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    25 February 2008, Volume 63 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Dynamic Mechanism and Models of Regional Rural Development in China
    ZHANG Fugang, LIU Yansui
    2008, 63 (2):  115-122.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2446KB) ( )   Save

    The agriculture, rural and farmer development are the principal and radical problems in the recent economic and social process in China. Nowadays, aiming at building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and modernizing the country, the project of new socialist countryside construction was advanced at the Fifth Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee of the Party, which means advanced production, improved livelihood, a civilized social atmosphere, clean and tidy villages and efficient management. Though many researches have been conducted on the new socialist countryside construction and given some suggestions, there have been relatively few studies on the research of rural development theory. It is an original approach to the analysis of the elements and configuration of the whole rural development system to provide theoretical basis for choosing rural development models based on the view of system theory. The results are as the follows: (1) The regional system is a urban-rural integration, so it is very necessary to study rural development problem in the general framework of the whole regional system. (2) Regional rural development system is a complicated synthesis, including regional rural development core system and regional rural development exterior system. The former is composed of rural natural system, rural economic system, rural social system and rural ecological system, and the latter consists of regional development policies, international trade circumstance, etc. The essence of rural development is the process of mutual coupling and coordination of the two sub-systems. (3) The regional rural comprehensive ability lies on two aspects including the rural development inner ability and the exterior drive of urbanization and industrialization. The interaction mechanism obeys parallelogram principle in physics. The evolvement characteristics of rural development system are different in the different combinations of the inner and exterior driving forces. (4) According to the difference of rural development driving forces, rural development models are classified into two types, namely the dominant type of rural self-development and the dominant type of the exterior drive of industrialization and urbanization, and six sub-types at the second level, which are industry driving, villages and towns construction driving, labor force transfer driving, characteristic industry driving, eco-tourism development and specialized market organization driving. In conclusion, it is a scientific approach to the exploration of regional rural sustainable development models, based on the analysis of elements, construction, and function of regional rural development system and characteristics.

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    Regional Economic Disparities and Coordination of Economic Development in Coastal Areas of Southeastern China, 1995- 2005
    WU Shidai, WANG Qiang
    2008, 63 (2):  123-134.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3135KB) ( )   Save

    The coastal areas of southeastern China are the main force engine of China's economic growth. With its fast development, remarkable economic disparities occurred and along with the deepening of the reform and opening up policy in recent years, the economic disparities presented an expanding tendency. Based on 55 cities in the coastal areas of southeastern China during the period 1995-2005, this paper carried out a preliminary exploration of the changes in overall and partial spatial differences and the spatial pattern evolution, characteristics and causes. First, 1995-2005, the difference in the coastal areas of southeastern China at the level of economic development and the trend of the "polarization" are consistent, which proved that there exists a "polarization" phenomenon in southeastern coastal areas. Second, 1995-2003, the regional economic disparities in southeastern coastal areas continue to expand during this period. The economic disparities of the three major regions show a south-to-north gradual declining trend, indicating that such periodic changes in regional differences were mainly caused by the internal differences in Guangdong and Fujian. Since 2003, the economic differences in the southeastern coastal areas have been shrunk, and meanwhile the differences in the economic development of the three major regions also show a shrinking trend, which are the same as to the overall difference in the coastal areas of southeastern China , mainly due to the balanced development of the Yangtze River Delta region. Finally, the spatial evolution of the regional economy and regional economic differences are in the same line, corresponding to a "polarization → proliferation" phenomenon.

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    Spatial Organizational Network of Loigsitcs Company in China
    WANG Chengjin
    2008, 63 (2):  135-146.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2803KB) ( )   Save

    With the development of the third party logistics, logsitcs company as a professional economic form to organize logistics activities with the spatial network is well aware of the growing importance. Much attention is paid to the spatial network of logistics company. Based on discussion about research process of logistics company, this paper analyzes the theory about spatial network of logistics company and discusses its spatial system, function ties and operation mechanism. Logistics company is composed of corporation factors and logistics factors with different spatial attributions, moving regularity and organization characteristics whose united operation generates function differentiation and location separation among different members of logistics company, which develops into the spatial network including organizing network of corporation factor and operating network of logistics activities, namely the static phase and dynamic phase. Logistics company constructs its corporation factor network at urban and regional scales. Urban network includes the headoffice, operating department and distribution center with different corporation functions or logistics functions. The headoffice is located at urban centre, the distribution centre tends to be in the suburbs of a city, and the operating department is situated in the regions with many logistics activities. Regional network includes headquarter, regional headoffice, local branch, local office and operating department with different corporation functions or logistics functions. Corporation headquarter tends to be located in large cities, regional headoffice is generally at a political-economic centre in each logistics operating region, local branches are concentrated in capital city, economic centre and transport hub. Operating network of logistics activities comprises scheduled transport line, distribution system and logistics network. Transport line is the primary operating way of logistics activities which includes trunk and branch transport lines. Distribution system helps logistics company to transfer the cargoes throughout the country and improve its market competition with the development of regional distribution centre, urban regional distribution centre and urban distribution centre. The optimization, amalgamation and intertexture of scheduled transport line and logistics distribution system can develop into the primary operating mode of logistics network, namely hub-and-spoke system.

