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Table of Content

    20 June 2012, Volume 67 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Impact of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge on the Traffic Pattern of Pearl River Delta
    WU Qitao, ZHANG Hong'ou, YE Yuyao, SU Yongxian
    2012, 67 (6):  723-732.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206001
    Abstract ( 2126 )   PDF (4489KB) ( 4440 )   Save
    The construction of transportation infrastructure has a profound influence on regional and urban development. The trans-river passage or bridge can greatly enhance the transport and economic connection of the urban agglomerations separated by the river or strait. This research aims to examine the impact of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) on the transportation pattern in Pearl River Delta. With the help of ArcGIS Desktop10, the traditional accessibility assessment model was conducted to analyze the changes of accessibility before and after the construction of HZMB. The model was modified to illustrate the non-transportation-network grids in details. The grids were evaluated by geographical factors (water surface, elevation or slope) or land use types instead of being regarded as homogeneous in traditional model. The result shows that the time accessibility of Hong Kong and Zhuhai is greatly improved with the HZMB, more than 28% of the area reduces 1-hour to Hong Kong under the condition of the HZMB, while the other cities in the Delta are not as significantly improved as the former two. The HZMB can sharply reduce the transport cost of the West and East of the Pearl River estuary, and more than 11% and 27% of the region saves the cost for the cars or trucks respectively. With different crossing tolls, the research indicates that the affected region remains the same, but the changed extents of different zones vary considerably. The research believes that the HZMB exerts a significant influence on the transportation pattern of the Pearl River Delta, compresses the time and space between Hong Kong and Zhuhai-Macao, and it significantly improves the importance of Zhuhai-Macao, which may change the Delta from "bi-Hubs" to "tri-Hubs". Finally, this paper analyzes the impact of the HZMB on the industry of commerce and trade, tourism, real estate, regional logistics network and so on. It is concluded that the customs policy and other trans-river passages can exert an potential influence on the HZMB.
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    Study on Commuting Flexibility of Residents Based on GPS Data: A Case Study of Suburban Mega-communities in Beijing
    SHEN Yue, CHAI Yanwei
    2012, 67 (6):  733-744.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206002
    Abstract ( 996 )   PDF (3147KB) ( 1167 )   Save
    Commuting is one of the most important parts of travel behavior, which has been widely studied by geographers, planners and transportation researchers based on questionnaire data, and the rapid development of location-based technologies and ICTs bring new opportunities for deep insight of commuting with tracking data. The study focuses on variability in commuting behavior in different weekdays, introduces the concept of activity flexibility and brings forward a concept of commuting flexibility. Four dimensions, i.e., time, space, travel mode and route choice, are used to define the concept of commuting flexibility, and seven theoretical commuting patterns are put forward according to discussion on the relationship between four dimensions of commuting flexibility. The study takes two suburban mega-communities in Beijing, i.e., Tiantongyuan and Yizhuang, as study cases. It collects seven days of space-time data of individual behaviors through a web-based survey, which is a combination of activity-travel dairies and GPS tacking data. On the basis of the analysis of commuting behavior, the study explores measures and characteristics of four types of commuting flexibility and represents the activity-travel trajectories in a 3-D GIS environment. The concept of commuting flexibility proves to be effective and reasonable for a better understanding of complicated commuting behaviors of Beijing's residents. The study also provides a special perspective for Beijing's urban and transportation problems.
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    The Spatio-temporal Variations of Urban Private Car Ownership in China and Their Influencing Factors
    HUANG Xiaoyan, CAO Xiaoshu, LI Tao
    2012, 67 (6):  745-757.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206003
    Abstract ( 828 )   PDF (3046KB) ( 1246 )   Save
    Based on the data of 235 cities in China, this paper explored the spatio-temporal variations of urban private car ownership in China from 1990 to 2009. Then, selecting 10 explanatory variables and building panel data model, this paper analyzed the factors determining the growth in urban private car ownership in China, and also quantified the relative importance of each explanatory variable to private car ownership growth. The empirical results are shown as follows. (1) The development of urban private car ownership presented a phasic variation characteristic, and had significant spatial agglomeration and regional differentiation. (2) Spatial disparities of private car ownership increased first and then decreased, presenting an inverted U-shaped pattern. Since 2000, inter-regional spatial disparities of private car ownership have decreased, while intra-regional disparities have increased. (3) Economic factors were the primary determinants of private car ownership. The variation of private car ownership presented an S-shaped curve with income increases. Urbanization level has significantly positive effect on private car ownership, while it has negative effectin metropolises and mega-cities. (4) The rise of city scale with urban spatial expansion would lead to increased demand for private vehicles use. Increases of urban population density can inhibit the rapid increase of private car ownership. (5) The development of public transportation and taxi can inhibit the increase of the number of private cars in Chinese cities to a certain degree, but not notable. With the expansion of city scale, the inhibiting effect of the development of public transportation on the increase of the quantity of private cars increased.
