is quite remarka-ble.According to the principle of climatic division the main indices of climatic division in tropic should be given way from the heat (temperature) to the moisture (.rainfall, rainy, season......).On the other hand, although the climate of Hainan Island is belong to tropical, but it is modified deeply by the monsoon, as the northen part of this island there appears a the Island, play an important role of climate divisionHence, moisture, temperature and topography of Hainan are chosen as the three main indices for the division work simultaneously.The climatic division of Hainan should be divided into eastern side and the western side by the parameter of water balance; also divided into nortern part and southern part by the thermal parameter (temperature), they made a cross shape over the Island ; again, divide the mountain and the, lower flat land (corespondant of wind condition i which made a circle shape. By mean of that, the regional division of Hainan may be after a model (fig. 1) divided into 8 division parts as follow:1. XE part seashore plain climate, more cool, windy and more wet. such as in Wenchang. The shore lin forest belt should be built for agriculture.2. XW part seashore plain climate, more cool, windy but more dry, such as Ling-ao.3. XE part hill district and basin climate, more cold and wet in winter, such as Tunchang.4. XW part mountain and hill district and basin climate, occasionally fierce cold winter. It is harmful to rubber tree cultivation, such as in Baisha.5. SE part seahore plain climate, more windy, more warm, and wet, such as Qiong-hai. Shore line forest belt should be built up for agricuture.6. SW part seashore plain climate, more warm, fierce dry, such as Dongfang.7. SE part of mountain and hill district, valley and basin climate; more wet and warm, such as Baoting. It is favour for rubber and other tropical crops, as an old district of tropical agriculture.8. SW part of mountain and hill district basin climate, more warm and dry, such as Ledong. There are many small areas with more favorable local climate for rubber here and there. It is a new region for the cultivation of rubber and other tropical crops or forest.
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    SOME STRATEGIC PROBLEMS ABOUT TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHWEST CHINA
    Wang Yiming
    1985, 40 (2):  179-191.  doi: 10.11821/xb198502008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (968KB) ( )   Save
    Northwest China covers Shaanxi Sheng. Gansu Sheng, Qinghai Sheng, Xingxia Huizu Zizhiqu and Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu. It is a vast territory and rich energy, metallic or nonmetallic minerals, agricultural and animal husbandry, and tourism resources. Its development potentiality is great. However the climate is arid with extramly unbalance of land and water resources, and delicate ecologic environment, poor transport facilities, backward of the economy and technology and poorly informed. These are restricted factors for territorial development. The paper discusses seven major problems from overall strategic point of view.1. According to the change of industrial distribution centre of gravity all over China, the developmental strategy in Northwest China should be actively forged ahead, reliable and cautions in tactics, its industrial structure should be planned suitible to the transport capacity.2. The development of Northwest China must be adapted to the situation of new technological revolution in the world, and pay great attention to the deep processing and comprehensive utilization, and adopt adranced techniques, so that the new and developing industrial base could be set up as soon as possible.3. Water conservancy and agricultural construction is the foundation of regional development. Emphasis must be placed on the water conservancy, planting grass, afforestation, and investigation, planning, management of water resources. On the basisof the environmental protection, rational use of agricultural and animal husbandry resources, adjustment of agricultural structure and distribution in adaptation to local conditions are demanded.4. Put power industry development as the central link of economic construction, and develop nonferrous and rare metal industry, chemical industry, agricultural and livestock products processing industry eorres pondingly. Pay close attention to geological prospecting and exploit planning of energy resources, and give play to energy resources superiority of all kinds in line with local conditions.5. Our policy is communication construction to be synchronized with industry and agriculture. A network of communication lines must be build step by step, taking railways and highways as the backbone, and consisting civil aviation, pipeline and animal power transportation. The communication connection between Northwest China and Moslem countries in Central Asia. West Asia, North Africa and South Asia should be augmented. The Silk Road for a new period will to be developed.6. According to the development of territorial resources a fair-sized immigration from the coastal provinces in a planned way is required, but it is inadvisable to enlarge its size. In order to guarantee that Northwest China’s economy develops rapidly, the crux of the matter is to heighten the scientific and technical quality of the local people and the immigrants.7. It is a strategic deployment to develop the upper reaches of the Huang He (Yellow River) into a big industrial corridor zone in Xorthwest China. The Heishan Gorge key water control project on the Huang He should be built as soon as possible. Water transport on the Huang He should be revived and developed. Along the Huang He factories of all kinds could he distributed in groups, so as to set up some new industrial cities.
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