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    Geography and Economic Development in Rural China: A Township Level Study in Henan Province, China
    LI Xiaojian, ZHOU Xiongfei, ZHENG Chunhui
    2008, 63 (2):  147-155.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2366KB) ( )   Save

    Existing literature on rural regional development in China has paid little attention to the studies in small geographical scales. This study uses the data on 1736 township level administrative areas from an interior province of Henan, the largest and less developed agricultural province in China, to examine how geography plays the role in determining economic development in rural areas. The result indicates that geography still plays a significant role in rural development. Landform and other agricultural resources significantly affect economic development in the areas at the lower stage of growth, while the geographical location shows more significant impact in the areas with the relatively high income level. Quantitative analysis further reveals that the landform of a township village affects its income at a high significance level; the significance will reduce as the income in the village increases. Arable land per capita contributes significantly to the income in the villages with weak non-agricultural industries. For the villages with less than 20% of non-agricultural industries in its total economies, an increase in one hectare of arable land per capita will add 97 yuan to per capita income. In terms of geographic location, however, the impact is significant in the high income villages. Over 70% of the township villages in the high income group are concentrated in the central region of Henan province, where the nine major cities of the province are located. For an individual township village in the high income group, it is found that the distance from its county seat significantly explains its income level. An increase of one kilometer from the county seat will generate a decrease of 8 yuan in average income per capita. The study further concludes that the role of geographical factors is changing over time. Along with the economic development, the geographical proximity replaces the traditional geographical factors such as landform and physical resources as the major determining factors in regional development. Based on the results, the study argues that how geography matters in the era of rapid technological changes and globalization may differ in different regions and different industries. Evidence from the rural industries in the less developed China does lend support to important role of geography played in regional economic development. Therefore, rural geography in China may choose different focuses from the Western economies. The implications for regional policies from this study may enhance an area-specified strategy for rural development.

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    Simulation on Spatial Land Use Patterns Using AutoLogistic Method: A Case Study of Yongding County, Zhangjiajie
    WU Guiping, ZENG Yongnian, ZOU Bin, QI Qingchao, YANG Song
    2008, 63 (2):  156-164.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2521KB) ( )   Save

    Land use/land cover change (LUCC) is an important content of geographical research on global change today, while spatial simulation on regional land use patterns is one of the key contents of LUCC research because modeling is an important tool for simulating land use patterns due to its ability to integrate measurements of changes in land cover and the associated drivers. Spatial data, like land-use data, have a tendency to be dependent (spatial autocorrelation), which means that when using spatial models, a part of the variance may be explained by neighbouring values. The classic regression model can only analyze the correlation between land use types and driving factors, but cannot depict spatial autocorrelation. Land uses in Yongding County, which is one of the typical karst mountain areas in northwestern Hunan province, were investigated by means of modeling the spatial autocorrelation of land use types for the purpose of deriving better spatial land use patterns on the basis of terrain characteristics and infrastructural conditions. All driving factors such as distance to town, distance to river, distance to road, population density, altitude, slope and aspect were produced with ArcGis spatial analysis means. Then the weighting coefficient of every land use type was analysed with SPSS13.0. Through incorporating components describing the spatial autocorrelation into a classic Logistic model, this paper sets up a regression model (AutoLogistic model), which considers the spatial autocorrelation factor, and uses the model to simulate and analyze the spatial land use patterns in Yongding County. In addition, the results of two different models are validated by an ROC method. The ROC can compare a map of actual land use distribution to maps of modeled probability for land use types. Through comparison with the classic logistic model without considering the spatial autocorrelation, this model showed better goodness of fitting and higher accuracy of fitting. The ROC curves (AUC) of cultivated land, forest land, construction land and virgin land from classic Logistic regression model were 0.851, 0.913, 0.877 and 0.852 respectively. They were improved to 0.893, 0.940, 0.907 and 0.863 accordingly when using AutoLogistic model. It is argued that the improved model based on autologistic method is reasonable to some degree. At the same time, these types of analysis can provide valuable information for modeling future land use change scenarios that need to consider local and regional conditions of actual land use, and the probability maps of land use types obtained from this study can also support government decisions on land use management for Yongding County and similar areas.

