Table of Content

    20 December 2010, Volume 65 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Provincial Pattern of the Relationship between China's Urbanization and Economic Development
    CHEN Mingxing, LU Dadao, LIU Hui
    2010, 65 (12):  1443-1453.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012001
    Abstract ( 900 )   PDF (929KB) ( 1385 )   Save
    Understanding of the relationship between China's urbanization and economic development on provincial scale is of profound theoretical and practical significance. Based on the experience data of the 120 countries or regions in the world and 31 provinces (autonomous regions) in China, applying improved methods of quadrant map approach, this paper has a analysis of the relationship and spatial pattern between China's urbanization and economic development. Results are shown as follows. ① The 31 provincial-level units are divided into six types. The type of sharp over-urbanization is 3, the type of medium over-urbanization is 2, the type of slight over-urbanization is 8, the type of basic coordination is 4, the type of medium under-urbanization is 5, and the type of slight under-urbanization is 9. ② The relationship between urbanization and the level of economic development has significant regional differences on provincial scale. ③ The provincial pattern of urbanization and economic development presented a significant east-west difference. The eastern coastal areas are mainly over-urbanization, while the central and western regions are mainly under-urbanization. ④ The relationship between urbanization and the level of economic development is similar to Matthew effect. Two important insights are proposed. One is that the phenomenon of over-urbanization in some developed regions should be viewed and vigilant with some concern. The other is that the urbanization needs to be speeded up in the central and western regions.
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    Spatio-temporal Pattern of Residents' Daily Activities Based on T-GIS: A Case Study in Guangzhou, China
    ZHOU Suhong, DENG Lifang
    2010, 65 (12):  1454-1463.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012002
    Abstract ( 923 )   PDF (950KB) ( 882 )   Save
    With the rise of humanism and improvement of living standards, improving the quality of lives is now one of the hot topics, which is also the foremost purpose of Time Geography. The using of T-GIS helps to meet the needs of Time Geography, with a strong requirement of representing the temporal and spatial relations. Based on the theories of T-GIS and Time Geography, the household survey is conducted on people's daily activities and travel logs in Guangzhou, China. A series of functions for recording and representing the spatio-temporal pattern for daily activities and travel chains is developed by VBA secondary development platform of ArcGIS. It is shown that urban center in inner cities is still attractive, which lure a lot of people during the whole day. Residents, especially those who live in suburban areas have to change their daily activity pattern to adapt to the sprawl of the city. The spatio-temporal patterns of residents' activities are different among people who come from different classes. on this basis, three classes are divided. The activity space of lower class is smaller, mostly concentrated in inner city and the area around their residential communities, and their payment for transportation is the lowest. But the activity space of upper class is larger, and most of the activity space is around new center of the city, Their time spending on outdoor activities is well-regulated, and their payment for transportation is the highest. There is a close relationship between resident behavior and urban internal spatial structure, which will provide a reliable basis for urban planning and urban management.
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    Poverty Concentration and Determinants in Low-income Neighbourhoods and Social Groups in Chinese Large Cities
    HE Shenjing, LIU Yuting, Fulong WU, Chris WEBSTER
    2010, 65 (12):  1464-1475.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012003
    Abstract ( 901 )   PDF (1229KB) ( 947 )   Save
    Based on a large-scale household survey conducted in 2007, this paper reports on a study into poverty concentration and determinants in China's low-income neighbourhoods and social groups. Three types of low-income neighbourhood are recognized: dilapidated inner city neighbourhoods, declining workers' villages, and urban villages. Respondents are grouped into four categories: working urban residents, laid-off/unemployed urban residents, retired urban residents, and rural migrants. Firstly, this study applies the FGT (Foster, Greer, Thorbeck) index to measure poverty concentration across different types of neighbourhood and different groups. The highest poverty concentration is found in dilapidated inner city neighbourhoods and the laid-off/unemployed group which endure multiple disadvantages. Meanwhile, mismatches between actual hardships, sense of deprivation, and distribution of social welfare provision are found. Second, we ran logistic regression models to analyze the association between poverty generation and various explanatory variables, and thus examine poverty determinants in different neighbourhoods and groups. Variations in institutional protection and market remuneration are becoming equally important in predicting poverty generation, and these are differently associated with poverty generation in different kinds of neighbourhoods and groups. As China's urban economy is increasingly shaped by markets, the mechanism of market remuneration is becoming a more important determinant of poverty patterns, especially for people who are eliminated or excluded from state institutions, notably, laid-off workers and rural migrants.
