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    20 January 2013, Volume 68 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Commemorating the 100th birthday of Academician Huang Bingwei: Discussion on the four academic issues in geographic sciences
    LIU Changming, LIU Xiaomang, ZHANG Dan, LIU Xiaoyan, LIU Zhuo
    2013, 68 (1):  3-9.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301001
    Abstract ( 554 )   PDF (1357KB) ( 658 )   Save
    Academician Huang Bingwei, as the founder of geography of new China, is a great thinker and master in the field of geosciences, resources and environment. He made a great contribution to the development of geographic sciences. On the occasion of his 100th birthday, we retrospect the four academic issues presented by Academician Huang Bingwei: "Ecological environment", "Importance of water-energy balance in geographic sciences", "Reasonable assessment of the role of forests" and "Non-cutting-edge science". Furthermore, we discuss the four academic issues based on our research to appreciate his guidance to the successors. Finally, we dedicate this paper in memory of his 100th birthday.
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    In memory of Academician Huang Bingwei
    ZHENG Du
    2013, 68 (1):  10-14.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301002
    Abstract ( 751 )   PDF (444KB) ( 507 )   Save
    As a brilliant geographer, Professor Huang Bingwei, with his erudition and hardworking spirit, made outstanding contributions to contemporary geography in China. He was renowned for his meticulous lectures, and through his didactic approach has guided and helped many young researchers. He encouraged free discussion that was conducive to an enriching academic atmosphere. He contributed many seminal papers to contemporary geography and through his research implemented many policies and strategies that are effective in China today. On the occasion of commemorating this prestigious master, we remember Professor Huang Bingwei's academic achievements in geography and also his sublime moral character. He has left a lasting legacy that promotes the development of contemporary geography in China and builds a bright future for all of us.
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    Inheritance of Huang Bingwei's academic thoughts and research
    LU Dadao
    2013, 68 (1):  15-17.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301003
    Abstract ( 504 )   PDF (340KB) ( 514 )   Save
    As the head of the Institute of Geography under the CAS and The Geographical Society of China, Professor Huang Bingwei made remarkable achievements in geographical sciences for nearly 40 years (from 1950 to the late 1980s). He was a pioneer for promoting the integrated studies of physical and human geography, focusing on the research for national economy and sustainable development. He also contributed a lot in the field of environmental changes as well as the establishment of field experiment and monitoring stations.
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    Global change and integrated geography research: An interpretation of Huang Bingwei's academic thoughts
    LIU Yanhua, WU Shaohong, YIN Yunhe, ZHENG Du, YANG Qinye
    2013, 68 (1):  18-24.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301004
    Abstract ( 526 )   PDF (400KB) ( 925 )   Save
    Professor Huang Bingwei was a grand master and significant pioneer for modern geography in China. He had paid close attention to global change research since the 1960s. He is best known for his great contributions to the research in geography and global change. For honoring Prof. Huang's 100th birth anniversary this year, we systematically reviewed the developing stages of Prof. Huang's research in global change, and made a comprehensive study on his outstanding academic thoughts as well. His foresight ideas of synthetic, regional and uncertainty research on global change have been confirmed and reflected by research application globally in recent decades. In this paper, we discussed the research direction and keynotes of global change and set up its objective and innovation fields in the future to follow Prof. Huang's grand academic thoughts. This retrospect and prospect would be a framework for the development of integrated physical geography confronting with the new situation of global change, and also be a scientific basis for establishing national-level strategies on global change issues and sustainable development.