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    Research on Carbon Cycle and Carbon Balance of Nanjing Urban System
    ZHAO Rongqin, HUANG Xianjin, PENG Buzhuo
    2012, 67 (6):  758-770.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206004
    Abstract ( 942 )   PDF (1006KB) ( 904 )   Save
    Cities are areas where human energy activities and carbon emission concentrated. The study on carbon cycle of urban system is helpful to understand the role of cities in the regional carbon cycle process, and can provide theoretical reference for establishing urban carbon emission estimation standard and low-carbon urban development pattern. Based on the method of IPCC and other researches, systematic urban carbon storage and carbon flux estimation methods was established, carbon cycle of urban system of Nanjing city was studied, and carbon storage, carbon flux and carbon balance of Nanjing city were analyzed. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The total carbon storage of Nanjing city presented a slow rising trend. In 2009, the total carbon storage was 6937?104 t, in which natural carbon storage accounted for 88%. Human carbon storage, especially the carbon pool in urban greenbelt and buildings presented a drastically increasing trend. (2) Vertical carbon input flux of Nanjing city mainly included photosynthesis and water carbon absorption. Lateral carbon input flux rapidly increased and reached 3043?104 t, in which carbon input by energy and timber increased and carbon input by food deceased. (3) Vertical carbon output flux rapidly increased and reached 3295?104 t, in which carbon emission by fossil energy use accounted for nearly 80%, but carbon from natural process only accounted for 6%, indicating that human carbon emission constituted the main part of urban vertical carbon flux. Lateral carbon output flux presented a declining trend, which included energy products, aquatic products and organic waste. (4) In the past years, the carbon output was higher than carbon input of Nanjing city, and the balance between them showed an expanding trend. Generally, the percentage of hidden carbon flow and the carbon needed for manufacturing decreased, which indicated that the carbon efficiency was increasing. (5) Carbon compensation rate of Nanjing city obviously decreased, which indicated that the terrestrial carbon sink function of Nanjing city were not enough to compensate the anthropogenic carbon emissions, and the carbon balance of Nanjing city was seriously disturbed, which caused the increase of carbon cycle pressure.
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    Characteristics and Mechanism of Village Transformation Development in Typical Regions of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    LI Yurui, LIU Yansui, LONG Hualou
    2012, 67 (6):  771-782.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206005
    Abstract ( 624 )   PDF (1030KB) ( 611 )   Save
    China's agriculture and rural development have made great achievements since the reform and open-door policy was initiated. However, it can be seen clearly that agricultural foundation of China is still weak, rural development is still lagging behind, and the increase of farmers' incomes is still unstable. Village is definitely the main battlefield of solving problems related to farmers, agriculture and rural areas (so called "San Nong Wen Ti" in Chinese) and building new countryside, so it is of great theoretical and practical value to carry out studies on the evolutionary process and dynamic mechanism of village development. This study aims to explore the evolutionary processes, common features and general mechanism of village development in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, a representative of China's traditional agricultural regions, based on systematic analysis of development history and mechanism of five villages in three counties with different types of rural development. The main contents and results were summed up as follows: (1) Factors that influence village development. Geographical location, economic basis, resource and environment endowments, social capital and human capital are internal influencing factors; macroeconomic environment, institutional arrangement, market demand, professional techniques and government support are external ones; accidental factors from interior or exterior village may catalyze, lubricate or block village development. (2) Common features of village development. Grassroots participation is the core concept and basic principles that should be adhered to during the course of village development; the integration of internal and external motivation is the objective needs of village development and rural elites play an important role during the process, in particular, they are usually the key actors of motivating and integrating the desire of internal and external participants; to seize high value-added part of value chain is the strategic orientation of village industrial development; innovation is one of the most important engines driving village development; strategy, planning and executive force are also vital supports for village development; and overall, village development is a dynamic process of self-organizing and network forming. (3) General mechanism of village development. Local villagers are the main body of village development, and rural elites are the core element. Based on a systematic insight into the local resources endowment, development willingness, market demand, government's policy orientation, external experiences and so on, the rural elites exert themselves to stimulate the internal motivation and integrate the external motivation, and then these actors jointly build the collaborative organization, learn for innovation, formulate development strategy, carry out division of labor and participate in market competition, so as to accelerate the optimization of local village's bio-physical structure, techno-economic structure and institutional-social structure, and as such the village may realize a transitional development. These findings may contribute to the theorizing of village transformation development in contemporary China and benefit local democratic decision-making, land consolidation and the development of high-benefit industrial agriculture in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain.