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    The Research on Organic Cities with Different Scales and Grades in the Yuan Dynasty of China
    HAN Guanghui, LIU Xu, LIU Yecheng
    2010, 65 (12):  1476-1487.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012004
    Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (1026KB) ( 639 )   Save
    Cities which are featured by precise boundary, specialized administrative agency and independent management are called "organic cities". Undoubtedly, organizational urban systems were the inevitable outcomes of the development of cities in history. In the Yuan Dynasty of China, an important symbol of the development of cities was the establishment of Jingxunyuan and Lushisi, which were specialized administrative departments at different levels. In the Yuan Dynasty, independent and organizational urban systems with different scales, functions, and names came out, which had equal status with the Zhou and Xian system (a traditional administrative system originated from Western Han Dynasty). This field is not only a revolution of urban administration but also a great creation in the history of urban development, which should be further studied in the future.
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    The Evolution of the Urban System of the United States in the 20th Century and Its Implications for China
    TAN Minghong, LI Xiubin
    2010, 65 (12):  1488-1495.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012005
    Abstract ( 612 )   PDF (765KB) ( 1336 )   Save
    Over the process of rapid urbanization, how will massive rural-urban migrants be distributed in the cities with different sizes? It is one of key issues that we must face when we set out the strategies for socio-economic development at the country level. The United States is the largest developed country in the world. In 1910, the level of urbanization in the US had reached that of today's China. Based on the census data of the US, using the Rank-Size rule, this study analyzed the evolution of the urban system of the country in the 20th century, which may provide some implications for the development of the urban system in China and urban planning at the macro level. Results show that: between 1900 and 1970, the value of sloping index (q) presents a rising trend, which implies that the big cities grew more rapidly, compared with the small and medium-sized cities. And in the last 30 years of the 20th century, the cities developed more evenly. In China, during the process of rapid urbanization (1985-2000), urban population in small cities grew faster than that in big cities. Comparison of the urban systems of two countries shows that the large cities in China will have a big potential in terms of urban population growth.
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    Landscape Division of Traditional Settlement and Effect Elements of Landscape Gene in China
    LIU Peilin, LIU Chunla, DENG Yunyuan, SHEN Xiuying, LI Bohua, HU Zui
    2010, 65 (12):  1496-1506.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012006
    Abstract ( 633 )   PDF (719KB) ( 1088 )   Save
    The landscape division of traditional settlement is the job with a strong concept with theory and practicality. It is one of the most important topics in studies on cultural landscape division. In views of the characteristics of regional, systematic, stable, development, identical, typical and harmonious traditional settlement landscape in China, setting the inner similarity of traditional settlement landscape "Image" as precondition, and taking opposite consistency principle as main principle while considering other principles, this paper divides the nation's settlement landscape into three large-sized landscape regions, 14 landscape regions and 76 landscape subregions. The division, from the practice, are based on the relevant landscape principle, such as the principle of environmental constraints, the principle of cultural guidance, the principle of integrated regions, the principle of relevant identity, the principle of covering and non-continuity, the principle of structures, the principle of comprehensive and landscape identity, etc.
    Naming principle of landscape area at all levels is area-name plus charecteristic and general name. These large-sized landscape regions, landscape regions and landscape subregions are all different in environmental quality and cultural background, so their integrated settlement and architectural landscapes show strong "identifiability" and "impressionality".