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    Characteristics of atmospheric dust deposition in snow on the glaciers of western Qilian Mountains
    DONG Zhiwen, QIN Dahe, REN Jiawen, QIN Xiang, XU Jianzhong, SUN Weijun
    2013, 68 (1):  25-35.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301005
    Abstract ( 570 )   PDF (3156KB) ( 1011 )   Save
    Deposition of atmospheric dust was measured in snow deposited on Glacier No.12 at the Laohugou River, Shiyi Glacier in Yeniugou of western Qilian Mountains, China. An analysis of horizontal distribution of dust layers, snow height and concentration of dust in the snow cover suggests that deposition of dust in western Qilian Mountains is different from each other. The characteristics of modern atmospheric dust deposition in snow are different among research sites, as the environment changes from west to east. Mean mass concentration of microparticles with 0.57 < d < 40 μm in the snowpack is 3461 μg/kg and 2876 μg/kg, respectively. Dust flux to western Qilian Mountains has a range of 143.8-207.6 μg/cm2 for particles with 0.57 < d < 40 μm. Dust layers in the snow cover contain Ca-rich materials typically found in Asian dust particles. Vertical profile of Na+ concentration in the snowpack is also very similar to that of dust. Volume size distributions of dust particles in the snow showed single-modal structures having volume median diameters from 3 to 22 μm. SEM-EDX was used for dust micro-topography analysis.
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    Spatial variation and its causes of water chemical property in Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet
    SUN Rui, ZHANG Xueqin, ZHENG Du
    2013, 68 (1):  36-44.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301006
    Abstract ( 470 )   PDF (1671KB) ( 879 )   Save
    Due to the special geographical environment, the water chemical property and its spatial-temporal change over the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is significant to clarify the chemical characteristics of natural water. Hence, a large number of water samples were collected and their chemical parameters were measured from major lakes, rivers and wells in the Yamzhog Yumco Basin, South Tibet. And then the spatial variation of water chemical property and its possible causes were analyzed. The results revealed that the spatial variation of water chemical property was obvious, which might be attributed to the major influence of natural processes and minor impact of human activities. And the detailed results suggested that (1) owing to the outflows existing for Kongmu Co and Puma Yumco, the values of chemical parameters in the two lakes were much lower than those in the other three enclosed lakes (i. e., Yamzhog Yumco, Bajiu Co and Chen Co), (2) the high boron (B) and lithium (Li) concentrations indicated that there might be some boron minerals and magnesites in the southwestern part of the Yamzhog Yumco lake basin, (3) it is the disparate geologic conditions that cause the river water chemical property significantly different from the western and eastern parts which the river flows through, and (4) the drainage distribution could account for the significant differences of the well water chemical property between the southern and northern lake banks of the Yamzhog Yumco.
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    Analysis of sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou City in the perspective of entropy
    LIN Zhenming, XIA Bin
    2013, 68 (1):  45-57.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301007
    Abstract ( 793 )   PDF (838KB) ( 832 )   Save
    The research has been carried out in three steps. Firstly, the evaluation index system of sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem was formed based on the structures and functions of the urban ecosystem and the entropy change of the urban socio-economic ecosystem. Secondly, the sustainable development ability assessment model for the urban ecosystem was built up based on information entropy. Lastly, through combining the time series variation of the evaluation indicators with the entropy weights, this paper analyzed its influence on the sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou, and then put forward some countermeasures to promote the urban ecosystem sustainable development in Guangzhou. The main conclusions of this study could be summarized as follows: (1) The urban ecosystem developed in an orderly and healthy direction with the effective control over the urban environmental pollution problems in Guangzhou between 2004 and 2010. Meanwhile the requirements of the socio-economic ecosystem on the natural ecosystem continuously grew with the rapid socio-economic development in the city. (2) On the whole, the sustainable development ability of the urban ecosystem had been on an upward trend in Guangzhou during the study period. What's more, the ability of the urban natural ecosystem to support the urban socio-economic ecosystem continuously showed an increasing trend and the improvement of ecological environment enhanced the harmony and vitality of the urban ecosystem in Guangzhou.
