Table of Content

    20 December 2011, Volume 66 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Major Objectives and Implementation Methods for Human Geography toward the Tendency of Physical Science
    LU Yuqi
    2011, 66 (12):  1587-1596.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (598KB) ( )   Save
    The development of contemporary human geography shows a diverse tendency. Physical science should be the base of human geography, and the tendency of physical science will be the unavoidable choice and unique way for future development of human geography in China. According to the disciplinary property of human geography and the need of Chinese economic social development, the tendency of physical science should not be a passive target but an initiative pursuit. There are two elementary goals. One is building a relatively complete theory system of regional spatial structure. It is necessary to discover new regional spatial structure patterns, construct evolution model of the central place system and find the internal logical relationship among different structure patterns from the perspective of typology and phylogeny. The other is constructing relatively complete methods of spatial analysis. The region can be divided into homogeneous region and functional region, and furthermore be decomposed into three fundamental elements: point, line, and area. The theoretical framework of spatial analysis for human geography in this article is constructed by the technologies to explore and express the spatial coupling inter- and intra-elements. Expanding the accessibility analysis technology, integration of economic models and spatial analysis technologies, construction of the comprehensive system of spatial-temporal spectrum spatial analysis, and discovery of new spatial analysis technologies based on the extension of space concepts, should be the significant fields of spatial analysis for human geography in the future. To achieve these goals, we should establish scientific thinking patterns, integrate resource and environment basis, improve the long period analysis of historical process from the perspective of phylogeny and fully use modern technology such as mathematical model and GIS technology.
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    Effect of MAUP in Spatial Autocorrelation
    CHEN Jiangping, ZHANG Yao, YU Yuanjian
    2011, 66 (12):  1597-1606.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (918KB) ( )   Save
    This research investigated the role of modifiable area unit problem (MAUP) in the spatial autocorrelation on data of per capita GDP of China and grid simulated data. The global Moran's I coefficient was used to explore the MAUP effect of spatial autocorrelation statistics. The results showed that the degree of spatial autocorrelation of variables depends on the size of spatial particles and zone designing methods. However, there is no determined function relationship between the change of spatial units and the autocorrelation. So, how to choose the appropriate size of geographical unit particles and zone designing are very important in the research of spatial autocorrelation. Finally, the study presented an approach based on geostatistical interpolation to decrease MAUP effect in spatial autocorrelation analysis.
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    On the Theory of Regional Integrated Transportation Costs
    WU Wei, CAO Youhui, LIANG Shuangbo
    2011, 66 (12):  1607-1617.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (598KB) ( )   Save
    At present, important advances in transportation costs studies have been achieved at sector and enterprise levels. However, at the regional level, relevant studies focused primarily on the impacts of transportation costs. Based on the regional perspectives and macro-scales, this paper attempts to build a theoretical framework on the regional integrated transportation costs, which consists of its concept, the main influencing factors, the measurement model, the mechanism of pattern formation and changes, and the spatial-temporal evolution rules. For a particular geographic unit, the regional integrated transportation cost is a general measurement of the resistance of passenger and cargo flows, which is greatly influenced by the integrated transportation accessibility, the passenger and freight traffic scale, and the external costs of transportation, with the integrated transportation accessibility serving as a fundamental role. On this basis, the integrated transportation costs index is built to reflect the difference among node costs. The formation and evolution of the pattern of regional integrated transportation costs is the comprehensive result of the distribution pattern of transportation infrastructure, the stage of economic and social development, and the relevant policies. In general, spatial pattern evolution of integrated transportation costs follows a four-stage evolution model: Primary Divergence - Convergence - High Convergence - Divergence. The integrated transportation costs decrease gradually over the time, and its spatial distribution evolves from the initial equilibrium to non-equilibrium, and eventually to the high-level equilibrium.
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    The Research Trends of Ecosystem Services and the Paradigm in Geography
    LI Shuangcheng, LIU Jinlong, ZHANG Caiyu, ZHAO Zhiqiang
    2011, 66 (12):  1618-1630.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (561KB) ( )   Save
    As studies on ecosystem services are becoming a hot spot among scientists, a research paradigm needs to be built in related discipline fields such as geography. This paper reviewed the progress, problems and trends of studies on ecosystem services at home and abroad. Furthermore, aiming at the topics and problems in current ecosystem service studies, we proposed a geographical paradigm and priority themes in this field. It is suggested that spatial heterogeneity and regional difference should be taken as entry points to study ecosystem services from geographical perspectives. Researches should be focused on the theme of ecosystem structure and function-ecosystem services-human well-being, and take the coupling connections between "ecosystem services offered by natural system and then internalized consumption of socioeconomic system" as the core research theme for comprehensive analysis of the response of socioeconomic system to the internalization of natural capital. We can promote integrated research on geographical sciences by constructing the geographical study paradigm of ecosystem service, which can not only expand the study capacity for ecosystem services, but also raise the level of comprehensive studies on social-ecological system. In addition, we should offer an important practical field for the study of human-land relationship, which is the core issue of geography.