    The division of China's traditional settlement in this article is from the landscape gene perspective rather than based on cultural characteristics used before. Finally, the paper, in the view of "landscape gene", analyzes the main elements that influence the judges of China's traditional settlement landscape genes, from the elements of psychology, ecology, aesthetics, environment, culture, time and order and so on.
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    Influence of the Development of China's Logistics on the Construction of Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway
    SUN Fenghua, LU Dadao, LIU Xinhua, GU Jiuchun, WANG Zhenbo
    2010, 65 (12):  1507-1521.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012007
    Abstract ( 517 )   PDF (1390KB) ( 642 )   Save
    This paper presents the background and significance of the research. The data used in this study was mainly collected from 1991-2009 Statistical Yearbooks and the actual survey. The logistics volume index model has been established on the basis of modern regional theory and gravity model theory. By using the model, the land logistics volume of 31 provinces of China in 2008 is calculated. Then the situations of land logistics interflow among 31 provinces and between the three northeastern provinces (logistics regions of Northeast China) and other provinces are analyzed. The potential logistics volume through Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway is also calculated. With the unary linear regression model, land logistics interflow volume among the 31 provinces in 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 is predicted. According the logistics interflow volume between the three northeastern provinces and other provinces through Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway in 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 is calculated with Arcgis 9.2 software system. On this basis, the paper analyzes the influence of the development of China's regional logistics flow on the construction of Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway. Results show that the construction of Trans-Bohai Strait Passageway can strengthen the logistics exchange volume between the three provinces in Northeast China and other provinces/other logistics regions, which saves capital and time as well as energy resources to a large extent, hence its potential benefits are enormous.
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    The Contribution of Highway Traffic Infrastructure Construction to Economic Growth in Xinjiang Based on I-O and ESDA
    WANG Boli, ZHANG Xiaolei
    2010, 65 (12):  1522-1533.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012008
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (697KB) ( 675 )   Save
    Combination of I-O with ESDA is of possibly important significance for expanding the I-O development field. A case study is carried out on the contribution of highway traffic infrastructure construction to economic growth in Xinjiang of China during the period from 1997 to 2008 using I-O and ESDA. The conclusions are drawn as follows. (1) The mechanism of highway traffic building industry in promoting economic growth in Xinjiang was mainly to achieve a significant value transfer of related goods of backward spreading effect industries with relatively low labor consumption, thus the forward spreading effect and consumption wave effect with higher proportions emerged, and the multiplier effect was an important pivot of highway traffic building industry in promoting economic growth in Xinjiang. (2) Based on contributions of highway traffic construction to economic growth, spatial correlation was gradually increased and diffusion effect was significant between all the prefectures, autonomous prefectures and cities of Xinjiang. Meanwhile, based on contribution rates of highway traffic construction to economic growth, there was a spatial positive correlation between all the prefectures, autonomous prefectures and cities of Xinjiang, and contra-polarization effect was also significant. (3) Contribution of highway traffic infrastructure construction to economic growth could not only meet the polarization demand in the central areas, but also promote greatly the social and economic development in the peripheral regions through the lateral diffusion of three-level vertical wave effect mode, and some reform and development benefits were primarily shared by all the people in the peripheral regions through participating in the highway traffic infrastructure construction directly or indirectly. The results show that the combination of I-O and ESDA plays a certain role in preliminarily revealing the effect mechanism, spatial differentiation and spatial interaction of the contribution of highway traffic infrastructure construction to economic growth.
