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    20 July 2012, Volume 67 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Concept and Characteristics of GIS Language
    HU Zui, TANG Guo'an, LU Guonian
    2012, 67 (7):  867-877.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207001
    Abstract ( 791 )   PDF (783KB) ( 1233 )   Save
    Language plays an important role in communication, sharing and conveying information for human beings. GIS language is very important in understanding, researching, representing and transmitting geographical information. It gradually evolves and develops with promotion of the science and technology progress and cognition level. Concerning with the theoretical progresses from the geographical information ontology, espistemology and linguistic theory, this paper firstly proposes the conception and basic features of GIS language according to the geographical language's changes in language structure, function and characteristics. GIS language could be regarded as a synthetic and digital symbolic system. It is a comprehensive representation of geographical objects, phenomenon and their spatial distribution and dynamic processes. This representation helps us to generate a universal perception of geography space by the geographical scenarios or symbols with geometry, status, processes, temporal-spatial relationship, semantic and attribution features. Furthermore, this paper states that GIS language is a new generation geographical language by its intrinsic characteristics, structure, functions and systematic content. As the former's theoretical foundation, the paper definitely illustrates the important status and contributions of the GIS language to geographical researches. All in all, GIS language is the new geographical language with some new features including temporal-spatial multi-dimension representation, interactive visualization, virtual geographical scenario, multi-sensor sensing, expediently broadcasting with web, in current new era.
    GIS language is the highest level of geographical language because it integrates the semantic definition, features extraction, geographical dynamic representation and temporal-spatial unifying computation of geographical objects. GIS language have five important characteristics: abstraction, systemization, strictness, definition and hierarchical structure. In summary, GIS language provides a new tool for the recognition, understanding and simulation of the whole geographical environments. So, the exploration of GIS language's function in contemporary geographical development becomes increasingly important. Meanwhile, the construction of the conceptual model and scientific systems of GIS language will promote the development of geography discipline and geographical information sciences. Therefore, the paper forecasts the GIS language's future development from the viewpoints of digital technologies, geography norm, geography discipline development and geographical modeling.
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    Features of Soil and Water Loss and Key Issues in Demonstration Areas for Combating Karst Rocky Desertification
    XIONG Kangning, LI Jin, LONG Mingzhong
    2012, 67 (7):  878-888.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207002
    Abstract ( 1130 )   PDF (2983KB) ( 1567 )   Save
    Very little information on water and soil loss in karst areas is available. Moreover, traditional methods of assessing soil loss are difficult to apply to this area. In this paper the authors analyze the features of water and soil loss based on location monitoring during the five years (2006-2010), in demonstration areas for combating karst rocky desertification (KRD). The following conclusions are obtained. (1) Soil erosion showed a decreasing trend after a series of comprehensive treatments in the three study regions, and erosion was macroscopically mitigated in terms of landform types. (2) The slope cropland is distributed extensively in Yachi mountain region and erosion is thus serious. With better natural conditions and ecological economy development, erosion in Hongfenghu basin is relatively weak. Due to the severely poor soil cover, the amount of soil erosion is extremely low in Huajiang gorge. (3) Ecologic rehabilitation is the key to combat KRD. Closing hillsides to facilitate afforestation and water conservation are effective measures for the mitigation of soil and water loss. Grassland and economic forests bring both economic and ecological benefits. (4) KRD degrees differ greatly in slope gradient and soil layer. Further classification for soil erosion in karst areas should be proposed based on KRD degrees. (5) Hazard evaluation of subterranean soil loss is one of the tough tasks at present. However, control of key parts such as sinkholes is the efficient way to prevent subterranean loss.