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    Development of Specialized Villages in Various Environments of Less Developed China
    LI Xiaojian, ZHOU Xiongfei, ZHENG Chunhui, Scott ROZELLE
    2012, 67 (6):  783-792.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206006
    Abstract ( 900 )   PDF (1919KB) ( 674 )   Save
    Theoretical framework on formation of specialized villages was proposed by using rational small household, division of labour and specialization and distance decay and neighbourhood affect theories. These theories from economics and geography determined the formation of specialized villages, but the types of the specialization are related to resources endeavor and environmental conditions of the villages. The paper illustrates the change of the economic structure of villages by applying mathematical models, stating that various geographical conditions surrounding a village leads to different marginal production efficiency, therefore forming specified production structure. If a village's environment proves suitable for certain production or service, then a relevant type of specialized village may emerge. Based on theoretical analysis, we use the census data of specialized villages in Henan Province in 2010, applying dummy variables representing 16 types of specialized villages, and selecting environmental variables such as landform, location, arable land area and labour force from a spatial database from government authorities. The regression results from the OLS models indicate a significant impact of village environmental conditions on village specialization: (1) more labour force leads to lower specialization; (2) abundant arable land benefits specialization; (3) the closer location to its county site results in higher probability of specialization on agricultural processing industry; (4) existence of a wholesale market may increase specialization on relevant villages, especially for agricultural processing and animal husbandry industries; (5) the villages located in hilly terrain show less probability on specialization than others, mainly caused by difficulties in transportation and shortage in arable land; while mountainous environment provides resources for the development of specialization. Results from qualitative models indicate diverse environmental impact in different types of specialized villages. Positive impacts of land availability are observed in tea plantation, tree nursery and fruit farm. Labour force assists the formation of labour intensive production such as floristry. Accessibility benefits specialization in fruit, vegetable production and floristry. Results of this study can be applied to policy making for guidance of specialization under various environmental conditions.
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    Key Influencing Factors of Food Security Guarantee in China during 1999-2007
    SONG Xiaoqing, OUYANG Zhu
    2012, 67 (6):  793-803.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206007
    Abstract ( 610 )   PDF (1281KB) ( 948 )   Save
    Exploring the key influencing factors of food security guarantee during the typical period is of significance for the development of cultivated land protection and agricultural policy. This paper aims at exploring the factors between 1999 and 2007 which was in the new period of cultivated land protection administration. Methods such as comparison, spatial and econometric analysis are used to analyze the change in cultivated land productivity which was the cause of the disparity between cultivated land area and grain output changes. Results show that farmers' willingness to grow grain which determines cultivated land use intensity is the key factor. The sustained improvement of the willingness in 2003-2007 was mainly resulted from the rise of grain market price. Meanwhile, direct subsidy merely inspired farmers' anticipation for the profit of grain growing at the beginning years of implementing this policy. In addition, suggestions on the development of cultivated land protection are proposed involving improvement of farmers' willingness to grow grain, optimization of inputs in grain growing and improvement of cultivated land protection models.