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    The archaeological sites distribution and its relationship with physical environment from around 260 ka BP to 221 BC in Guizhou Province
    LI Kaifeng, ZHU Cheng, WANG Xinhao, CAO Bo, ZHAO Xiaofan
    2013, 68 (1):  58-68.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301008
    Abstract ( 842 )   PDF (6642KB) ( 1296 )   Save
    According to temporal-spatial distribution of 230 archaeological sites in Guizhou Province, we find that Paleolithic archaeological sites were concentrated in the central, northwestern and southwestern parts of this region, which were karst area with high-altitude and many caves suitable for human settlements. In the Neolithic period, archaeological sites distribution was similar to that in the Paleolithic period, and humans began to select basins and river terraces to reside simultaneously. During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the archaeological sites were mainly distributed in the basins and river terraces, where farming dominated the economy. Lastly, the analysis of climate change in Late Pleistocene and Holocene suggests that climate fluctuations had little impact on human settlements, when people were engaged in fishing, hunting, gathering and farming. However the distinct physical environment in Guizhou played an important role in the changes of archaeological sites distribution, especially the spatial variability of karst landforms and suitable areas for agricultural development.
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    Pollen-based environmental reconstruction around Dajiuhu Lake, Shennongjia Mountains since 40 ka BP
    LI Jie, ZHENG Zhuo, Rachid CHEDDADI, YANG Shixiong, HUANG Kangyou
    2013, 68 (1):  69-81.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301009
    Abstract ( 692 )   PDF (3999KB) ( 1101 )   Save
    A 6-m long core (DJH-1) was obtained from Dajiuhu lake, Shennongjia Mountains, Hubei Province. A total of 7 AMS14C dating data and the identification results of 151 pollen samples revealed the vegetation and climate changes around the study area during the last 40 ka. In the last glaciation, this region was dominated by steppe-meadow vegetation: during the late MIS3 period, it developed from forest steppe in a relatively cold-dry climate (42-39 cal ka BP) into subalpine meadow in wet conditions, associated with the growth of evergreen taxa at lower altitudes. In MIS2 phase, the meadow cover was characterized by the significant increase of Artemisia and possibly accompanied by the development of alpine desert at higher altitudes in extremely cold and dry conditions, due to the high intensification of Asian winter monsoon. Moreover, the shift of vegetation belts during the last glacial maximum indicated that the temperature dropped by about 7℃. Since the deglaciation, forest had expanded, characterized by the increase of cool temperate trees, warm-temperate tree and subtropical trees in sequence. Between 9.4 and 4 cal ka BP, it involved into subtropical evergreen broadleaved and deciduous forest, with the expansion of swamp vegetation, probably corresponding to the Holocene optimum. After ~4 cal ka BP, the increase of cool temperate and coniferous trees suggested that the climate tended to be cool. By comparison with Oxygen Isotope sequences of stalagmites (Hulu and Sanbao caves) in East Asia and ice core (NGRIP) at higher latitude, the results show that the past vegetation changes of Shennongjia area responded sensatatively to the climate changes, and DJH-1 pollen record also recorded H1,YD abrupt events, which further indicate that the past changes in the study area was closely related to the variability of EAM mainly controlled by north hemisphere insolation, and concided with the global changes.
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    Climate change on southern slope of Mt. Qomolangma region in Nepal from 1971 to 2009
    QI Wei, ZHANG Yili, GAO Jungang, YANG Xuchao, LIU Linshan, Narendra R. KHANAL
    2013, 68 (1):  82-94.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301010
    Abstract ( 721 )   PDF (3522KB) ( 974 )   Save
    Based on monthly mean, maximum, minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of Mt. Qomolangma region in Nepal from 1971 to 2009, using climatic linear trend, Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods, this paper analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region. It also made an comparative analysis with the northern slope of Mt. Qomoangma region to clarify the characteristics and trend of climatic change in the entire Mt. Qomoangma region. The results are shown as follows. (1) The annual mean temperature in this region during the period 1971-2009 was 20.0℃, and the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a. The temperature increase was mainly due to the maximum temperature rise in this region. On the contrary, the temperature increase of the northern slope of Mt. Qomoangma region was mainly owing to the minimum temperature rise. In 1974 and 1992, the temperature rose significantly, especially in February and September. (2) The precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm from 1971 to 2009. In this region the annual precipitation had an increasing rate of 4.27 mm/a, but it was not significant. Besides, the characteristic change of monthly or seasonal precipitation was not significant. (3) The annual precipitation in this region was more than that of the northern slope of Mt. Qomoangma region as the result of the combined influences of warm-wet flow and the Mt. Qomoangma barrier. (4) The dependence of climate warming on altitude is not significant in this region where the trend of climate warming is not as significant as that on the northern slope of Mt. Qomoangma.