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    Spatial-temporal Difference Analysis of Cultivated Land Use Intensity Based on Emergy in Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone
    XIE Hualin, ZOU Jinlang, PENG Xiaolin
    2012, 67 (7):  889-902.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207003
    Abstract ( 635 )   PDF (1211KB) ( 986 )   Save
    This paper introduces a measurement method for cultivated land use intensity by using indexes of farming input with its emergy terms, which is applied by taking Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone as a research object. This paper conducts an analysis of the time series feature of labor intensity, agricultural machinery intensity, fertilizer intensity, pesticide intensity and agricultural film intensity in the study area from 2000 to 2009. Then, taking the five emergy indexes as a common basis, temporal and spatial changes of cultivated land use intensity as a whole are analyzed. Results are drawn as follows. 1) In the 10-year period, cultivated land use intensity increases exponentially in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone; the agricultural machinery intensity has the largest proportion of the total inputs, exceeding 99.50%, and increases year by year, which indicates that the agricultural mechanization is the general trend of agricultural development in the zone. 2) The total number of counties belonging to highly and less intensive use of cultivated land is the largest, while that belonging to further and extensive use of cultivated land is the smallest. 3) This zone can be divided into five areas of cultivated land: eastern area with further use, central-eastern area with less intensive use, central area with highly intensive use, southern area of moderate intensive use, and northern area of moderate intensive use. 4) The counties with cultivated land use Intensity level coordinating its economic development increase year by year and the socio-economic development has more and more obviously effects on the cultivated land use intensity. Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions on development plan of intensive cultivated land use in the Poyang Lake Eco-economic Zone, especially in the counties at different levels of intensive land use.
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    Response of Prehistoric Culture to Climatic Environmental Changes since Holocene in Zhejiang, East China
    WU Li, ZHU Cheng, ZHENG Chaogui, LI Feng, MA Chunmei, SUN Wei, Li Suyuan, SHUI Tao, WANG Xinhao, SHAO Shixun, ZHOU Yao, HE Tingting
    2012, 67 (7):  903-916.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207004
    Abstract ( 957 )   PDF (6366KB) ( 1332 )   Save
    This paper conducts comparative studies on the distribution of prehistoric cultural sites of Zhejiang Province. The results show that Zhejiang prehistoric culture expanded gradually in this region before 4000 cal. a BP. The notable expansions occurred twice and at the same time the prehistoric culture was disseminated from west to east coast along the river valleys. After 4000 cal. a BP, prehistoric cultural sites-distributed region contracted obviously due to the termination of spreading trend to east coast, which was accompanied by two kinds of economic transitions of Zhejiang. The distribution of prehistoric cultural sites was closely related with sea level fluctuation in Holocene, especially on the banks of the Hangzhou Bay. The changes of prehistoric culture and the climatic environment are identical to each other. It is evidenced that the development, expansion and contraction of prehistoric culture are positively correlated to the climatic environmental change. The change of climatic environment is just the root cause for this change and transition of the economic formation. So the climatic environment is the dominant factor of the Zhejiang prehistoric culture vicissitudes, which has exerted great influence on distribution, dissemination, expansion and transmutation of the culture.
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    Spatial-temporal Evolution of Aeolian Desertification and Landscape Pattern in Horqin Sandy Land: A Case Study of Naiman Banner in Inner Mongolia
    DUAN Hanchen, WANG Tao, XUE Xian, GUO Jian, WEN Xing
    2012, 67 (7):  917-928.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207005
    Abstract ( 752 )   PDF (1352KB) ( 963 )   Save
    Taking Naiman Banner as the typical region, based on remote sensing, geographic information system, landscape ecology and mathematical statistics and other methods, using MSS images in 1975, TM images in 1992, 2006, 2010 and ETM + images in 1999 as data source, we examined dynamic changes the land aeolian desertification of the study area in recent 35 years, and on this basis, we discussed spatial-temporal evolution of landscape pattern of regional land aeolian desertification so as to provide reference for desertification control and eco-environmental restoration in the Horqin Sandy Land. The results show that (1) in the past 35 years, the aeolian desertification area decreased by 123.43 km2 with a reversal trend. Aeolian desertified land mainly experienced a process of increase to decrease; (2) landscape pattern changes in volatility, before 1999, landscape shape index and Shannon's diversity index increased, contagion and aggregation index decreased, and the fragmentation and desertification were intensified, the dominant types were moderate and severe aeolian desertified land. After 1999, the degree of fragmentation abated, and the desertification degree decreased obviously, moderate and light aeolian desertified land took the leading position; (3) the centroids of light and moderate aeolian desertified land moved obviously from 1975 to 2010, that of light aeolian desertified land moved 6.35 km to the northeast, and that of moderate aeolian desertified land moved 7.24 km to the southwest.