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    Rising Role of Inland Regions in China's Urbanization in the 21st Century: The New Trend and Its Explanation
    CAO Guangzhong;LIU Tao
    2011, 66 (12):  1631-1643.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (958KB) ( )   Save
    Much global attention has been paid to China's stable and rapid economic growth and urbanization in recent 30 years of the reform and opening-up. Using a decomposition method, this paper extracts the contribution of each province from the national urbanization, and then divides it into growth effect and migration effect, which respectively represent performances of cities in the province in absorbing rural residents from villages in the province per se, as well as migrants from other provinces. Major findings are outlined as follows. (1) The coast-inland gap had been characterized by spatial disparity of China's urbanization for a long time until the new century. The east coastal provinces, with the most remarkable urban expansion and urban population growth, have contributed 49% of the national urbanization due to special policies and location advantages. Although the urbanization there was going at a slower pace, its contribution to China's urbanization was still the greatest, with a peak of more than 60% in the late 1990s. (2) In the early 21st century, especially since 2005, however, inland regions have played a rising role in the national urbanization. As a consequence both to high speed of local urbanization and to the reduction of emigration, contributions of central and western China to the national urbanization have increased rapidly. In the recent period of 2005-2008, for instance, either of them contributed about 30% of the total urbanization. Although their gap to eastern provinces still exists, it comes mostly from inter-regional migration, or the migration effects. The growth effects of eastern, central, and western China are all about 30%. (3) Based on the regression results, three new regional development policies, known as Western Development, Revitalization of Old Industrial Bases in Northeast China, and Rising of Central China, have promoted the national urbanization by some 0.06 percentage point every year, which is about 8.7% of the total contribution of inland provinces, although there are not significant impacts on the mechanism of China's regional urbanization. (4) The effect of regional development policies is derived not only from the direct investment from governments but also from the subsequent domestic and foreign investment. The large scale construction of infrastructure driven by these investments has narrowed the coast-inland gap under policy and location conditions. Consequently, return migration and industrial transfer from coastal provinces to inland regions have ultimately resulted in the abovementioned rising role of inland regions in China's urbanization in the 21st century.
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    Rural Development and Transformation in the Federal Republic of Germany since the 1950s
    MENG Guangwen, Hans GEBHARDT
    2011, 66 (12):  1644-1656.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1260KB) ( )   Save
    The Federal Republic of Germany has become the largest economy in the European Union and ranks fourth worldwide, but unbalanced regional development still exists between the urban and rural areas, and especially between West and East Germany. Based on a dynamic regional and cultural landscape analysis, this paper summarizes the rural developmental process and characteristics in Germany since the 1950s, concerning an increase of the labour productivity and landscape change followed by a decrease of the agricultural and farm scale. After then, it analyzes the different rural development paths and the features both in East and West Germany. After the socialist transformation, traditional agriculture and villages in East Germany were transformed to socialist agriculture and collective farms featured by large-scale farms, industrial management and urbanization. Since this system did not meet EU standards, the system was abandoned after the German reunification, which led to massive emigration to urban areas, especially to West Germany. Followed by a short re-urbanization, West Germany experienced a de-urbanization process from the 1960s to the 1970s. A lot of enterprises and young people moved to the rural areas, in which formed many attractive settlements. However, the urbanized buildings, and wide and straight streets destroyed the original structure and natural scene of the villages, although their infrastructure and public facilities were greatly improved. Since the 1970s, West Germany has formulated the rural development plan, rural renewal plan, and carried out an action plan called "Our villages should be more beautiful", which aimed to improve the quality and variety of the agricultural products, to develop rural real estate, and rural service industry. The four development trends for German rural areas in the future are high-tech agriculture, renewable energy (bio-energy), rural service industry, eco- and natural parks. On the basis of experience of Germany and recent rural development of China, this paper discusses the urban-rural integrative development path of China as follows: formulating and improving the rural development policy, integrative planning framework and action plan;encouraging participation of the residents in rural planning;urban-rural integration including rural urbanization and modernization;urbanization of several villages near to the city, and modernization of infrastructure and public facilities, preserving the rural spatial structure and traditional scenes of others with cultural and historical value;improving quality and variety of agricultural products, developing rural real estate and rural service industry;carrying out an ecological immigrants policy in fragile regions, and establishing eco-parks and natural parks.
