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    20 August 2012, Volume 67 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Spatial Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of the County Urbanization in China
    LIU Yansui, YANG Ren
    2012, 67 (8):  1011-1020.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208001
    Abstract ( 1550 )   PDF (4562KB) ( 1906 )   Save
    The spatial and temporal characteristics and the formation mechanism of the county urbanization in China since 1990 were analyzed systematically, using the methods including regional differences, transect and geography detectors. Results show that the temporal and spatial differences of the county urbanization were significant. The "herringbone" shape region pattern of high county urbanization was gradually highlighted, which were made by the counties along the north border and in eastern coastal areas. The county urbanization process of some regions were accelerated and enhanced, including Wuhan metropolitan region, Chengdu-Chongqing region and Guanzhong-Tianshui region. The low county urbanization level was maintained in Southwest China and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau regions. The differences of urbanization and the change rate of county urbanization were converged in China after 2000, but the rate has slowed down since 2000. The county urbanization trend of transects were significantly different, including Lianyungang-Lanzhou railway and Lanzhou-Urumqi railway transects, the Yangtze River transect, the border of north China transect, 106 National Road transect, and the eastern coastal transect. There are many factors affecting county urbanization, mainly including economic development stage, the level of secondary and tertiary industries, rural net income per capita, population density, leading position of grain production, demographic statistics and special arrangements for counties. The high county urbanization in northern border regions was a typical type of statistical unrealistically high urbanization. In the future county urbanization development should follow the geographical differences, highlight its leading function, and adopt multiple urbanization development models such as promoting urbanization intensively in key urban economic development areas, separating urbanization in cropland and grain producing areas, migrating urbanization in ecological and water resource protection areas, suburban areas and urban-based urbanization and other leading county urbanization patterns.
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    The Evolution of Urban-Rural Relationship in Central Cities of China during Transformation Period
    ZHANG Jing, LI Chenggu
    2012, 67 (8):  1021-1030.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208002
    Abstract ( 830 )   PDF (860KB) ( 733 )   Save
    China has been in the stage of overall planning and interactive development of urban and rural areas since 2000. The present paper, taking the central cities as samples, mainly focuses on economic growth and urbanization. It takes the central and periphery areas of the city as the spatial scale, uses panel data to build a series of analytical models by multivariate regression analysis, and reveals the tracks and characteristics of urban-rural relation evolution of China's central cities. The paper draws some conclusions as follows. First, the speed growth of fixed investment, economic aggregation and manufacturing production in periphery counties area shows that the pattern of economic elements gathered in the city center excessively is changing. Second, there is still a distinct gap of the public goods providing and infrastructure construction between urban and rural areas, which is the barrier of urban-rural integrative development. Last, 19 city samples are divided into four groups: center gathering, rural area rapid growth, relative balance development and towards integrative development, indicating that central cities are going through different phases of urban-rural relation development featured by different structures and spatial morphology.
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    China's City Network Characteristics Based on Social Network Space: An Empirical Analysis of Sina Micro-blog
    ZHEN Feng, WANG Bo, CHEN Yingxue
    2012, 67 (8):  1031-1043.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208003
    Abstract ( 1277 )   PDF (4324KB) ( 1638 )   Save
    The change of urban regional spatial structure influenced by information technology has become a hotspot of research at home and abroad. This study tries to analyze China's city network characteristics from the social network space perspective by using Sina microblog as an example. The result shows that China's city network based on the micro-blog social space has a clear hierarchical structure and level distinction. Firstly, the result shows the existence of regional characteristics, performance as a visible regional development pattern which contains "Three Main-regions and Four Sub-regions" according to the analysis of the level distinction in the city network and the connection rate between cities. Specifically speaking, the three main regions contain the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region represented by Beijing, Pearl River Delta region represented by Guangzhou and Shenzhen, and the Yangtze River Delta region represented by Shanghai, Hangzhou and Nanjing. The four sub-regions contain Chengdu-Chongqing region, west coast of the Taiwan Straits region represented by Fuzhou and Xiamen, Wuhan region represented by Wuhan and Changsha, Northeast China represented by Shenyang, Harbin and Changchun. Secondly, the result shows there is a significant difference of the network links among Eastern, Central and Western China. Links within Eastern China and the links between Eastern, Central and Western China constitute almost all of the current network systems. It is also found that the high-level cities have an absolute dominance in the city network pattern, and that Beijing is the contact center in China's city network, with an overwhelming advantage. Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen are the sub-contact centers in the China's city nework.