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    Changes of Ice-thickness and Volume for Representative Glaciers in Tianshan Mountains in the Past 50 Years
    WANG Puyu, LI Zhongqin, LI Huilin, WU Lihua, JIN Shuang, ZHOU Ping
    2012, 67 (7):  929-940.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207006
    Abstract ( 800 )   PDF (865KB) ( 1095 )   Save
    Changes of glacier volume is directly related to glacial water resources and contribution of glacier changes to river runoff. With the support of GPR-3S technology, this paper studied ice-thickness and volume changes of the four typical glaciers in the three areas of Tianshan Mountains in recent years based on radar survey data, high-resolution remote sensing image, topographic maps and observation data. Furthermore, a comparison was made between the changes of these glaciers and the possible causes for the differences were analyzed. Results indicated that Urumqi Glacier No.1 underwent thinning of 0.15 m a-1 with the ice-volume loss of 26.2 × 106 m3 and retreated by 3.8 m a-1 during 1962-2006. During 1986-2009, the ice tongue of Heigou Glacier No.8 on the south slope of Mt. Bogda thinned by 0.57 m a-1, corresponding to the loss in ice-volume of 25.5×106 m3. At the same time, the terminus retreated by 11.0 m a-1. The ice-thickness of Glacier No.4 of Sigong River located on the north slope of Mt. Bogda decreased to 0.32 m a-1 with an ice-volume loss of 14.0×106 m3 over the period 1962-2009. The glacier terminus retreated by 11.0 m a-1 in the same period. For Qingbingtan Glacier No.72 in the Tomor region, the ice tongue thinned by 0.22 m a-1, corresponding to a loss of ice-volume of 14.1 × 106 m3 during 1964-2008. The glacier terminus retreated by 40.0 m a-1 in the same period. Results indicated that Qingbingtan Glacier No.72 retreated most intensively, followed by Heigou Glacier No.8, which differed slightly from Urumqi Glacier No.1 and Keqikaer Glacier. However, its changing magnitude was slightly larger than that of Glacier No.4 of Sigong River and Hami Miaoergou Glacier, indicating that such differences were directly influenced by regional climate change and physical features of glaciers.
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    Response of Water Resources to Climate Change and Its Future Trend in the Source Region of the Yangtze River
    LI Lin, DAI Sheng, SHEN Hongyan, LI Hongmei, XIAO Jianshe
    2012, 67 (7):  941-950.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207007
    Abstract ( 590 )   PDF (3158KB) ( 906 )   Save
    By using the hydrological and meteorological observational data as well as impact data set (version 2.0) about climate change in China published by the National Climate Center in November 2009, the variations of flow and its climate causes are analyzed in this paper. The results indicate that the surface water resources show an increasing trend in the source region of Yangtze River in recent 51 years, especially after 2004, the trend was very obvious, and there were quasi-periods of 9 years and 22 years; Tibetan Plateau heating field enhanced, plateau monsoon went into a strong period, precipitation increased notably, and glacier melt water increased due to the climate change, all of which are the main climate causes of water resource increase in the source region. Based on the global climate model prediction, in the SRESA1B climate change scenarios, the water resources are likely to increase in this region in the next 20 years.
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    Changes of the Snow Cover Days on Tibet Plateau in Last 40 Years
    TANG Xiaoping, YAN Xiaoli, NI Maji, LU Hongya
    2012, 67 (7):  951-959.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207008
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (2685KB) ( 634 )   Save
    By using the snow cover days data on the Tibet Plateau during the period 1971-2010, the spatiotemporal changes of the snow cover days are analyzed. The results indicate that there is a snow cover of over 60 days in the fringe area of the northeastern and southern parts of the region. The snow cover days have a significant decreasing trend in the western and southeast parts, and the largest decline is observed in Nielamu, reaching 9.2d/ 10a. The snow cover days have quasi-cycles of 2 years, 4 years, 8 years, 14 years and 17-18 years acros the region, but quasi-cycles of 2 years, 4 years and 8 years occur in the southern and western parts. There is a significant negative correlation between the snow cover days and the mean winter air temperature, while there is a significant positive correlation between the snow cover days and precipitation in the central and western parts of Nagchu, the fringe areas of the northeast and the south margins and areas along the Yarlung Zangbo River.
