Table of Content

    20 December 2012, Volume 67 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Comprehensive Evaluation of Land Spatial Development Suitability of the Yangtze River Basin
    TANG Changchun, SUN Wei
    2012, 67 (12):  1587-1598.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3122KB) ( )   Save
    The evaluation of land spatial development suitability is the scientific foundation of spatial pattern optimization and regional coordinated development. So, the comprehensive evaluation of land spatial development suitability in the Yangtze River Basin can strengthen and deepen the understanding of land reasonable development of river basin and guide the river basin government and the sustainable development practice. According to "Three Steps and Four Principles", the county-level administrative area of the Yangtze River Basin is firstly defined, which includes 724 counties. Using the Delphi and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods, the comprehensive evaluation index system and index weight coefficient are established. Furthermore, the single index evaluation and composite index evaluation are analyzed by using GIS spatial clustering method and dynamic weighted summation method, and population-economic spatial coupling degree is calculated by constructing coupling difference coefficient model. The results show that: the overall level of development constraint of the Yangtze River Basin is relatively high, high-value regions (Ⅴ to Ⅷ level) are mainly distributed in the upper and middle reaches of the basin. The spatial concentration degrees of development intensity and development potential are high, and the regional development gap is widening. The area of high value regions of comprehensive evaluation accounts for 22.95% of the total basin area, indicating that the suitable development area is in a minority of Yangtze River Basin area. The coupling difference coefficient between population and economy is 8.70, and the spatial coupling degree between population and economy is low. The variation of land spatial suitability is significant among the upper, middle reaches and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. The high value regions include the Yangtze River Delta region, Hefei city and City Cluster along the Wanjiang River in Anhui Province, City Cluster of Wuhan and Jingzhou-Yichang region, Xiangyang-Nanyang region, City Cluster of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan, Nanchang-Jiujiang-Xinyu region, City Cluster of Chengdu-Chongqing, Guiyang-Anshun region, Kunming city, and most of prefecture-level cities.
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    An Assessment of China’s Ecological Environment Quality Change and Its Spatial Variation
    SUN Dongqi, ZHANG Jingxiang, ZHU Chuangeng, HU Yi, ZHOU Liang
    2012, 67 (12):  1599-1610.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2197KB) ( )   Save
    Ecological environment pressure has been increasing steadily in China over time. The purpose of this paper is to assess ecological environment quality changes and its spatial variation. The data is collected from statistical yearbooks of 31 provincial administrative units in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. It provides a general assessment of ecological environment at provincial level and three economic regions from western to eastern China. In addition, the paper analyzes the trend of ecological environment and the gravity centre change of ecological environment quality. A geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS were used to carry out this study. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. 1) During 1990-2010, the deterioration rate of the ecological environment reduced, but the ecological environment still worsened. The paper argued that this deterioration trend of the ecological environment in China was neither as the results "deterioration trend was under control" which was noticed by the government departments concerned, nor as many other scholars pointed out that "the deterioration rate of the ecological environment is increasingly intensified". 2) On the whole, from 1990 onwards, the ecological environment was worsening in China, but it was improved in some areas. The ecological deficit is still expanding and will continue for a period of time in the future. 3) From western to eastern China, the deterioration rate of ecological environment quality shows a downward trend. The reasons are the good natural environment, as well as the developed regional economy, technology and financial support. 4) As the economy has been developing rapidly in China for a long time, there has been an imbalance among the population, economy, society and eco-environment in the 31 provincial regions. The governments at all levels should give full play to the role of the eco-environmental protection and research. And it is imperative to take concrete measures, such as controlling population, improving environment and promoting sound economic development to balance the socio-ecological system.