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    Land Use Change Simulation Model Based on MCDM and CA and Its Application
    QIU Bingwen, CHEN Chongcheng
    2008, 63 (2):  165-174.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802006
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    A macro-micro integrated land use change model, Grey-Cellular automata (CA) -Multi-Criterion Decision-Making (MCDM)-Geographic Information System (GIS) based model (GCMG for short) which can simulate human decision making process was proposed. The GCMG model borrows the theoretical hypothesis of CLUE-S model which supposes that regional land use change is driven by its land use requirement and the land use distribution is in dynamic balance with land use demands and regional natural resources and socio-economic conditions. The GCMG model consists of both non-spatial and spatial part. The non-spatial part, so called macro model, calculates the changes of land use demand in the future based on experiential relationship of land use and its dominating drivers using the grey model. The spatial part, also called micro model, completes the land use allocation process whose total quantity is calculated by the non-spatial part with a combined method of MCDM, GIS and CA model. In the spatial part, firstly MCDM method was used to simulate the human decision making process for land use change considering socio-economic and bio-physical conditions; the results of which was brought into conversion rule of CA model; and the integration was finally implemented in GIS to model the land use allocation. To illustrate the functioning of GCMG model and its validation, it is applied in Longhai County to simulate land use change in 2010. As one of the typical counties at coastal area of Fujian Province, great changes in land use have taken place in Longhai County over the past decades, including the garden plots expansion, town land for urban and rural housing, and land for industrial and mining purpose. Firstly the GCMG simulation results are compared with map of the actual distribution of land use in 2000 for validation. The Kappa equals to 0.93 in the simulation at 10 m×10 m grid level and has gained satisfactory results. Then the validated model is applied to simulate the land use conversion probabilities under different decision-making scenarios. The results show that the basic farmland protection policy will determine the future land use change pattern. The application of GCMG model indicated that it can both simulate the land use demand at macro level and land suitability at micro level, thus possessing the ability of studying the multi-level land use system.

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    Comprehensive Evaluation of Land Use Performance of Beijing High- tech Industrial Zone
    BAN Maosheng, FANG Chuanglin, LIU Xiaoli, QIAO Biao
    2008, 63 (2):  175-184.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802007
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    High-tech industrial district is an important carrier for constructing innovative cities. It also plays an important role in implementing national independent innovative strategy. However, most of the high-tech industrial districts face many problems in their developing process, such as low efficiency of land use, weakness in innovative ability, lack of intensive land utilization. To solve these problems, this paper introduces the concept of land use performance and establishes a theoretical model to assess the land use performance of high-tech industrial districts. The model consists of the following three-dimensional parts: land use benefit, land use efficiency, and innovative function. Based on this theoretical model, an index system composing of the three secondary indictors, eight tertiary indictors and 37 fourth grade indictors was set up to evaluate the land use performance of high-tech zone. In order to avoid the defects of plus model and function model, a three-dimensional evaluation model is developed to examine the index of the land use performance of the high-tech industrial parks, which equals the evaluation indicator system of land use performance of high-tech zone based on the above research. The land use performance of five different high-tech industrial parks in Beijing high-tech industrial zone is examined. The results indicated that the indicator system performs better in the aspect of evaluating land use benefit, land use efficiency, and function of the high-tech industrial district compared to other models.