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    Spatial-temporal Evolution of Rural Gentrification amidst Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study of Xiaozhou Village, Guangzhou
    HE Shenjing, QIAN Junxi, XU Yuxuan, LIU Bin
    2012, 67 (8):  1044-1056.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208004
    Abstract ( 1173 )   PDF (1477KB) ( 1603 )   Save
    Rural gentrification refers to a process in which urban dwellers migrate to rural areas, in a pursuit of consuming the unique cultural ambience and a proximity to nature, with a certain degree of economic capital. It can be explained as the cause of multiple processes in the restructuring of local demographic structure and landscape changing. With special reference to the process of rural gentrification in Xiaozhou Village, Guangzhou, this paper explores the temporal-spatial characteristics of this process, as well as its evolvement alongside the changes in local socio-economic conditions. This paper reveals that there are two main processes in Xiaozhou's socio-spatial transformation, namely gentrification led by avant-garde artists and studentification led by incoming students. Owing to their different spatial demands, rental affordability, and magnitude, these two gentrification processes bring about different physical, cultural, social and economic influences to the local community. Yet, these two processes are tightly connected, and their socio-spatial evolvement experiences different stages of continuation, overlay, and displacement. While the avant-garde artists highlight the aesthetic values of the old architecture in the village, partially as a way to consume the symbolic meanings of rural space and rural landscape, the process of studentification places much more emphasis upon the use of newly built residential spaces and the development of housing spaces. In general, rural gentrification mitigates the economic predicament faced by Xiaozhou Village in a post-productivist era, and does not result in the displacement of indigenous villagers. However, the avant-garde artists are now facing displacement caused by rising housing costs due to the inflow of students. It is worth noting that, indigenous villagers are not the victims of rural gentrification, but become the promoters for the gentrification process through actively engaging in rent-seeking activities. This research also shows that, the differences of rural gentrification between China and Western countries mainly lie in four aspects, namely economic and physical impacts, the relationship between gentrification and urbanization, residential displacement, and driving forces of gentrification. These incongruences result from different socioeconomic background and dynamics of rural gentrification, as well as different land ownership and policies. Overall, this research is of theoretical and realistic significance in terms of examining the characteristics and dynamics of China's rural gentrification, and the unique development trajectory of China's rural community in an era of market transition.
