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Table of Content

    15 April 1980, Volume 35 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THIRTY YEARS' GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA
    Li Chunfen ( Chun-fen Lee), Wand Enyong, Zhang Tongzhu, Wu Jihua, Liu Shuren, Chen Ershou
    1980, 35 (2):  97-107.  doi: 10.11821/xb198002001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (838KB) ( )   Save
    Since the founding of the People’s Republie of China, geographical education inuniversities, colleges and sohools has made great achievements, particularly in esta-blishing geography departments, setting up specialties, training of teachers and geo-graphical scientists, compiling and editing teaching materials and text books improv-ing teaching quality, carrying out scientific research and popularizing geographicalknowledge, etc. For the sustained and healthy development in the years to come,especially at a time when the long-expected four moderizations are being carriedon today, it is neeessary to look back on the course of development and summarizethe gains and losses.The first department of geoscience was founded in 1919 in the Higher NormalCollege of Nanking (now the University of Nanking) with Dr. Co-ching Chu, aclimatologist and the late president of the Geographical Society of China, as the head.One of its three sections was geography. In the 1920 s and 1930 s, a number of de-partments were established suceessively. From then till liberation in 1949, the depart-ments were quite small, generally with a staff about 10 and an enrollment not morethan 50. In a word, in old China, the development of geography was rather slow, mostof the graduate students engaged in teaching in middle schools, bringing little intoplay in national productive construction.Since liberation in 1949 China has entereda new stage of development in socialist revolution and socialist construction. By 1952, in order to adapt to the needs of national construction, the institutions of higherlearning underwent a nation-wide adjustment. Geography departments fell into twocategories, one in the comprensive university and the other in normal college (univer-sity). The main task of the former is to train scientific workers, thereas the latter to trainteachers for the middle schools. Since then, great changes have occurred in geographyin higher education. These changes arose from the great expansion of the teaching ofthe subject and the carrying out of research works. A recent list gives about 35departments, most of them with a size that would have been undreamed of in thepreliberation period. Students graduated amounts to ahout 40,000. As a result of theemphasis laid upon the adaptation to the needs of the related government depart-ments and production units, there emerged in comprehensive universities newspecialties in respect of both research and teaching interests. It is noteworthy thatthere came up a distinct swing in favor of the systematic approaches, evident is bothphysical geography and economic geography. The courses offered were to a greaterextent deepened and broadened in contents than before. But it must be pointed outthat there was little regard to cultural geography and an increasing gap betweenphysical and economic geography. In addition, the idea of geography as a "pointof view" as an integrating and synthesizing diseipline were loaing ground. Regionalgeography was deprived of its position as the core of geography and even disappearedin eurriculum. In comprehensive sinivessities as well as in normal colleges importantchanges also reflects in the strengthening of field training. Both senior and juniorstudents were given a specific length of time for fieldwork training including theproductive peactice in connection with the tasks designated by the related govern-ment departments or other productive units. The teachers and senior students usuallytake the occasion of productive practice to participate in comprehensive expeditions,resources surveys, drainage-area planning, agricultural regionalization, desert control,atlas editing, etc. These aetivities are of great importance not only to carrying outresearch works designated but to the promotion of teaching quality as well. In normalcolleges students at the fourth year take 4-6 weeks’ teaching praetice instead. Atpresent, in both universities and colle
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    THE ORIENTATION AND TASK OF GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA--A DISCUSSION OF SOME PROBLEMS
    Shen Yuchang, Zuo Dakang, Tan Jianan, Liao Ke
    1980, 35 (2):  108-115.  doi: 10.11821/xb198002002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (567KB) ( )   Save
    Ⅰ. On the Problem of the nature and object of geography:We consider that the nature and object of a discipline is dstermined by thecontradictions it contains. Geography is a discipline the object of which is to studythe contradictions between man and environment (including geographical conditionsand human conditions). The nature and contents of the contradictions between manand environment vary incessantly along with the development of human society andthe progress of natural science and technology, but contradietions exist everlastingly.That is the reason why geography possesses great vitality.Ⅱ. On the problem of fundamental theories and basic work of geography:We consider the following aspects as the fundamental theories of geography:(1) The law of matter and energy transition, in the geographical environment, andthe regional differentiations manifested by it; (2) theory of geographical zonation;(3) theory of the relationship beween man and environment; (4) theory of regionalassemblage of productive forces; (5) theory of the structure, formation and evolutionof geographical environment.Ⅲ. The problem of modernization of geography in China.It is necessary, first of all, to have a great number of geographers capable ofmastering modern science and technology, if we want to modernize geography in ourcountry. Therefore, we must train teachers, and increase the laboratory fasilitiesand instrumental equipments of the geographical departments of the key universities.And then, improvements should be made in the method and technology by establishinga network of stationary and semi-stationary geographical stations, setting up simula-tion laboratories of the geographical processes, building up a system of analyses andapplications of remote sensing imageries and finally, by setting up a system of automaticanalyses and mapping of geographical informations and a data bank of the informationsof geographical environment.IV. How geography can serve the "four modernizations" in our country.We put forward the following three aspects as the most important areas inwhich we geographers can work and serve the "four modernizations":(1) In agriculture, mainly including the research into the development of thecapacity of agrieultural production, agricultural regionalization and the compilationof maps of landforms, land types, land uses and land resources on the scale of 1:1,000,000.(2) In the rational utilization and protection of environment, including the wayto utilize properly the natural environment and to improve the already deterioratedenvironment, and also the problems of pollution and protection of natural environ-ment.(3) In industrial and other economical constructions, inclusive of the distributionof industries and the development of the regional differentiations, regional glan-ning, the distribution of cities and city planning.In addition, to reinforce the geograpnical education in the primary and middleschools, to popularize geographical knowledge and to raise the level of scienee andculture of our whole nation are also important tasks for us geographers to fulfil.