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    WU Jing,WANG Zheng
    2008, 63 (2):  185-194.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2610KB) ( )   Save

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    Evolution of Residential Space Structure in Shanghai Central City Based on Land Use
    LIAO Banggu, XU Jiangang, XUAN Guofu, QI Yi, MEI Anxin
    2008, 63 (2):  195-206.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2980KB) ( )   Save

    Urban residential space structure is the cross-over research field between urban geography and urban sociology. Limited by the historical housing data or census data, the research on evolution of residential space structure also remains at the level of textual description or qualitative interpretation. This paper empirically examines the evolution of residential space structure in Shanghai central city based on multi-temporal land use data (1947-2000). Geographic-Pattern-Analysis based on cluster analysis is used to identify residential area. We calculate the area ratio shared in the neighborhood among four sorts of residential land, rural land, industrial land, commercial and municipal services facilities land by using neighborhood as spatial statistics module. Then we cluster the outcome and get the GIS data of classification residential areas, analyze it to find the laws of transformation of residential space structure in Shanghai central city. The discussions are addressed in two spatial dimensions (street blocks vs. city). On the scale of street blocks, the characteristics of cluster analysis outcomes are analyzed to show the evolution of residential area categories and the element of land use. On the scale of the whole city, the distribution of various residential areas and its changing trend are analyzed to examine the process of evolution of residential space structure from 1947 to 2000. Three conclusions are drawn. (1) Residential land expanded rapidly in the 1950s and 1990s, slowly from the 1960s to 1970s. Dominant housing transforms from the traditional one (lane house and slum) to the latest type. (2) The diversity of residential area category undergoes from simple to complicated, then from complicated to simple. Land use in residential area also undergoes from uniform to farraginous, then from farraginous to uniform. Both paths are attributed to the industrial land and commercial and municipal services facilities land in terms of the "invasion" and "retreat" from residential area on street block scale. (3) The model of residential space structure has transformed from circle mixed with group model in 1947 to single center mixed with circle model in the 1970s-1980s, then to circle mixed with sector and group model in 2000. The land-leasing system reform impacted residential space structure much after 1988, resulting in the restructure of residential space: the latest type of house replaced old house in the central city, and CBD began to take shape.

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    The African Enclave of Guangzhou: A Case Study of Xiaobeilu
    LI Zhigang, XUE Desheng, Michael Lyons, Alison Brown
    2008, 63 (2):  207-218.  doi: 10.11821/xb200802010
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    Market reform and economic restructuring is reshaping the cities in mainland China. In the last two decades, a spate of studies have examined the transformation of urban social space under the perspective of socioeconomic transition, few lights, however, are shed on the implication of globalization upon urban China. Though the literature of transnationalism has extensively examined ethnic enclaves of Western cities especially the US, little is known about globalizing Chinese cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. This paper takes efforts to examine the newly appeared ethnic enclaves of African traders in Guangzhou, using Xiaobeilu as a study area. It mainly targets on the sociospatial feature as well as the underlying mechanism. The booming of Guangzhou's exporting economy is examined, followed by a general description of ethnic enclaves of transmigrants in Guangzhou. Five enclaves are identified, Sanyuanli, Huanshidong, Tianhebei, Ersha island, and Panyu, while the former two sites, Sanyuanli and Huanshidong, are becoming enclaves of African traders. As such, Xiaobeilu, one part of Huangshidong, is chosen to conduct in-depth studies. Under a microscopic lens, both questionnaires and half-structured interviews are used in the survey of 2006-2007. Though this study will use intensive interviews as the main method, questionnaires target on both Black and Chinese residents of Xiaobeilu are also used, and 45 questionnaires of African Traders have been collected, along with around 43 questionnaires of local residents. Importantly, a total of 46 semi-structured interviews have been successfully conducted, so that abundant qualitative information can be put into use. First, it is argued that Guangzhou's Black ethnic enclave is by no means the same as that of the West. Though the development of the enclave is largely an outcome of 'globalization from below', it is also heavily shaped by the national and local forces. Transnational migrants have been attracted to China as early as 1980, most African traders, however, came to Guangzhou after the door of China opened further in the late 1990s. Located in PRD (Pearl River Delta), one of the world factories of China, Guangzhou enjoys advantaged status in terms of goods export, annual fairs, accommodation, and so on. Moreover, the restructuring of Xiaobeilu is interacting with localities such as Guangzhou's entrepreneurial history and culture. It is found that most transnational migrants of Xiaobeilu come from West Africa and they work as merchants, either floating or fixed, to collect products, such as shoes, clothes and electronic facilities. Africans of Xiaobeilu can be grouped into two types: salesmen and tradesmen, the former is featured by regular mobility of crossing borders, whilst the latter, as Diasporas, has developed social networks to trade between China and Africa. Accordingly, Xiaobeilu is becoming a social field featured by ethnic enclave economy, within which the residents are featured by both high mobility and diversity. Nevertheless, African traders of Xiaobeilu suffer a high possibility of residential segregation. As such, globalization adds Chinese cities such as Guangzhou a new dimension of sociospatial segregation, ethnicity.

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