Table of Content

    20 October 2011, Volume 66 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Industrial Distribution and Clusters of Urban Office Space in Beijing
    ZHANG Jingqiu, CHEN Yelong
    2011, 66 (10):  1299-1308.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (954KB) ( )   Save
    The study on the industrial structure of urban office space helps to understand the formation of spatial structure of economic activities. We select 594 office buildings as the study samples. The location data of the samples are selected from 1921 office buildings that the research group gathered for two consecutive years by using Trimble Juno SB handheld GPS in six districts of Beijing. Most of the industrial attribute data came from e-Buy Data Information Company, and the rest of them came from the questionnaire and telephone interviews done by the research group. Using spatial analysis methods such as buffer analysis and Ripley's K (d) functions, we analyze the distribution of office industries and spatial clusters in which the office activities have gradually replaced the manufacturing activities in urban economic transformation. Furthermore, the study tries to reveal the spatial structure of economic activities in inner city of Beijing as follows. (1) Generally speaking, the choice of office industry location has obvious centrality in Beijing. Its company and employment density show a decreasing trend from inside to outside, which accords to the circle structure with Tiananmen Square as the center as well as 5 km, 10 km and 15 km as the radius buffer zones. (2) There is a significant difference in the spatial distribution of the industry, featured by "east higher and west lower". The high function area in the city has strong ability to attract employees. The spatial distribution patterns are generally identified in three modes of concentration. Wholesale and retail, social services and technology services present a "large scatter, large cluster" mode, namely, many companies cluster in the hotspots and the range is wide. Transportation and financial sectors have a "small scatter, large cluster" mode, that is, spatial distribution of the large companies show relative concentration and form a wider range of concentration hotspots. The construction, real estate, education and culture industries have a "large scatter, small cluster" mode. (3) The trend of spatial industrial concentration is similar, showing the way of increasing first and then decreasing as an inverted "U"-shaped structure. Owing to the different spatial scales, the office location of social services and wholesale and retail have the largest range of options; the financial industries gather in a specific area, and their location range options are small; transportation, storage and postal industries have a trend to a significant traffic location. The companies with higher absorptive capacity of employment in various office buildings tend to be located along the lines of communication. Thus, transportation condition is still an important factor affecting office location choice. In addition, different concentration features of the office sectors at various scales reflect the differences of selected range of office location.
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    Spatial Distribution of Affordable Houses in Cities: A Case Study of Wuhan Based on DEM
    ZHANG Zuo, LI Jiangfeng, CHEN Shuang, LIU Yanzhong
    2011, 66 (10):  1309-1320.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (804KB) ( )   Save
    Affordable housing is associated with social welfare. The spatial location of affordable houses will determine the location of low- and medium-income households in cities, and thus urban social and economic development. The spatial location of affordable houses is concerned with site selection and social equity. A new concept - spatial welfare, and its method of calculation, are proposed. This paper uses Wuhan in Central China as an empirical case study. Spatial locations of affordable houses in this city are investigated by using GIS, DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and the concept of spatial welfare. A discussion of their site selection and spatial quality allocation in a microscopic view is presented in the end.
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    The Consumption of Body-building and the Construction of Place in a Metropolis
    LIN Geng, SHEN Jianping
    2011, 66 (10):  1321-1331.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (753KB) ( )   Save
    How consumption restructures man-land relationship is becoming an important subject in human geography, with the coming of global consumption society. Western geographers began to study the connection between consumption practice and geography early in the 1990s, and today the research has already extended to the issues such as geographical imagination, place identity and space production, all of which could be reflected in consumption relationship. As a way of life under urbanization, consumption of body-building has become an important topic in the interdisciplinary field of body geography, space imagination and place construction. This paper analyzes how the actors translate body-building by some qualitative methods, on the basis of place theory of constructivism and actor network theory. The authors believe that the actors' consumption relationship socially constructed a "healthy paradise", which is geographically imagined, and the consumption imagination is highly connected with the stability of discourse power. Geographical space produces both functional consumption relationship and node-typical man-land relationship, and the latter imaginatively embeds local consumption relationship into global consumptive cultural network, which then links and extends local man-land relationship into globalization. By the way of body practice, the consumption relationship of body-building under actor network reconstructs micro-location into a place with multiple levels. Compared with traditional dualistic man-land relationship, the man-land relationship constructed by consumption of body-building is manifold. Here, place is a crucial node where reality is mixed with virtual world, and locality is intersected with global world. Therefore, place has the function of representation for social discourse. The conclusion indicates that a kind of manifold-and-node man-land relationship could be found in geographic micro-location. From the perspective of consumption geography, this paper explores the relationship between place construction and fitness club as a micro-location in a shopping mall, and also contributes to the research on shopping malls.