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    A TENTATIVE REGIONALIZATION OFAGROCLIMATE OF CHINA
    Qiu Baojian, Lu Qiyao
    1980, 35 (2):  116-125.  doi: 10.11821/xb198002003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (650KB) ( )   Save
    1. In the first step, three large regions are divided to reflect the combined effectof hydrothermal conditions. In the northwest, the water insuficiency hampers thefunction of warmth; in the Tibetan Plateau, the low temperature hinders the fullutility of water; it is only in the monsoon area, where precipitation occurs in thewarm period, does the water-heat combination yield better results. These three regionsare of order 1.
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    LAND TYPES AND THEIR TRANSFORMATION MEASURES INTHE THREE-RIVERS PLAIN, HEILONGJIANGPROVINCE, CHINA
    Shen Yuancun
    1980, 35 (2):  126-136.  doi: 10.11821/xb198002004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (795KB) ( )   Save
    The famous Three-Bivers Plain is located at junction area between the HeilongJiang, the Songhua Jiang and the Wusuli Jiang. It is now one of major reclamationareas in China.The present article tries to classify land types of the Three-Rivers Plain andto discuss chief measures for transforming the natural environment. It is based on afield work performed in 1978 on large-scale mapping of the Victory State Farm whichis located at eastern part of the Three-Rivers Plain. Then, by help of Land-sat images, 1/500,000 topographic mape, as well as field observations, a map ofland types or whole Three-Rivers Plain (1/500,000) was compiled in 1979.The term "land" is treated as the integration of all physical factors in a site,while landform, soil and vegetation are used as chief eriteria for classifying the landtypes. Four land types of first category (land system) and ten land types of secondeategory (Land units) are identified in the Three-Rivers Plain.Major measures for transforming the natural environment of the Three-BiversPlain are: (1) An over-all planning, with present emphasis laying on reelamationof arable virgin lands; (2) For an integrated use of all marsny lands; (3) To con-trol low temperature and frost hazards and to make better use of solar radiation;(4) To meliorate the whitish glei soils which are distributed extensively in the centralpart of the Three-Rivers Plain; (5) To conserve and to improve the broad-leavedforests in the surrounding hilly lands.
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    ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLACIALLANDFORMS ON QINGHAI-XIZANG PLATEAU
    Cui Zhijiu
    1980, 35 (2):  137-148.  doi: 10.11821/xb198002005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (808KB) ( )   Save
    For the discussion on the essential features of the development of glacial landforms on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, it is necessary to go further into the classifica-tion of glacial landforms: cross section of the glacial trough may be subdivided intonarrow-deep, medium and wide-shallow types; longitudinal profile may be subdividedinto multi-steps, mono-step and smooth sypes; in cirque and neve basin mny be dis-tinghshed single layer and double layers strusture; various types of peak appear inglscial region, e.g. The premeval Muztagata type (Over turned basin type), ZhuoAoyou type (Cap type), Bogda type (Pen rack or saw tooth troe), Qomolangma type(Pyramidical type) and lastly the Qogir type (Horn type). This shows that not allpeaks in the glacial region are hornshape which represent only the fature of thelast stage.According to the analysis of the development and distribution of the various typesof glacial landform, we found that the factors influencing the development of glaciallandforms are pre-glacial landform time rock structure and climatic condition. Basedupon the assemblage of glacial landforms and their distribution, two glacial geo-morphic regions may be distinguished in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. 1) The lowmountain and wide valley glacinl landform region. This includes the north slop ofthe Himalayas, the Gangdises shan the westen and middle section of the NyainqenTanglha shan, the Tanggula, the south slope of the Kunlun shan, the Bayan Harmountain and the Anyemaqen shan. They belong to the mountain of the interior of theplateau and its neighbouring mountain. The characteristies of the glacial landformsare: over-turned basin and cap type of peak of early stage, mostly wide shallow,single step or smooth type of trough valley, with low valley wall and few hangingvalley; few cirques or neve basin which are wide shllow with low density and fewlayers. These are reflections of unimportance of the differential movement of themountain. The pre-glacial landforms are gentle, with shorter glacial history, weakdissection in interglacial period, and a relatively dry elimate. 2) The other regionis the glacial geomorphic region of high mountain and deep gorges including chieflythe outer face of the border lands of the plateau (the inner face belongs to thefirst region), e.g. the south slope of the Himalayas, the mountanous area of southeast Xizang, the Hengduar Shan (including Yulong Shan of Yunnan) and the KunlunShan. Characteristics of glacial landforms are in sharp contrast to the first region.There are reflections of the more importance of the differential movement of moun-tain. Pre-glacial landforms are deep and narrow, with longer glacial history, strongdissection in interglacial period and a climate more favourable to development ofglacial and landforms (in the southern region). From the above deseriptions it showsthat the great variety of the devalopment and the distribution of glacial landformsfollows certain general rules.