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    Studies on Spatial Analysis Method of the "Pole & Axis System": A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta
    ZHANG Li, LU Yuqi
    2010, 65 (12):  1534-1547.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012009
    Abstract ( 809 )   PDF (1227KB) ( 1184 )   Save
    Since the theory of "Pole & Axis System" was proposed, great achievements have been made in its theoretical expansion and practical application. With the development of GIS and the wide application of spatial analysis techniques, further research of the theory of "Pole & Axis System" depends on innovation of regional spatial analysis methods and techniques. Based on the "Pole & Axis System" theory proposed by Professor Lu Dadao, a spatial analysis method of "Pole & Axis System" was introduced. The method combines point elements, including town node, traffic node (port, airport, railway station, highway intersection) with linear elements (waterway, railway, highway, land way) of regional spatial structure in various ways and analyzes the spatial accessibility and the spatial diffusion. It takes linear elements as diffusion route to analyze gradual diffusion of point elements and calculate spatial accessibility of "Pole & Axis System". "Pole & Axis Gradual Diffusion Model" is constructed as time-distance attenuation diffusion model according to exponential and linear diffusion pattern. Also the model selects "Weighted Average Travel Time" as evaluation indicator of spatial accessibility and adopts the minimal seed algorithm to calculate minimal travel time and shortest path from one cell to others in the region. Based on GIS, "Pole & Axis" spatial analysis information system is developed, in which several common formations of "Pole & Axis System" are simulated. Also spatial pattern and evolution of node diffusion and accessibility are analyzed. A case taking Yangtze River Delta as a test region is presented. It chooses 16 cities as point elements and uses land traffic network of 1985, 1995, 2006 and 2020 as axis elements. The case studies axial gradual spatial diffusion of city nodes based on land traffic network of different periods and generates diffusion maps of score and accessibility of every city node for different periods. The results show the following aspects: Firstly, diffusion scores and regional accessibility values of city nodes are increasing every year. Secondly, spatial diffusion is evolving from multiple cores into a single one and the diffusion axis is apparent. Thirdly, the Yangtze River Delta region is integrated gradually, but the disequilibrium between regions is enlarged. Finally, the "Z"-shaped high-speed traffic corridor of Nanjing, Shanghai, Hangzhou and Ningbo is formed.
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    Analysis of Regional Growth Convergence with Spatial Econometrics in China
    HONG Guozhi, HU Huaying, LI Xun
    2010, 65 (12):  1548-1558.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012010
    Abstract ( 630 )   PDF (774KB) ( 1383 )   Save
    This paper proposes to combine the standard analysis method of economic convergence with spatial econometrics to explore regional convergence based on a total of 240 cities in China. To investigate the kind of spatial autocorrelation and agglomeration, the Moran's I statistic is used, finding that the existence of strongly positive global autocorrelation of GDP per capita and what's more, the local spatial structure is rather stable. The findings suggest that the non-spatial models applied to analyse β-convergence suffer from the risk of misspecification and a spatial model is competent. The results based on the spatial models indicate the existence of absolute convergence between cities. Taking into account effects results in a significant faster rate of convergence. The sensitivity test of the absolute convergence with respect to assumption of a common steady state and robustness over space suggest that the finding of absolute convergence is not stable. The mechanism of diminishing return and technology spillover is both important for absolute convergence. Finally, a set of regional policies are discussed.
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    Integrated Projection of Carbon Emission for China under the Optimal Economic Growth Path
    WANG Zheng, ZHU Yongbin, LIU Changxin, MA Xiaozhe
    2010, 65 (12):  1559-1568.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012011
    Abstract ( 738 )   PDF (687KB) ( 783 )   Save
    This paper performed a comprehensive projection of carbon emission through 2050 from the aspects of energy consumption, cement production process and forest carbon sink. Emission from energy consumption is estimated under the energy-economy framework by introducing the economic dynamics model and forecasting the energy demand on the optimal growth path, meanwhile the evolution of energy structure and the variation of carbon contents among energy types are also considered. Emission from cement production is projected on the basis of the forecast of cement output, which is deemed to be relative to urbanization process, while the latter follows the traditional S-curve development law. The estimation of forest carbon sink capability, involving the existing and newly afforested one, is conducted by employing the CO2FIX model. Eventually, all the three carbon sources or sink are composed to obtain the net carbon emission. Our results indicate that carbon emission from energy consumption peaks in 2031, with an emission of 2637 MtC (Million tons of Carbon equivalent) and the GDP per capita in that year is lower than the empirical experience of OECD countries; while the per capita energy-induced emission peaks in 2030, with a volume of 1.73 tC, which is far behind the US level of 2006 and still lower than the EU and Japan level of 2006. Besides, emission from cement production demonstrates a slow-down growth trend, and its emission is confined within 254 MtC, which is equivalently 12% of gross emission (here it refers to those emitted from energy consumption and cement production). Accumulated forest carbon sink is able to absorb 6806.2 MtC CO2 through 2050, but the annual absorption is dropping gradually. It is estimated that the net emission of CO2 will peak in 2033, which is 2748 MtC.