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    Evaluation and Optimization of Petrochemical Industrial Spatial Organization in China
    LIU He, JIN Fengjun, LIU Yi, DING Jinxue, XU Xu
    2011, 66 (10):  1332-1342.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (826KB) ( )   Save
    Based on current situation of China's petrochemical industry, using linear programming and ArcGIS spatial analysis, this paper optimized the spatial organization of petrochemical industry in China. (1) The paper identified main factors influencing spatial organization of petrochemical industry, and established a comprehensive evaluation index system consisting of four major categories and 11 indicators. Then the weight of each index was determined by AHP. After that, with 337 prefecture-level administrative units as basic ones, through scientific evaluation of their potential comprehensive layout coefficients, the paper selected 151 prefecture-level units as the basis for the choice of optimization site with a linear programming model. (2) Based on the 151 units, using maximum coverage model, the paper identified the optimal number and their spatial distribution in service radiuses of 100 km, 200 km and 300 km. Combined with actual distribution of China's refineries, we summarized general rules between the number of refinery layout points and objective values, and selected layout points of 52 refineries for China. (3) With ArcGIS spatial analysis tools, the paper simulated spatial effect of the 52 optimal refinery layout points for service scope and socio-economic factors respectively, and then extracted GDP and population data of each point within its service scope. Based on that, in combination with estimation of crude oil consumption intensity, the paper finally obtained optimal spatial organization results of refining capacity and ethylene production capacity in China.
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    Restructuring the Cross-Border Production Networks of Taiwanese Investment in China: Relocation of Personal Computer Firms from Pearl River Delta to Yangtze River Delta
    YANG Chun
    2011, 66 (10):  1343-1354.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (686KB) ( )   Save
    From the perspective of strategic coupling of regional development in global production networks (GPN), this paper attempts to explore the dynamics and patterns of the redistribution of Taiwanese personal computer (PC) investment from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China since the early 2000s. Through in-depth firm-level interviews during the period of 2005 and 2007, as well as case studies, the study argues that the redistribution of Taiwanese investment in China is resulted from divergent strategic coupling between respective Taiwanese firms in the PRD and YRD and corresponding global lead firm counterparts in the GPNs fostered by different local institutional initiatives. The study further elucidates that regional development in the global economy has turned increasingly to trans-local dynamics, which has fundamental implications for regional studies and policy implications for local development.
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    Policy Effects of Service Industry and Its Influencing Factors in China (2006-2010): A Perspective of Cognition and Experience of Service Enterprises
    ZHOU Kan, SHEN Yuming, REN Wangbing
    2011, 66 (10):  1355-1367.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (984KB) ( )   Save
    Under the constraints of special system background and industrial structure in China, the industrial policy of the government can exert a substantial effect on the industry. The policy of service industry has become an important force in promoting the development of service industry in China's transitional economy. However, the existing researches generally adopt a perspective of government institutions. Based on economic statistical analysis or experience judgment, there are relatively few researches on the performance evaluation of service policies from the perspective of service enterprises. To some extent, the enterprises' demands are most effective to scale the policy effects of service industry, because enterprises are the ultimate recipients of various industrial policies, and they are confronted with multifarious changes of policy and market environment directly. By the questionnaire survey of nearly 4000 service enterprises in 31 provinces, 256 cities and 927 counties in China, this paper, in the perspective of cognition and experience of service enterprises, provides the comprehensive evaluation of policy effects and analyzes its influencing factors during the 11th Five-Year Plan period (2006-2010), and then the interaction of policies and service enterprises is discussed tentatively. Finally, some suggestions are made concerning the adjustment and optimization of service industry policies. The result are shown as follows. 1) Policy cognition of China's service enterprises is slightly on the low side during the period 2006-2010, and the low-grade trend is more prominent in western China. The policy cognition degree is significantly affected by annual turnover of enterprises, labor quality, industrial category, industrial status and policy making. 2) Service enterprises are relatively satisfied with the policy of service industry in China, and the satisfaction degree is under the considerable influence of policy cognition, employees quantity, benefit, ownership form, industry status and policy environment. 3) In terms of the interaction of policy and service enterprises, some policies are made correspondingly to achieve the transformation of China's service industry to higher proportion and efficiency, including strengthening the service system reform, perfecting the social security system, keeping the balance between domestic and foreign investment, broadening the coverage of policy supports and constructing the feedback mechanism of policy effects between service enterprises and government institutions.