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    Evaluation on the Coordination of Ecological and Economic Systems and Associated Spatial Evolution Patterns in the Rapid Urbanized Yangtze Delta Region since 1991
    WANG Zhenbo, FANG Chuanglin, WANG Jing
    2011, 66 (12):  1657-1668.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1100KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the Landsat TM remote sensed imageries in the periods of 1991, 2001 and 2008 Yangtze Delta Economic Region, and taking 90 counties in this region as basic units, this paper builds spatial data transformation models, i.e., the ESV and the EEH models. Spatial analysis of massive vector and raster data were done within the environment of ArcGIS 9.3. The ESV index and the EEH index reveal the relationship between economic development and eco-environment system of the Yangtze River Delta and its evolution . Furthermore, the function regionalization and the model modification were developed. The results are shown as follows. (1) Since 1991, the conversion of land-use type has been significant, and the city and town land has converted mainly from the paddy field, dry land, grass land, garden plot and other lands. (2) The ESV model shows that the eco-system tends to be degraded in the 9101 period of time, while in the 0801 period, the degradation trends are less significant. At the same time, it proves that the development pattern of the conversion of water body and paddy field to the city, town and dry land deteriorated the eco-system severely. (3) Since 1991, GDP in the central and southern parts is lower than that in the northern, and GDP growth rate in the central part for the 9101 period is higher than that in the northern, while in the 0108 period, it is higher than those in the central and southern parts. (4) According to EEH index, the paper divides Yangtze Delta Economic Region into 12 zones. The spatial characteristics of the EEH are: ecological conflict zone and ecological coordination zone are located in the center and fringe areas respectively, presenting a "core-fringe" structure in the "low to high" order, and in 9101 period eco-economic relationship tends to be concentrated on initial degradation, while in 0108, it converses to dispersed degradation and coordination. (5) Using the model of spatial data transformation, five types of eco-economic evolution are identified, namely, initial degradation zone, initial coordination zone, continuous degradation zone, reduced coordination zone and increased coordination zone. (6) Finally, the paper summarizes the spatial evolution patterns of the Yangtze Delta Region: the coexistence of the gradient mode and the core-fringe mode. The former consists of three horizontal belts in the northern, central and southern parts as the first grade gradient mode and of three N-S belts along the east, middle and west for the second grade gradient mode. The latter consists of seven groups, which are Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou group, Nanjing group, Shaoxing-Ningbo group, northern Jiangsu group, Taizhou group, Hangzhou group and Nantong group. Different modes correspond to different evolution patterns of the eco-economic system, which reflects a spatial differentiation trend of eco-economic relationship at a high level.
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    Geography of Multinational Corporations in China: An Empirical Study of Fortune Global 500 Multinational Corporations in Electronics and Medical and Chemical Industries
    HE Canfei, XIAO Xiaojun
    2011, 66 (12):  1669-1681.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (842KB) ( )   Save
    As transportation and communication technologies develop, multinational corporations are motivated to split different functions along the value chain across locations. Following China's gradual open door policy, multinational corporations (MNCs) have taken an evolutionary approach to enter the Chinese market, gradually increasing their resource commitments and expanding their geographies as they gain local knowledge and develop capabilities in host economies. As a consequence, the geographical agglomeration of foreign investments in China can be understood by the location and co-location of different functions invested by MNCs sequentially. Based on data from the Fortune Global 500 MNCs in electronics and medical and chemical industries investing in China during 1979-2008, this study found that MNCs have gradually expanded in China functionally and geographically. Statistical results suggest that sequential investments have led to the spatial clustering of MNCs' functions in both industries. MNCs from the same country tend to agglomerate in the same cities and there are substantial cross-functional agglomeration effects. Market potential and political status are additional attraction to MNCs' investments. MNCs attach greater importance to agglomeration effects more than institutional advantages. The empirical results indicate that globalization force is a critical factor in restructuring the Chinese urban system, upgrading the functions of top tier cities and enhancing the control power of top cities.