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    Research on the Leisure Space Patterns in Beijing during the Ming and Qing Dynasties
    WU Chengzhong, HAN Guanghui
    2012, 67 (6):  804-816.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206008
    Abstract ( 786 )   PDF (9602KB) ( 1257 )   Save
    The Ming and Qing dynasties were the periods when the function of the capital was gradually substantiated and consolidated in the feudalist society of China. At present, the historical geographical studies on Beijing City have focused on the urban interspatial structure and its evolution, the distribution and transformation of political, commercial and religious sites and Xuan Nan literati culture district, but it’s still necessary to study the recreational geography of residents including the royal families, nobles, scholar-bureaucrats and civilians in Beijing city during the Qing and Ming dynasties.
    This paper focuses on the interspatial distributions and transformations of some recreational sites of Beijing city in the Qing and Ming dynasties, such as royal hunting sites, Xinggong, royal garden landscape spots, temples, temple fairs, gardens, markets, assembly halls, theatres, tea shops, restaurants and so on.
    The conclusions of this research can be drawn as follows.
    The changes of the city space structure influenced the development of recreational sites of Beijing. During the Ming Dynasty, the western suburbs and the west district of inner city became the important recreational areas. There were landscape tourism attractions in the western suburbs, temples in the inner city and the western suburbs, gardens in the east and west district of the inner city, temple fairs in the western suburbs, markets in the west district of the inner city, assembly halls in the east of the inner and outer city. The construction of the outer city improved the development of recreation sites.
    In the early Qing Dynasty, the policy of Manchu people and the Han people residence in different areas stimulated the development of recreation sites in the outer city, and the west district of the outer city became the recreation center of Beijing. In the Qing Dynasty, landscape tourism attractions were located in the western and northern suburbs, temples in the western suburbs and the west district of the outer city, gardens in the western suburbs, the west district of the outer city, the west and east district of the inner city, temple fairs in the western suburbs, the west district of the inner city and the west and east of outer city, markets in the west district of the outer city, assembly halls, theatres and restaurants in the west district of the outer city.
    During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the recreation areas in Beijing went through the formation and evolution period when 14 recreation areas during the Ming Dynasty had formed and 19 ones during the Qing Dynasty.
    The formation and transformation of the structure of recreation sites resulted from the physical geography environment (recreation resource), regional situations (transportation, markets, and residential districts), the character and function of the capital, the folk-culture, and the politics.
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    Analysis of the Urban Social Areas in Urumqi
    ZHANG Li, LEI Jun, ZHANG Xiaolei, DONG Wen
    2012, 67 (6):  817-828.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206009
    Abstract ( 707 )   PDF (1991KB) ( 914 )   Save
    This paper uses the factorial ecological analysis and cluster analysis (Ward's method) to explore the social spatial structure of Urumqi in 2011. The result reveals that major factors under consideration for the components of social structure in Urumqi include minority population, the intelligentsia, workers and retirees; government civil servants, higher management and service staff, floating population from outside Xinjiang and agriculture population. According to the factor scores in 2011, the city of Urumqi can be divided into six types of social areas: (1) ethnically mixed areas, located in the eastern part; (2) the intelligentsia areas, exhibiting a multi-nuclear pattern; (3) areas of workers and retirees, located in the northwestern, northeastern and eastern parts; (4) densely-populated areas with civil servants, senior management and service staff, located in the urban core areas, which are also the most developed areas of Urumqi; (5) areas of floating population from outside, located around the core area; (6) agricultural areas, located in the northern suburbs. On the whole, the concept model of the urban social structure in 2011 mainly exhibits a sectoral and multi-nuclear pattern with no obvious concentric structure. Urumqi's socio-spatial structure has formed on the basis of physical geography in the 250 years of development, which has been influenced by factors of socioeconomic development, government policies and urban planning. Urumqi has in common with and also differs from major domestic cities in aspects of the impact factors of social areas, ethnic composition, occupational composition and spatial distribution of the floating population, and the pattern of social spatial structure.