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    Green Landscape Evolution and Its Diving Factors in Shenzhen
    CHANG Qing, LI Shuangcheng, WANG Yanglin, QIU Yao
    2012, 67 (12):  1611-1622.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3583KB) ( )   Save
    Green landscape is not only the basis of urban development, but also the carrier of urban ecosystem services. Its dynamic evolution is related to human well-being and urban sustainability. Taking Shenzhen City as a case study, this paper explored the spatial trajectory of green landscape through the urbanization and its evolution mechanism based on TM/ETM + remote sensing data from 1986 to 2005. An improved trajectory analysis of stability mapping, landscape metrics and systematical clustering method were synthetically applied in this study. The results showed that the total area and composition of green landscape in Shenzhen had changed significantly since 1986, and the inflection point occurred around the year of 1995. This indicates that the green landscape change is well consistent with the urbanization process of Shenzhen City. The trajectory of green landscape change involved four process categories, two classes and 13 sub-classes. Quantitatively, the proportion of the transformation process within classes was the highest (30.5%), followed by the stable process (26.97% ), the process of shrinkage & disappearance (22.64%) and the fluctuation process (17.90%), and that of the recovery process is the lowest. So the frequent conversion among green landscape types and the following ecological effects should be a major concern in studies on urban landscape evolution and its effect in the future. Configurationally, the stable forest process and the process of shrinkage and disappearance presented a centralized pattern, two of which formed a conjugate spatial relationship;and the other stable processes and the recovery process presented a relatively centralized or decentralized pattern. After three decades of rapid urbanization, more than 57% of terrestrial areas is covered by green landscape in Shenzhen at present, which is attributed to the topographic conditions and more concrete protection measures such as the basic ecological control line policy, but there are still large amounts of risks for green landscapes. So it is critical to study how to keep sufficient high-quality green landscape for cities in the plains, where the urbanization might extend to a larger extent.
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    Transition Trends of Land-cover in National Nature Reserves of China
    FAN Zemeng, ZHANG Xuan, LI Jing, YUE Tianxiang, LIU Jiyuan, SUN Xiaofang, XIANG Bao, KUANG Wenhui
    2012, 67 (12):  1623-1633.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1416KB) ( )   Save
    A large number of nature reserves have been established in China aiming to prevent ecosystem degradation, protect natural habitats and conserve the biodiversity within the habitats. By the end of 2010, a total of 2588 nature reserves has been established in China and their total area was 149.44 million hectares, covering over 15% of China's total land area. As the primary driver of biodiversity change, land-cover change has direct effect on ecosystem structures and functions. Thus, a quantitative analysis of changes in the land-cover of nature reserves is a critical step for evaluating the effectiveness and improving the management policies of nature reserves. In terms of the ecosystem characteristics and its major protected objects, 180 National Nature Reserves (NNRs) are chosen and classified into 7 types in this paper. A Land-cover Transform Direction Index (LTDI) is developed on the basis of the contribution of each land-cover type to maintaining the ecosystem stability. In Northeast China, North China, East China, South China, Central-southern China, Northwest and Southwest China, LTDI is used to calculate the transition trend of land-cover in the core zone, buffer zone and experimental zone of each NNRs type during the period from the late 1980s to 2005. The results show that the mean transition rate of all selected NNRs types has become lower during the two decades. The land-cover transform rate of Southwest China was the largest, while that of East China was the smallest among the six regions. The mean positive and negative transform rates of land-cover in all core zones decreased by 0.69% and 0.16% respectively. The landscape pattern of land-cover in the core zones was more stable than that in the buffer zones and the experimental zones. The land-cover transformed rate of NNRs was less than that of Non-NNRs in general. Furthermore, the ecological diversity and patch connectivity of land-cover in the whole selected area increased generally during the period 1995-2005. In summary, the land-cover of NNRs in China has a beneficial change trend after the NNRs were established, especially during the period from 1995 to 2005.
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    Evaluation and Spatial-temporal Evolution of Energy Security in China
    LIU Litao, SHEN Lei, GAO Tianming, LIU Xiaojie
    2012, 67 (12):  1634-1644.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2887KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the energy and economy data from 1990 to 2008, this paper develops a model to evaluate China's energy security from both supply and demand perspectives and analyze its spatial-temporal evolution by using factor analysis, ArcGIS spatial analysis techniques and scenario analysis. The results are as follows: 1) National energy security of China shows first a small and then a large inverted "U"-shaped trend during the past 20 years, and is currently at the downward stage of the pattern. 2) The three scenarios for spatial-temporal evolution of regional energy security demonstrate significant differences. Scenario 1 considers only the stability of regional energy supply (α = 1;β = 0). The consequent regional energy security has improved significantly. The evolution of vulnerable regions of energy supply shows an "S” -shaped pattern, and stable regions shows a "Y"-shaped trend. Scenario 2 considers only the security of energy use (α = 0;β = 1). The consequent regional energy security has deteriorated rapidly. The security of regional energy supply and use are roughly in an inverted state. Scenario 3 prioritizes stability of energy supply than security of energy use (α = 0.9;β = 0.1). The consequent spatial distribution pattern of energy security reveals that regional energy security zones of China (sub-strong and strong area) are mainly distributed in the Yellow River Basin, northwestern, southwestern and northeastern parts of China, while vulnerability zones (sub-weak and weak areas) are mainly located in coastal areas.