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    Foreign Managers' Perception on Urban Landscape of Place and Their Cross-cultural Identity: A Case Study in Guangzhou
    CAI Xiaomei, ZHU Hong
    2012, 67 (8):  1057-1068.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208005
    Abstract ( 575 )   PDF (728KB) ( 782 )   Save
    Globalization is the main characteristic of the contemporary world. Therefore, there come many global cities which attract a host of migrants at home and abroad. On this trend of migrants' flow, the research on transnational migrant's transcultural and translocal phenomenon plays a key role in the studies of the social and cultural geographies. At the same time, in these global cities, how the transnational migrants feel of the city environment seems to be an essential question to both geographers and the authorities. Since the reform and opening up policy was set up, a great deal of foreign capital has been consistently flowing into Chinese market. Whilst, these transforming flows have brought China numerous transnational companies and foreign employees. The high-star hotels are one of the most international companies which attract many international clients, and staff as well. As a result, high-star hotels can be regarded as the typical and representative micro transnational social spaces in urban areas. In these contexts, this article selects a special socio-cultural groups, that is, the foreign managers who are working in high-star hotels, in Guangzhou, a typical global city in China, as its research objects, using semi-structured interviews and cognitive map's drawing to collect data and information, and draws the following conclusions on how they perceive and identify the urban landscape of place though semi-structured interviews. (1) With professional features, foreign managers hold the passive place identity on the host city, and build up the passive assimilated cross-cultural identity modes. (2) The foreign managers perceive the urban landscape on the basis of their self-identity construction, therefore, they hold strong perception on urban landscapes of place which reflect their identities of 'mine', 'others', and 'global persons'. It means that, they hold complicated place identity on their hometown and the host city, and express both the integrated and marginal cross-cultural modes. (3) The foreign managers hold strong place identity on urban landscapes which represent their positive understanding of the host city, and express the integrated identity; on the other hand, they take the urban landscapes which reflect their negative emotions as the meaningful places as well, and hold the negative place identity and separated cross-cultural identity, based on their understanding of the place meaning of the city. Consequently, the foreign managers' perception of the urban landscapes of place and their cross-cultural identity are influenced by their professional features, self-identity construction and understanding of place meanings. On the basis of the results, we construct the mechanism about the perception on the urban landscapes of place and cross-cultural identity of foreign managers who work in the high-star hotels. The results enrich the empirical research of urban social and cultural geography studies on urban landscapes and transcultural identity, indicate that the urban landscapes are the representations of place meanings, and play significant roles in connecting the relations between people and place. Furthermore, landscapes are as important as place, which can embed different meanings in our everyday life. Also, the results provide the theoretical basis for China's migrant policies and the construction of global cities.
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    Spatial Distribution and Its Affecting Factors of Economy Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity in China: 1990-2009
    LIU Jianguo, LI Guoping, ZHANG Juntao, SUN Tieshan
    2012, 67 (8):  1069-1084.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208006
    Abstract ( 530 )   PDF (1322KB) ( 1015 )   Save
    The paper, using Malmquist index model, estimates China's economy efficiency and TFP (total factor productivity) during 1990-2009 years, and analyzes its affecting factors. The main result shows that China's TFP was fluctuant and fell at an annual rate of 1.35% in the past 20 years. According to the regional division, China can be divided into East, Middle, West, and Northeast regions, among which eastern region's TFP increased with an average of 2.37%, showing a promotion for the significant rise of technological progress efficiency. However, for the rest of China, the total factor productivity shows a decline in varying degrees, and the TFP for Middle, West and Northeast regions decreased by 4.45%, 2.78% and 1.84%, respectively; the TFP decline was due to the decline of technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency in most years. The paper also finds that economic aggregation, human capital, information, infrastructure, open and institution are positive on total factor productivity, while industry, government intervention and land scale are negative on it. However, infrastructure is not significant in statistics. The key findings of the paper have important policy implications.
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    Regional Inequalities in China at Different Scales
    CHEN Peiyang, ZHU Xigang
    2012, 67 (8):  1085-1097.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208007
    Abstract ( 635 )   PDF (6368KB) ( 1097 )   Save
    Analyzing regional inequality is of great significance to both academic enquiry and government policy. The recent literature on economic geography implies that scale has been playing a significant role in the economic geographical processes. Although regional inequality in China has also attracted tremendous scholarly interests since China started to implement policies of economic reforms in the late 1970s, the current work ignores the scalar effects in studying the regional inequality. With the increasing availability of data, this paper employs Coefficient Variance, Theil Index, spatial autocorrelation and scale variance based on the per capita GDP to examine the changing trends and spatial patterns of regional inequalities in China at four different spatial scales, i.e. region, province, prefecture and county. First, we use CV, Theil Index and Moran's I to explore the changing trends of regional inequalities in China and find that they all experienced increasing regional inequalities and significant spatial autocorrelation in regional development at all the four scales. Both of the prefecture and county levels have experienced a process of intensifying spatial autocorrelation. Second, with the scale variance and its component statistic techniques, we discover that there is an increasing sequence according to the scale variances and their components, i.e. county, prefecture, province and region, which indicates that the scalar variance is lower at the smaller scale and the regional inequality at smaller scale contributes more to the whole regional inequality. Third, by using spatial analysis techniques, we find that local spatial autocorrelation patterns have been stable since 1998. The HH type units tend to concentrate in the east coastal area of China. And the significant spatial autocorrelation is largely due to the concentration of LL clusters in central and western China. This paper also concludes that the regional inequality in China merits more investigation at the county level as the county unit is the most stable one in the history of China's regional administrative system.