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    Impacts of Carbon Tax Policy on Regional Development in China: A Dynamic Simulation Based on a Multi-regional CGE Model
    LI Na, SHI Minjun, YUAN Yongna
    2010, 65 (12):  1569-1580.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012012
    Abstract ( 836 )   PDF (1589KB) ( 793 )   Save
    Low-carbon economy has become a worldwide trend. This paper applies a dynamic multi-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to conduct research into the impacts of carbon tax policy on regional economic development in China based on a China Interregional Input-Output Table 2002. Simulation results show that different regions endure different impacts when a uniform carbon tax policy is implemented. It exerts negative influences on less developed regions and positive economic influences on coastal areas, which will widen regional economic disparity. Regional differentiated carbon tax policies may alleviate differences of impacts of CO2 emission reduction on regional economy and then help to marrow regional economic gap. Therefore, regional differentiated carbon tax policies, from the viewpoint of efficiency and equality, may be a win-win choice for developing low-carbon economy and promoting harmonious development of regional economy in China.
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    A Comparative Study on the Differences of Physical Process and Human Process Modeling
    TANG Zhipeng, ZHANG Jin, LIUWeidong
    2010, 65 (12):  1581-1590.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012013
    Abstract ( 612 )   PDF (964KB) ( 462 )   Save
    Modeling is a good method that could show us the recurrence of historical events if we want to know how the historical events took place. It helps us to promote the understanding of the events in the past. Even we can forecast the events that we care about in the future based on the high precision modeling. Taking two modeling cases of typhoon landing and its precipitation, and of the structure evolution of China's three industries as examples, we compare the differences of two modeling techniques of geography, namely, the physical process modeling and human process modeling, belonging to physical geography and human geography respectively. This paper singles out four aspects of major differences between them and discusses these issues, including the dominating elements in system analysis framework and the background information, in system analysis framework, data sources and quantitative methods, and the central objects of study and application paradigms. We describe the development trends of physical process and human process in a brief way. This paper points out that the modeling of both physical and human processes are two important approaches to regional sustainable development, and with the development of man-land system theory, the two modeling techniques will be integrated, and hence their border becomes blurred.
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    Spatio-temporal Pattern Change and Its Driving Factors of Urban-rural Integrated Development Level in the Major Grain-producing Area of Central Jilin Province
    CHENG Yeqing, DENG Jixiang
    2010, 65 (12):  1591-1601.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012014
    Abstract ( 505 )   PDF (1114KB) ( 432 )   Save
    By the methods of Principal Component Analysis, Multi-objective Weighted Model, Markov Chains and ESDA, and based on the data of 2000, 2003 and 2007 of 24 spatial units in the major grain-producing areas of central Jilin Province, the spatio-temporal pattern change and its driving factors of urban-rural integrated development level were discussed. The results are shown as follows. First, there exists a phenomenon of “Club Convergence” in regional urban-rural development, and the spatial discrepancy of urban-rural integrated development level in the study area has become greater; Second, there was an obvious trend in the “Polarization”of urban-rural integrated development level, i.e., the higher level spatial units were concentrated in the five prefecture-level municipal districts, and the lower level spatial units were mainly in the central region along the Harbin-Dalian Railway, thus formed a “Dumbbell”-shaped continuous distribution area. It may fall into the“Matthew Effect”that the strong will become stronger and the weak will be constantly weaker. Finally, according to the Principal Component Analysis, it can be concluded that the economic strength, spatial location and income level of residents were the main driving factors of spatio-temporal pattern change of the urban-rural integrated development level in the major grain-producing area of central Jilin Province.