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    Research on the Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Mechanism of Urban Crime: A Case Study of Property Crime in Beijing
    FENG Jian, HUANG Linshan, DONG Ying, SONG Leilei
    2012, 67 (12):  1645-1656.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1752KB) ( )   Save
    Urban crime problem brought about by the high-speed urbanization has arouse great attention from scholars in different fields, such as social scientists, psychologists and criminologists, whereas geographers place emphasis on the pattern and process of urban crime. In recent years, the Chinese crime information becomes more transparent and open than ever, thus providing a majestic opportunity of urban crime study for the academics. To get a better understanding of the spatial pattern of urban crime, the city of Beijing is chosen as a study area and the software of GIS is employed to collect spatial data. The authors try to establish the quantitative representation of geographical characteristics of the crime associated with urban space, in order to set up the geographical model of urban crime and space. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: First of all, the overall spatial distribution of urban crime in Beijing displays a picture of a polycentric structure and distance-decay. Secondly, the spatial distribution of urban crime has a reference to traffic center, concentration of urban commerce and population migration. Thirdly, the number of suspects and that of location where different types of crime happen have inter-annual variation, while both the total number of crime sites and their criminal density within each district are relatively stable. Fourthly, the spatial-temporal characteristics of sites act on both the participants of the property crimes and the criminal factors, which will decide whether or not an offender can commit a crime successfully. The hot spots and period of time of urban crime in Beijing has a close relation to the fact that the success of committing a property crime is based on a certain condition of sites and time, which appears in Beijing's environment. Finally, the spatial anti-crime strategies of urban crime and the insufficiency of research are discussed.
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    Traffic Flow Simulation Based on Call Detail Records
    WU Jiansheng, HUANG Li, LIU Yu, PENG Jian, LI Weifeng, GAO Song, KANG Chaogui
    2012, 67 (12):  1657-1665.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212007
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    Urban social and economic activity analysis based on mobile location data is a magnificent context for human mobility research and the traffic flow is one of the most basic activities. In order to restore the use of urban transportation network and examine its distribution, we apply a novel approach to draw a traffic flow distribution map of local road network based on a large number of individual cellphone detailed records. We reconstruct details of individual user's mobility and generate its traffic flow step by step: 1. Sampling cellphone records from local operator;2. simulating the random start point and end point for each individual by Monte Carlo;3. working out its route through the shortest path. After sampling and simulating thousands of records in one day, we finally draw a traffic flow distribution map of local road network, in which we uncover that a large portion of roads contains a small portion of flows and vice versa. In further statistical analysis, we reach the 20/80 principle of traffic flow: 20% of the top roads accommodate 80% of traffic flow. And flow distribution of different road types reflects the function of urban transportation networks. This research make a contribution to the reconstructed historical traffic flow distribution, studies on urban road network pattern and scenario simulation of transportation planning.
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    The Evolving Models of Rural Settlements and Population Distribution in Karst Mountains
    LI Yangbing, LUO Guangjie, SHAO Jing'an, CHENG Anyun, WANG Cheng, BAI Xiaoyong
    2012, 67 (12):  1666-1674.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3614KB) ( )   Save
    The typical fengcong depression (peak-cluster depression landscape) and its surrounding areas in the central part of Guizhou Plateau, Southwest China, which lies in the centre of the Southeast Asian karst region, was selected as the study area. A quantitative analysis of the settlement spatial pattern changes was made in village landscape scale coupled with variation process between settlements and population, based on high-precision images in 1963, 1978, 2005 and 2010, and rural household surveys. This paper aims to clarify the evolving model and mechanism of settlements and population in the karst mountains. During the period 1963-2010, the evolution process of rural settlements and population are shown as follows. (1) Some center villages and towns had formed, which developed faster compared with other settlement patches, although the number of settlement patches increased at the same time. (2) The settlements with better natural conditions, roads and bigger initial scales were given a priority to development. (3) The small settlements distributed in the fengcong depression with worse accessibility disappeared or tended to be hollowed villages, due to the emigration of local households to other regions. (4) In the spontaneous changing course of the rural settlements and population, some areas with degraded rocky desertification have been rehabilitated by the reduction of artificial disturbance, but some high quality arable land was occupied by the construction of settlements. It can be concluded that the attraction of accessibility and center villages increase, while the influence of cropland weakens the evolving of rural settlement obviously in the central part of karst mountains of Guizhou.