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    Changing Retail Spatial Patterns in Metropolitan Beijing since 1984
    YU Wei, WANG Enru, SONG Jinping
    2012, 67 (8):  1098-1108.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208008
    Abstract ( 543 )   PDF (1426KB) ( 819 )   Save
    Retailing in Beijing has experienced rapid change in the reform era, and has become an important engine driving the economy. However, there has been little systematic analysis of the retail structure change until recently. It was found beneficial to replace the distance-to-CBD variable by a set of dummy variables in the density functions which are widely used to analyze population and employment distributions. With the aids of the expansion methods of model construction, we formulate econometric model to measure the development of retailing structure change in metropolitan Beijing by the introduction of time variable. It is shown that the greatest growth rate in retail trade has occurred in the inner suburbs, and it is almost twice that of the outer suburbs. The growth rate is the lowest in core urban area. So, there is a relative decline of retail share in urban center, similar to the suburbanization of retail in American metropolitan areas. Since 2000, the pace of development in urban center has increased, and it has dropped in outer suburbs. It is contradictory with the previous notions of "downtown retailing vacuum". Based on GIS spatial analysis methods, the paper illustrates spatial structure of supermarkets in metropolitan Beijing. It demonstrates that following the population suburbanization, the supermarkets are mainly diffused to outside the third ring road while the full-line department stores are mainly located within the third ring road. More domestic supermarkets have been built between the fifth and sixth ring roads and foreign or joint-venture supermarkets are distributed between the third and fourth ring roads. It also indicates that the supermarkets in Beijing have obvious characteristics of spatial concentration including some new towns in the outer suburbs and the large-scale residential areas, but there is no obvious hierarchical structure with retailing and services centers. This study suggests that retail chains in the outer suburbs should be improved.
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    The Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Integrated Impact Index for the Canton Fair: A Study Based on Content Analysis Method (CAM) & the Information Entropy of Chinese Complete Newspaper Database (CCND)
    DAI Guangquan, TAN Jianping
    2012, 67 (8):  1109-1124.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208009
    Abstract ( 594 )   PDF (1576KB) ( 1073 )   Save
    This paper studies spatial-temporal features of its integrated impact index (III) by using the Content Analysis Method (CAM), the concept of the information entropy measurement (Hartley) and statistical analysis through SPSS. The fundamental data are searched from the Chinese Complete Newspaper Database (CCND) by the theme words "Canton Fair" (CF, 广交会), referring to the records of its news reports in newspapers between May 5, 2000 and May 30, 2011. The number of records in total is 4333.
    The findings are as follows. (1) Temporal distribution: The number (N) of the news increased year by year at first and reached the peak in 2006, and then began to decrease. The news reports concentrated in April and October every year. During the fair, the number of news reports of every CF's session decreased from the first phase to the third one. And the interannual change shows an annual periodic duplication by the number of news reports during the three phases. (2) Spatial distribution: The number (N) of news reports about CF and its Hartley of a given region/city are introduced into the CF's III on this region/city. The results show that the newspaper publishing companies are mainly located in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, and that the local/regional ones are concentrated in the east coastal provinces: Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Fujian. The city's III decreases from east to west. This result is similar to the exhibitors' spatial distribution of the 109th Canton Fair. (3) There are some relationships between economic development and distance with the III's spatial distribution reflected by correlation analysis. But Beijing and Shanghai do not obey the distance decay rule. For these two cities, distance is not an important factor affecting the spatial distribution of their IIIs. It is also found that the distance decay rule does not work at a short range within its host province, whilst it works very well beyond certain distance within all the cities except Beijing and Shanghai.