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    The Spatial-temporal Changes of Vegetation Restoration on Loess Plateau in Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Region
    LI Shuangshuang, YAN Junping, WAN Jia
    2012, 67 (7):  960-970.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207009
    Abstract ( 837 )   PDF (6379KB) ( 1065 )   Save
    The "Grain for Green Project" initiated by the governments since 1999 were the dominant contributors to the vegetation restoration in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of northern China. Climate change and human activities are responsible for the improvement and degradation to a certain degree. In order to monitor the vegetation variations and clarify the causes of rehabilitation in Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Region, this paper, based on the MODIS-NDVI and climate data during the period 2000-2009, analyzes the main characteristics, temporal-spatial distribution and reasons of vegetation restoration, using methods of linear regression, the Hurst index, standard deviation and other methods. Results are shown as follows. (1) From 2000 to 2009, the NDVI of the study area was improved progressively, with a linear tendency being 0.032/10a, faster than the growth of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program (0.007/10a) from 1982 to 2006. (2) The vegetation restoration is characterized by two fast-growing periods, with an "S-shaped" increasing curve. (3) The largest proportion of the contribution to vegetation restoration was observed in the significantly improved area, followed by the slightly improved area and the significantly degraded area, the last of which is distributed sporadically over southern Ningxia as well as Huanxian, Zhengyuan and eastern Dingbian of Gansu. (4) Climate change and human activities are the two driving forces in vegetation restoration; moreover anthropogenic factors such as "Grain for Green Project" were the main causes leading to an increasing trend of NDVI on local scale. However, its influencing mechanism remains to be further investigated. (5) The Hurst index of NDVI time series shows that the vegetation restoration was sustainable. It is expected that improvement in vegetation cover will expand to the most parts of the region.
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    Sources Identification and Hazardous Risk Delineation of Heavy Metals Contamination in Rizhao City
    Lü Jianshu, ZHANG Zulu, LIU Yang, DAI Jeirui, WANG Xue, WANG Maoxiang
    2012, 67 (7):  971-984.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207010
    Abstract ( 1072 )   PDF (3757KB) ( 1619 )   Save
    A total of 445 surface soils samples were collected at the nodes of a 2×2 km grid from Rizhao City and analyzed for 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Sources of heavy metals pollutant and the differences of contents among various land use types and parent material were revealed by multivariate analysis; meanwhile, spatial distribution of hazardous risk from heavy metals contamination was given by geostatistics based on GIS. The results are shown as follows. (1) The mean concentrations of As, Co, Cr and Cu were lower than the background values (BV) in eastern Shandong Province, respectively; but those of Cd, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn exceeded the BV, especially for Cd and Hg (1.85 and 1.38 times of BV, respectively), indicating distinct accumulations of some heavy metals in soils of Rizhao City. (2) A total of 10 heavy metals could be classified as 4 Principal Components (PCs), including PC1 (Co, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn), PC2 (Cd, Pb), PC3 (As, Cu), and PC4 (Hg). PC1 and PC3 were the factors dominated by natural sources, PC2 represented the factors from industrial, agricultural and traffic sources, and PC4 was contributed by industrial sources. Pb and Zn with a high load in different PCs might originate from the mixed sources including anthropogenic and natural sources. (3) There were significant differences in Cd and Hg contents among various land cover types with the highest level in urban areas. The concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni in the soils from weathered granite and metamorphic rock were all higher than those in the soils from alluvial and marine deposits. (4) The single element, elements integration and the corresponding PC presented similar spatial patterns of hazardous risk. The high risk regions with comprehensive assessment on all elements were located in densely-populated urban areas and western study area, which was attributed to the higher geological background in the western part and strong human interference in the eastern part.
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    Characteristics of Phosphorus Sorption on Surface Sediments of Hongze Lake
    YANG Wenlan, JIANG Gongcheng, WANG Zhaoqun, ZHANG Shuhai, HUANG Hui
    2012, 67 (7):  985-991.  doi: 10.11821/xb201207011
    Abstract ( 434 )   PDF (1649KB) ( 523 )   Save
    Sorption behavior and adsorption-desorption equilibrium mass concentration of phosphorus on surface sediments samples taken from Hongze Lake at nine sites were determined in laboratory, the correlation between chemical-physical properties of sediments and their phosphorus sorption characteristics were analyzed. Under low mass concentration conditions, the maximum phosphorus sorption capacities were 50.67-85.17 mg/kg, and there was a negative sorption process during phosphate sorption on surface sediments. The zero equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) of the sediments ranged from 0.06 to 0.11 mg/L, less than the level for the overlying water, showing a positive phosphate adsorption on surface sediments. The maximum phosphate adsorption, NAP and the total maximum phosphate adsorption were positively correlated with active iron and active aluminous contents in the sediments, but had poor correlation with total P, organic P, inorganic P and organic matter in the sediments. The zero equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) had poor correlation with chemical-physical parameters of surface sediments.
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