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    MODIS-based estimation of air temperature and heating-up effect of the Tibetan Plateau
    YAO Yonghui, ZHANG Baiping
    2013, 68 (1):  95-107.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301011
    Abstract ( 735 )   PDF (2400KB) ( 1132 )   Save
    Time series of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data, together with meteorological data of 137 stations and ASTER GDEM data for 2001-2007, were used to estimate and map the spatial distribution of monthly mean air temperatures of the Tibetan Plateau and neighboring areas. Time series and regression analyses of monthly mean land surface temperature (Ts) and monthly mean air temperature (Ta) were conducted using both ordinary linear regression (OLS) and geographical weighted regression (GWR) methods. Analysis shows that recorded Ta is rather closely related to Ts, and that the GWR method has a much better result (adjusted R2 > 0.91, root mean square error (RMSE)=1.16-1.58℃) for estimating Ta than OLS. The GWR model, with MODIS Ts and altitude as independent variables, was thus used to estimate Ta for the Tibetan Plateau. For more than 80% of the stations, the Ta retrieved from Ts had residuals lower than 2℃. Analysis of the spatial pattern of retrieved Ta data showed that the mean Ta of the summer half year was higher than 0℃ even at high altitudes of 5000±600 m of the plateau, especially in the warmest month (July) the Ta in high mountain areas with altitudes of 4000-5500 m could reach as high as 10 ℃. This may help explain why the highest timber line in the northern hemisphere is located on the Tibetan Plateau. According to our results, Ta in July was probably 6-10℃ warmer in the inner plateau than in the outer plateau at any given elevation which resulted from the heating up effect of the Plateau.
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    Evolution of water exchange ability between Dongting Lake and Yangtze River and its response to the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir
    LI Jingbao, ZHOU Yongqiang, OU Chaomin, CHENG Weiyan, YANG Yan, ZHAO Zhonghua
    2013, 68 (1):  108-117.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301012
    Abstract ( 671 )   PDF (3187KB) ( 995 )   Save
    By using the hydrological data of the related control stations in the Dongting Lake region and the Yangtze River mainstream in 1951-2010, this study analyzed the evolution of water exchange ability between Dongting Lake and the Yangtze River and its response to the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) from different time scales based on their hydraulic relationships. The results are shown as follows. Firstly, from July to September, the compensation ability of the Three Outlets into Dongting Lake is stronger, and from January to March, the compensation ability of Dongting Lake into the Yangtze River tends to be stronger. Secondly, there has been an obvious inter-decadal wave on the water exchange coefficient between Dongting Lake and the Yangtze River, namely, in the periods of 1951-1958 and 1959-1968, the compensation ability of the Three Outlets into Dongting Lake tends to be stronger, but in 2003-2010, the compensation ability of Dongting Lake into the Yangtze River are strengthened. Besides, the spill-division ability of the Three Outlets is weakening, and the water of the lake coming from the Three Outlets decreases. As a result, the water of the lake which comes from the Four Rivers in Hunan takes the dominate position, which obviously enhances the compensation ability of Dongting Lake into the Yangtze River in either typical years after the operation of the TGR or under different dispatching modes of the TGR.