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    Spatial Differentiation and Place Identity of Chinese Calligraphic Landscape
    ZHANG Jie, ZHONG Honglei, TANG Wenyue
    2012, 67 (12):  1675-1685.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1188KB) ( )   Save
    Calligraphic landscape was defined as a portion of geographical space with a specific visual characteristics and special sense of place resulting from the laying-out of the assemblies of calligraphy as landscape elements. As Chinese calligraphy is at the center of the core of Chinese culture, calligraphic landscape was the typical traditional Chinese culture landscape and an important part of urban cultural landscape. On the basis of different characters of calligraphic landscape, this paper developed an index of calligraphic landscape to measure the spatial differentiation of calligraphic landscape. 19 surveys of calligraphic landscape were done to detect the spatial differentiation. Survey areas included cities and towns in regions such as Beijing, Sichuan, Jiangsu and Hong Kong. The statistical results of calligraphic landscape showed an obvious spatial differentiation phenomenon. Spatial differentiation not only existed among the cities and towns with different cultural attributes and functional attributes, but also existed between the peripheral zone and the core zone within the same cultural or business block. The important factor affecting this spatial differentiation of calligraphic landscape was subconscious cognitive and cultural identity to calligraphy of shopkeepers. The spatial agglomeration of different shops forced by the pursuit of the agglomeration benefits was another important factor. The fact that Chinese people consider calligraphy as a symbol of landscape and culture in subconsciousness have made calligraphic landscape have functions of space delineation and definition, which may contribute to the formation of cultural symbolic space of cities and towns. Research of calligraphic landscape has practical meanings to the protection of traditional Chinese cultural landscape in the process of globalization and urbanization.
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    The Relationship between Tourism Efficiency Measure and Location Accessibility of Chinese National Scenic Areas
    CAO Fangdong, HUANG Zhenfang, WU Jiang, XU Min, ZHOU Wei
    2012, 67 (12):  1686-1697.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4761KB) ( )   Save
    With the synthesized application of data envelopment analysis method and CES production function model, the study estimates the tourism efficiency of Chinese national scenic areas in 1994, 2000 and 2009, and analyzes the internal relationship between tourism efficiency and location accessibility. Combined with the function of GIS spatial analysis, this paper not only simulates the effect of the location accessibility on the overall tourism output of scenic areas as well as on its efficiency change. The results can be obtained as follows: (1) The overall tourism efficiency level of Chinese national scenic areas is lower and the optimal proportion of DEA is smaller, presenting a spatial pattern higher in the eastern region while lower in the central and western regions. In the spatial distribution, the comprehensive efficiency is higher in northeastern, eastern coastal and northern coastal areas, showing a first upward then downward trend. The pure technical efficiency change is similar to that of the comprehensive efficiency. Scale efficiency is increasing generally. However, along with the increase of the number of scenic spots in the area, the increment presents a descending trend. (2) The high value area of tourism efficiency of national scenic areas presents a fan-shaped pattern, that is, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces as the points, Southwest and Northeast China as the axes separately, and the division of population geography as an arc. As for the classification, the comprehensive efficiency of different types including lake, commemoration sites, landscape, leisure and healthcare scenic spots is higher. The pure technical efficiency of mountain and religion types increases gradually. The scale efficiency of forest and landscape types has kept rising. (3) When location accessibility and production elements can meet a certain threshold, location accessibility plays a positive role in promoting the overall tourism output generally, within the local scale the role is still under control. The characteristic of tourism efficiency change is different from that of the overall output variation, forming the spatial pattern of concentration on the negative value area while leaning to the similarities and differences.
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    The Self-narrative Style Interpretation of Hui's Religious Activity Space
    BAI Kai
    2012, 67 (12):  1698-1715.  doi: 10.11821/xb201212011
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    Based on emic perspective, this paper makes a subjective intentionality interpretation of the existential meaning of Hui's religious activity space by the self-narrative style method. After a complete autobiography and immersed thinking, the author holds the idea that there are some characteristics existing in Hui's religious activity space shown as follows: Firstly, homes, mosques and graveyards constitute the core of Hui's religious activity space. Secondly, for Muslim believers, homes, mosques and graveyards are not single physical space, but religious "places" which have unique significances. Thirdly, the author's memories and summaries of the religious functions and meanings of homes, mosques and graveyards illustrate that Hui's religious activity space are characterized by transformation from place to placelessness. The non-place conversion's place point is the mosque. Fourthly, "jie du wa"--a religious ceremony and religious behavior--builds bridges from space to place, from place to placelessness for Hui religious activity space. The analysis and conclusions explicate that Hui's religious activity space has the trait of transition from material religion spatial structure of place to spirit religious space structure of placelessness.
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