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    Distributions of Population and Employment and Evolution of Spatial Structures in the Beijing Metropolitan Area
    SUN Tieshan, WANG Lanlan, LI Guoping
    2012, 67 (6):  829-840.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206010
    Abstract ( 1072 )   PDF (1085KB) ( 1453 )   Save
    This study aims to examine the characteristics and changes of the spatial structure in the Beijing Metropolitan Area with the rapid urban growth and decentralization, through analyzing the spatial distributions of urban population and employment. To demonstrate the spatial evolution of population and employment distributions in the Beijing Metropolitan Area, we apply the nonparametric analysis in this study. Our study finds that the significant population and employment subcenters in the suburbs of the Beijing Metropolitan Area, characterized by the polycentric urban spatial structure. Since the 1980s, with the suburbanization of population, the number of population subcenters has increased in the Beijing Metropolitan Area, and the distribution of population subcenters has expanded from the inner suburbs to the outer suburbs. The overall trend toward the decentralization and polycentrification of population is evident, whereas the spatial extent of the decentralization of population is limited in the Beijing Metropolitan Area. Contrary to the decentralization of population, our study finds that the centralization of employment in the Beijing Metropolitan Area from 2004 to 2008 has led to the weakening influences of the outer suburban employment subcenters as well as the decline of the polycentricity of the spatial structure. This implies the spatial pattern of the Beijing Metropolitan Area may still be highly centralized, and the nature of the monocentric urban spatial structure may not be fundamentally changed. Meanwhile, the decentralization of population and the centralization of employment may lead to the overall jobs-housing imbalance. Therefore, to form the polycentric spatial structure, it is necessary to reinforce the agglomeration economies of suburban subcenters and improve the overall jobs-housing balance in the Beijing Metropolitan Area.
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    Housing Choice of Urban Residents in China Based on the Transformation of Cultural Values: A Case Study in Chengdu
    YANG Yongchun, TAN Yiming, HUANG Xing, LIU Dinghui
    2012, 67 (6):  841-852.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206011
    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (1011KB) ( 777 )   Save
    In the process of the rapid change and transformation of cities, the housing choice of urban residents is influenced by traditional cultural values and the modern cultural form of western countries, so that there is a new cultural value system with the changing of times and more diversity. Based on cultural values perspective, we analyzed the model and mechanism about settlements and residential choice of Chinese urban residents, and built the conceptualization of theoretical models about settlements and residential choice from residents in Chinese urban areas under the planned economic system as well as in the transitional period. By taking Chengdu as an example, we had access to data of face-to-face interviews and revealed the impact of cultural values in housing choice of urban residents in China. It is concluded that the cultural values can affect the mode and results of urban housing choice in the four angles of the macro- and micro-views of the location choice, educational philosophy, support and maintenance, and marriage, and that with the growth of the younger and the age increasing of the older, the mode of living cross-generational has showed a cyclical characteristic of the family in China.
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    Influence Path and Effect of Climate Change on Geopolitical Pattern
    WANG Limao, LI Hongqiang, GU Mengchen
    2012, 67 (6):  853-863.  doi: 10.11821/xb201206012
    Abstract ( 951 )   PDF (835KB) ( 909 )   Save
    Marked by the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen 2009, climate change is shaping the new pattern for future geopolitics with unprecedented drive. Climate change has surpassed the category of pure environment problem and become a focal issue in international relations. Under the drive of climate change, new changes have taken place in the evolution of geopolitical patterns. (1) Geopolitical contention expands into new fields and regions. (2) Measures and tools of geopolitical contention have become more diversified. (3) Main bodies of geopolitical gambling can be divided into defferent groups. With the development of politicization, climate change has become the driving force to have significant influence on the evolution of geopolitical patterns. Measures, sphere and contents of geopolitical contention changed dramatically, carbon emission permits, carbon tariff, new energy technology turned into the key points of geopolitical contention. Climate change acts on the evolution of geopolitical pattern through three main paths: "Trace back effect", "Feedback effect" and "Ripple effect", and they exert influence on geopolitical pattern in three aspects: "Traceability effect", "Depression effect" and "Diffusion effect". We draw several conclusions from the analysis: (1) climate change tends to be one of the most active driving forces to have impact on the evolution of geopolitical patterns in the present world and it diversifies the geopolitical targets; (2) climate change generates new geopolitical tools. The developed countries use climate change as a "lever" to pry strategic resources such as energy and grain, and the geopolitical means can be used in a more secretive way; (3) low carbon economy, with new energy technology as the core, becomes the key factor of geopolitical influence and power transition. Those who can take advantage of new energy technologies will occupy the leading position in climate change negotiations and geopolitical competition in the future.
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