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    RECENT VARIATIONS IN THE GLACIAL TERMINIALONG THE KARAKORUM HIGHWAY
    Zhang Xiangsong
    1980, 35 (2):  149-160.  doi: 10.11821/xb198002006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (789KB) ( )   Save
    Present glaciers along the Karakorum Highway way are located at 35-39 degreesnorth latitude and 74-76 degrees east longitude. There’s a marked difference ekis-ting in the dominating features of the glasiers in the western section of Kunlun Shan(Muztagata Shan Kongur Shan), western section of the Karakoram (Hunza Kara-koram and Saltoro Karakoram) and western seetion of the Himalayas (Mt. NangaParbat). Results obtained through researches on glaciology indieate decidedly thatthe properties of glaciers and their active capability mainly depend on the level ofmass balance and that morphological types of glaciers depend on the topography ofpreglacial age and stages of development of glaciation.On the basis of repeated measurements at a fixed station, geomorphological in-vestigation and aeronautical observation and in the light of the documentary recordsand recalls of the local residents, we come to the conclusion that the termini alongthe Karakorum Highway have been subject to many fluctuations with in compara-tively recent times. From the eighties of the last century to the twenties or thirtiesof this century the glaciers either advanced in general or were relatively stationary.From the thirties to the sixties, the glaciers retreated on a wide scale. Since thesixties the changes in the positions of the glacier fronts have presented a very hetero-geneous picture. Take the glaciers in the western section of the Karakoram Moun-tains for instance. In this period a great number of them have been advancing, withsome of them retreating.In accordance to the amplitudes of glacial variations, the glaciers along theKarakorum Highway can be classified into two magnitudes.First the amplitude of several metres or several decades of metres during someyears or several decades of years. These include for instance, the glaciers in Mt. Muz-tagata Shan and Mt. Kongur Shan, which are characteristic of the continental typeglaciers.Second, the amplitude of some hundred metres during several years or decadesof years. The valley glaciers in the wetern section of the Karakoram Mountains andMt. Nanga Parbat belong to this category. They are normal glaciers with highlevel of mass balance and aetive motion.In addition, the amplitude of several kilometres during some years or severaldecades of years, such as Hasanabad Glaciers, Minapin Glacier and some others in theBasin of the Hunza River, which are the cyclic fast advancing glaciers of the surg-ing type.The surging glaciers in the basin of the Hunza River, their periodicity is byfar longer than that of the same types of glaciers in other parts of the world(usually 20-30 years). The superglacial topography of the surging glaciers in thebasin of the Hunza River is short of the folded moraines, a phenomenon resultedfrom the loops and folds in medial moraines, with the exception of the highly crevassedand at times great transverse cracks.We also discovered that the general tendency of the fluctuations of the glaciersalong the Karakorum IIighway seemed to bear a certain similarity to the fluctuationsof the existing Alpine glaciers in Europe, with the exception that the time lags alittle behind.The common characteristics of the termini of the advancing glaciers along theKarakorum Highway are as follows:The ice cliffs at the snout are steep and giant with their gradients exceeding30° and relative height over 80 metres. The front of ice cliff has a push moraineformed as a result of the pushing of the advancing glaciers and there are a lot ofrounded pubbles in the push moraines.
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    GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WEATHERING CRUSTON THE QUATERNARY BASALT IN HAINANISLAND, CHINA
    Guo Xudong, Shen Xuebing
    1980, 35 (2):  161-173.  doi: 10.11821/xb198002007
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    The lateritic weathering crust developea oh the basaltie tableland are widely distri-buted in the northern part of the Hainan island. Aceording to the periods of basalticeruption call be distinguished into three main weathering stages, i.e. the Shimaolin(Middle Pleistocene), Huguanguan (Late Pleistocene), and Leihulin (Holocene)stages. From them only in the Shimaolin one the red earth has formed.
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    EXPERIMENTION ON THE DYNAMIC PHOTOGRAPHY OFTHE MOVEMENT OF SAND-DRIVING WIND
    Ling Yuquan, Wu Zheng
    1980, 35 (2):  174-181.  doi: 10.11821/xb198002008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (484KB) ( )   Save
    The research on the physical proeess of single sand grains under the influenee ofwind force plays a rather important role in the researeh of the movement of sand-driving wind.
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