    This study employs the perspective of media, as the media management is by all means a critical consideration of the event organizers. But nowadays with the acceleration of the information transition the media management may be unable to control the spatial distribution of impacts. This viewpoint needs more researches in the future. In addition, the intrinsic factors, such as operation, and extrinsic factors, such as economic structure and information technology development, have significant influence on the impacts of the events. The relationship between these factors is worthy of further study.
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    Spatial Difference and Its Influencing Factors in Ecological Land Rent in China
    LONG Kaisheng, ZHAO Yali, ZHANG Honghui, CHEN Ligen, LU Fangfang, GU Yuanyuan
    2012, 67 (8):  1125-1136.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208010
    Abstract ( 652 )   PDF (1768KB) ( 638 )   Save
    Ecological land rent is an important indicator to measure the social-economic effect of resource scarcity. Based on the assessment data of ecological land rent in per unit economy output and total ecological land rent in China in the years 2002 and 2007, this paper analyzed the spatial difference of ecological land rent with the help of softwares of ArcGIS and GeoDA. And then, it examined the influencing factors of spatial difference of ecological land rent with the method of traditional regression analysis and spatial correlation analysis. The results can be obtained as follows. Firstly, in the research period, ecological land rent in per unit economy output was low in Southwest and Northeast China, while high in Hebei and Henan provinces, presenting a steady situation. The ecological land rent in per unit economy output had an increasing tendency in western and central China and a decreasing one in eastern China. In general, the spatial distribution of ecological land rent in per unit economy output in China was scattered. Secondly, the total ecological land rent of China had significant spatial aggregation in general, and spatial difference characteristics between eastern, central and western China. Accordingly, there were the high-high and low-low clustering regions in terms of spatial distribution of the total ecological land rent. The Bohai Rim, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta were the highly clustering region of the total ecological land rent, and western China had very low ecological land rent in total amount. Thirdly, spatial difference of ecological land rent in China was affected by factors such as population growth, economic development, industrial structure and so on. There was a significant positive spatial correlation between population density, urbanization level, economy density, per capita consuming level, GDP per capita and ecological land rent, which indicates there is spatial clustering between ecological land rent and other factors. But there was a negative correlation between ecological land rent and agricultural output percentage, which shows there is spatial scattering between ecological land rent and agricultural output percentage.
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    Influence Relationship and Mechanism of Tourists' Sense of Place in World Heritage Sites: A Case Study of the Classical Gardens of Suzhou
    SU Qin, QIAN Shuwei
    2012, 67 (8):  1137-1148.  doi: 10.11821/xb201208011
    Abstract ( 651 )   PDF (726KB) ( 896 )   Save
    Sense of place emphasizes local characteristics and emotional links between people and the place. By building structural relationship model, the paper uses confirmatory factor analysis methods to analyze influence relationship and operational mechanism of tourists in the world heritage site, taking classical gardens of Suzhou as a case. The results are shown as follows. (1) The antecedent mechanism and consequences influence mechanism constitutes the "Import-Export" system mechanism, operation process and result is influence relationship mechanism of tourists' sense of place in classical gardens. (2) Tourism involvement, tourism function and tourist attraction are antecedent variables of sense of place, which has a significant impact on tourists' sense of place, among them, tourism function has the greatest influence (0.420), and the influence of tourism function is the least (0.341). (3) The formation of sense of place has an important effect on tourists' attitudes and behavior of heritage protection, especially on behavior of heritage protection rather than on attitudes of heritage protection. The meta-analysis of antecedent variables and consequences of sense of place and discussion of influence relationship mechanism has important reference meanings; besides, the research points out new direction for heritage conservation and tourism development of China.
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