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    Agglomeration and Suburbanization: A Study on the Spatial Distribution of Software Industry and Its Evolution in Metropolitan Shanghai
    BI Xiujing, WANG Mingfeng, LI Jian, NING Yuemin
    2011, 66 (12):  1682-1694.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1032KB) ( )   Save
    Due to the continuing global economic integration, global cities are increasingly becoming the nodes of command function and the sites of knowledge and innovation production. In China, ICT sectors including software industry started to cluster in major metropolitan areas since the 1990s, and have become the driving engine of the economy. However, the distribution of software industry is spatially uneven, and spatial factors significantly influence its location decision. Although lots of scholars have focused on this phenomenon and analyzed the spatial pattern of software industry in developed countries, little attention has been paid to metropolitans in China. There is a need to explore how the software firms are distributed in Chinese metropolitans in the transformation period. In this paper, we attempt to discuss the spatial distribution of software firms in Shanghai. We select the information of software firms in the years 2002 and 2008 as our basic dataset to compare the difference of the spatial pattern in different years and explore their mechanism with the aid of GIS. The result shows that agglomeration and suburbanization are dominant characteristics in the distribution of software industry in Shanghai. During the process of suburbanization, we find firms in different types, different scales, and different ownership can lead to different locational decisions. The suburbanization of small firms is more obvious. Based on the empirical analysis, accessibility, politics and the previous distribution pattern have a significant effect on the spatial evolution of software industry in metropolitan Shanghai.
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    Study of Tourist Perception after the Special Natural Disaster: A Case Study of Jiuzhaigou after "5.12" Wenchuan Earthquake
    LI Min, ZHANG Jie, DONG Xuewang, ZHONG Shi'en, CAI Yongshou, SHANGGUAN Xiaoyan
    2011, 66 (12):  1695-1706.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (699KB) ( )   Save
    To know tourists risk perception and impact of disasters on tourist behavior is the first step for post-disaster tourism market recovery and tourism industry relief. This study tried to explore the relationship among tourist risk perceptions, the perception of disaster's impact on destination, tourists satisfaction, and loyalty. Taking the Jiuzhaigou as the case study area, we conducted an on-site questionnaire survey with 572 domestic tourists visiting Jiuzhaigou, a world natural heritage in earthquake-hit area, in nearly one year after the massive "5.12" Wenchuan earthquake. Based on a structural equation modeling and analysis, some results can be obtained as follows. (1) The less tourists perceived risk, the less they perceived negative disaster's impact on destination;the less the perceived negative disaster's impact on destination, the higher level of satisfaction with the destination;and the higher the level of tourist satisfaction, the stronger the loyalty to the destination;vice versa. (2) It was not tourists' risk perception level but the perceived impact of disaster on destination had direct influence on tourist satisfaction. The loyalty to the destination was positively related with satisfaction during both post-disaster recovery and normal periods. This investigation also concluded that, except perceived negative disaster's impact on destination, tourists' risk perception, satisfaction and loyalty varied significantly by gender and age. Therefore, the strategic priority should focus on reconstructing the destination safety image and easing tourists' risk perception, especially for women and the youth. Finally, comprehensive management recommendations and suggestions have been put forward and discussed for tourist market recovery of disaster-hit destinations.
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    The Micro-scale Analysis of Rural Settlement Land Use Pattern: A Case Study of Gouge Village of Yesanpo Scenic Area in Hebei Province
    XI Jianchao, ZHAO Meifeng, GE Guansheng
    2011, 66 (12):  1707-1717.  doi: 10.11821/xb201112011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1090KB) ( )   Save
    Gouge Village is located in Yesanpo scenic area in Hebei Province, and only 100 km away from Beijing city. It has become a typical tourism-based village with the development of Yesanpo scenic area. In this study, the land use pattern change of Gouge Village was analyzed by using the participatory rural appraisal methods (PRA), combined with GIS technology and remote sensing image. The results are shown as follows. (1) There were three stages on the land use pattern evaluation during the past 25 years including slow initial phase, rapid expansion phase, and smooth development phase. The stages presented a dual expansion process from the core to the periphery, as well as from the plane to space. During this process, the intensive degree of land use increased greatly. (2) The evolution of land use pattern of tourism-oriented village caused the deconstruction of traditional village function. The function was changed from villagers' living to the tourists' needs, including the accommodation, shopping, catering and entertainment. (3) Main factors, including the village's natural geographical environment, the tourism market demand, the government's progressive regulation, the household rational choices, have contributed to this changes in different stages. In addition, the results showed that the current land use patterns are not sustainable. We suggest that the rural land use pattern should be a major concern associated to the needs of tourists. In addition, we should strengthen rural land use planning and institutional system to promote the transformation and upgrading of Gouge Village.
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