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    Spatio-temporal Coupling Relationship between Farmland and Agricultural Labor Changes at County Level in China
    LIU Yansui, LI Yurui
    2010, 65 (12):  1602-1612.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012015
    Abstract ( 509 )   PDF (1029KB) ( 579 )   Save
    Cultivated land and agricultural labor force are two core elements for promoting agricultural production and sustainable rural development. During the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization in China, numerous agricultural labors transferred to non-agricultural sector and a huge proportion of farmland was converted to construction land, in particular, these changes were spatially uneven. Theoretically, coupling relationship should be found between farmland and agricultural labor change. The overspeed of farmland conversion or agricultural labor transfer may affect the sustainability of agricultural production and rural development. Policy implications may arise from systematic analysis on spatio-temporal coupling relationship between agricultural labor transfer and farmland conversion. Based on county-level statistical data of farmland and agricultural labor, this paper gives an exploratory study in this area, by using GIS technology and mathematical modeling approach. The results showed that: (1) both the total amount of farmland and agricultural labor of the 1914 studied counties increased from 1996 to 2000 and then went through a process of reduction. The amount of farmland and agricultural labor increased by 2.70% and 1.40% from 1996 to 2000, and then decreased by 1.51% and 8.18% from 2000 to 2005, respectively. (2)“Hu Huanyong Line” which links Aihui and Tengchong cities, is an important dividing line in depicting China's spatial pattern of farmland conversion and agricultural labor transfer. Within the ribbon region along this line, farmland decreased drastically due to Grain for Green Project, however, the agricultural labor transfer lagged behind severely. In the region to the northwest of ribbon region along the HU Line, the reclamation of reserve resources caused a substantial increase of farmland, and the amount of agricultural labor grew steadily. In the region to the southeast of ribbon region along the HU Line, farmland was converted to construction land generally and agricultural labor decreased rapidly. Coupling relationship between farmland conversion and agricultural labor transfer could only be found in the third region. (3) During the study periods from 1996 to 2000 and from 2000 to 2005, 447 and 505 counties experienced a benign agricultural transfer in the process of farmland loss, respectively. Labor-farmland elastic coefficient (LFEC) of 90% of these counties ranged with a median of 4.58 and 2.97, respectively, which means that the efficiency of agricultural labor transfer decreased during the process of rapid farmland loss. (4) By developing a clustering method based on Self-organization Mapping (SOM) Neural Network on the software platform of ArcGIS and MATLAB, the coupling relationship between farmland conversion and agricultural labor change was divided into nine regional types, and also the control orientation for each region was put forward. Multi-scenario simulation analysis predicted that the trend value of LFEC during 2005-2015 was 2.55, and this could be a standard parameter for coordinating the relationship between farmland conversion and agricultural labor change in the next 10 years in China.