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    A study on the scheme of water level regulation of the Poyang Lake hydraulic project
    QI Shuhua, LIAO Fuqiang
    2013, 68 (1):  118-126.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301013
    Abstract ( 672 )   PDF (4394KB) ( 1295 )   Save
    Poyang Lake is an important flood mediation lake of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is also recognized as an important international wetland that provides key wintering habitats for migratory birds. Therefore the proposal for construction of the Poyang Lake hydraulic project has aroused a broad attention from ecologists, environmental protection organizations and the public. Referencing historical hydrological data, distribution data of wintering migratory birds and basic geographical data, and from the perspectives of historical regimes of lake shape and ecological protection of wintering migratory birds, this article presents a study on the scheme of water level regulation of the Poyang Lake Hydraulic Project. The study achieved the following conclusions and suggestions: (1) under the scenario of keeping the lake shape unchanged and protecting the habitats of wintering migratory birds from being affected by the water level regulation of the hydraulic project, the engineering controlled water level should not be higher than 12 meters. Because lower water level does not benefit from the hydraulic project and higher water level does not favor the protection of wintering migratory birds, to balance the interests of engineering benefits and habitat protection, we suggest that certain farmland areas should be returned to lake use in order to promote the execution of the proposed hydraulic project. (2) Based on the information about topography, distribution of migratory birds, residential areas and land use patterns within existing levees, we suggest the area of about 640 km2 should be returned from enclosed lowland to lake use. (3) With the scenario of returning farmland to lake use and following the principle 'regulating lake level in dry season but not in flood season', we put forward the scheme of water level regulation of the Poyang Lake hydraulic project as a reference for the promotion and execution of the proposed hydraulic engineering.
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    A review of evapotranspiration estimation methods in hydrological Models
    ZHAO Lingling, XIA Jun, XU Chong-yu, WANG Zhonggen, LeszekSOBKOWIAK
    2013, 68 (1):  127-136.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301014
    Abstract ( 862 )   PDF (702KB) ( 1211 )   Save
    Actual evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance equation and land surface energy balance equation. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in simulating hydrological effect of climate change, and a review of evapotranspiration estimation methods in hydrological models is of vital importance. This paper firstly summarizes the evapotranspiration estimation methods in hydrological models and then classifies them into integrated discounting methods and classification gathering methods by their mechanism. Integrated discounting methods are usually used in hydrological models and two differences exist among these methods, one is in the potential evaporation estimation methods, and the other difference is the function for defining relationship between potential evaporation and actual evapotranspiration. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing uncertainty in those data, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. Different evapotranspiration calculation methods are used in different hydrological models, and importance and difficulty in the selection of most suitable evapotranspiration methods in various hydrological models with different complexity is discussed. Finally, this paper points out the development direction of the evapotranspiration estimating methods in hydrological models.
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    Article
    Simulation studies of plasma sheet ion boundary
    DING Wei-Zhen, CAO Jin-Bin
    2013, 1 (1):  1505-1514.  doi: 10.11821/xb201301019
    Abstract ( 178 )   Save
    The injection of plasma sheet ion to inner magnetosphere plays an important role during the time of magnetic sub-storm and storm periods. In the past, researches of such injection were all processed by the method of drift path theory of certain magnetic moment particles. In this article, we will extend the past certain magnetic moment magnetosphere particle drift path theory in (U,B) coordinate to certain energy magnetosphere particle drift path theory. Because particle's drift orbit is associated with its charge, we will take proton as an example. Then we will discuss the characters of different energy particles' boundary between their open and close drift path and its variation with Kp index during their transportation to the Earth. In high energy situation, the radial distance to the Earth of plasma sheet ions' boundary will increase with their energy, and the distance in dawn side is much larger than that in dusk side. But in low energy situation, such thing will completely change. The radial distance will decrease with ion energy and the radial distance in dusk side will be larger than that in dawn side. Our simulation results also show that with the increase of Kp index, all boundaries of various energy particles in the plasma sheet will move towards the Earth. But performances of ion boundaries in high and low situations are different. To low energy situation, the inner boundary shape of ion almost keeps constant with the increase of Kp index. To high energy situation, its shape will change remarkably with Kp index. In two extreme cases, that is, E=20 keV, Kp=6 and E=10 keV,Kp=3, the ion boundaries even show two different regions, one is the closed circling Earth region and the other is the isolated tapered region in dawn side. The boundary of plasma sheet certain-energy-E particles is just the connection of energy-E point in various magnetic moments Alfven layer.
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