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    Impacts of Tourist Involvement on Destination Image: Comparison between Inbound and Domestic Tourists
    ZHANG Hongmei, LU Lin
    2010, 65 (12):  1613-1623.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012016
    Abstract ( 707 )   PDF (818KB) ( 1847 )   Save
    The measurement scales of tourist involvement and tourist destination image are adapted from previous researches. Involvement scale is adapted from Gursoy & Gavcar's study on international leisure tourist involvement, which includes three dimensions: pleasure/interest, risk probability, and risk consequence. Destination image scale is adapted from Baloglu & McCleary's study on destination image formation, which includes cognitive image and affective image. The data from nearly 900 tourists visiting Guilin and Yangshuo were collected during October and November 2008, and the response rate was 94.1%. In order to avoid the influence of inbound sample heterogeneity on the comparison between inbound and domestic sample, only Anglo inbound tourists' data (n = 349) and domestic tourists’data (n = 292) are used in this research. In this study, a structural equation model is used for theory testing and development. First, confirmatory factor analysis is used to test the applicability of tourist destination image and involvement scales, as well as to test the total measurement model for all of the samples. Second, Multi-groups factor analysis is used to test measurement equivalence and investigate the structural relation among three dimensions of involvement and two image components (cognitive image and affective image). Then, the path coefficients of two structural models from two different group tourists are analyzed and compared.
    The results shows tourist involvement has significant effect on destination image. Specifically, for all of the samples, pleasure/interest dimension has positive significant effect on cognitive image and affective image, risk consequence dimension has negative significant effect on cognitive image and affective image, and risk probability dimension has no influence on affective image. The effects of risk probability on cognitive image are different between inbound and domestic tourists. For domestic tourists, risk probability has significant positive effect on cognitive, but for inbound tourists, no significant effect is found. Between the two samples, all path coefficients are equivalent except two coefficients: pleasure/interest→cognitive image and risk probability→cognitive image.
    The conclusions are drawn as follows. Tourist involvement has significant effect on destination image, and there is no significant cross-group difference except the effect of pleasure/ interest and risk probability on cognitive image.
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    The Response of Short Term Tourist Flows to Spatial Structure of Regional Tourism: A Case Study of Tourist Flows of Yunnan in Golden Weeks
    LIU Zehua, Haitao LI, SHI Chunyun, WANG Xia, ZHANG Hong
    2010, 65 (12):  1624-1632.  doi: 10.11821/xb201012017
    Abstract ( 575 )   PDF (773KB) ( 716 )   Save
    Spatial structure of regional tourism and temporal distribution of tourist flow are important for tourism, but few international or domestic researchers have examined the correlation of these two factors. The tourist flows are a typically intense short-term flow in Golden Weeks in China. We sampled 7 typical scenic spots from Kunming, Dali, Lijiang and Xishuangbanna (the four key tourism cities of Yunnan): Stone Forest, Kunming Expo Garden (KEG), Three Pagodas, Mt. Yulong, Tai Garden, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) and National Forest Park. Yunnan Provincial Holiday Tourism Information Center issued daily reports for tourist flows of major tourist areas during Golden Week of "Labor Day" and "National Day". These data sets are used for this research. Except for KEG, the temporal distribution of tourist flow has no significant variation between different Golden Weeks at the same spot for the other six spots, which are tested by skewness index G, correlation analysis, and Person coefficient. Temporal distribution is a one-peak curve. There is an obvious difference between the timing for the peak of tourist flow and G index in one Golden Week. The peak occurs in the early Golden Week at Stone Forest, and it has the lowest G value at this place. The peak value appears in the middle of Golden Week at Three Pagodas, Tai Garden and XTBG, and a slightly higher G value is observed at these places respectively. The peak values at Mt. Yulong and National Forest are in the late Golden Week, but the highest G value is found at these two places. Results show that temporal distribution for short term tourist flows significantly corresponds to spatial structures of regional tourism. G value and the timing for the peak of tourist flow in Golden Weeks for these spots significantly correspond to spatial structure of tourism in Yunnan. The response mechanism follows these rules: the geographical location of regional tourism resources affects tourists choosing their destination places and the number of tourists; the spatial structure of transportation is the major factor that guides tourist flows. Limited by the holiday schedule, temporal distance from the tourist transport center to each destination is the major reason affecting temporal distribution of tourist flow. The longer the temporal distance is, the later the peak of tourist flow appears and the higher the G value is. And, temporal distribution may have multiple responses to spatial structures of regional tourism with different spatial scales in certain spots.
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