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    Politics of Scale in "Sanlu-Milkpowder Scandal"
    LIU Yungang, WANG Fenglong
    2011, 66 (10):  1368-1378.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (890KB) ( )   Save
    Since the 1980s, scale was rediscovered by some pioneering western human geographers and becoming a key concept in analyzing or criticizing social-spatial processes. However, scalar view is mainly developed in the fields of natural geography or GIS rather than human geography in China. Actually, scale connotes real, analytic and practical meanings in geography, the practical meaning of scale mainly acts as politics of scale. On the basis of a systematic review of researches on scale in human geography in current English sphere, this paper examines the connotations of scale in human geography and constructs an general conceptual and analytical framework of "politics of scale", which includes three actors with unequal power, the weak actor mainly uses "politics of scale" through direct fight by improving its mobility or making alliance with its fellows, or through indirect mobilization by networks or scaled representation. This model is used in explaining the scaling politics in the world-notorious Sanlu-Milkpowder Scandal that happened in 2008. Using materials collected from newspapers and various websites in the two stages of this case, the authors make some efforts to shed light on the comparison between China and the western countries on the features of "politics of scale". We also argue that this perspective is very useful and effective in understanding quite a lot of social processes in China. This study shows that there are numerous stakeholders and complicated scaled political processes behind social events like Sanlu-Milkpowder Scandal, in these issues the relationships between the central and local governments play a critical role. Our analysis shows that the central and local governments acted first as the third party and then as the strong part which mainly scale the impacts down and stop the weak part from expanding their influences, which is due to the lack of relatively independent third part in China. It is believed that this paper can add some new ideas in current researches on "politics of scale" and give a promising outlook of researches on scalar politics in China in the future, when the geographical concept of scale not only can be applied to explain and resolve some intractable social problems, but also will generate some profound influences on other disciplines such as political science and sociology.
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    Territorial Multi-functionality Evaluation and Decision-making Mechanism at County Scale in China
    LIU Yansui, LIU Yu, CHEN Yufu
    2011, 66 (10):  1379-1389.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (959KB) ( )   Save
    Territorial function in various regions has a significant spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability. With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization as well as enhancement of geographic differentiation and diversity of man-earth areal system, territorial functions and regional development orientations has shown an increasingly strong trend towards diversification. Based on the definition of territorial dominant functions at the county level and the building of multi-functionality evaluation index system and index analysis model, this paper evaluates and grades the functions of economic development, food security, social stability, environmental protection and comprehensive function. The results are obtained as follows economy-oriented functional areas are mainly distributed in eastern coastal developed areas and peripheral areas of the metropolitan regions, such as Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Ji region. Grain-oriented functional areas are mainly distributed in the Northeast China Plain, the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, Sichuan Basin, central Hubei, eastern Hunan and other regions covered by a large area of plain. The social security function indexes are gradually weakened from coastal to inland areas and from north to south; Eco-conservation areas are concentrated in the Northeast China and southern Qinling Mountain-Huaihe River Line. Then based on the coupling of each dominant function and the evaluation of composite function at the county level, study areas are divided into two types: areas with strong function and areas with weak function. Finally, this paper explores the innovation mechanisms and favorable policies to enhance the dominant function of each county and optimize the allocation of production factors, including the financial transfer payment, ecological compensation, and government performance assessment, which provide a scientific guidance for regional harmony development and sustainable growth of county competitive power.
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    Evolution and Determinants of Foreign Production Space in Shanghai
    ZHAO Xinzheng, NING Yuemin, WEI Yehua
    2011, 66 (10):  1390-1402.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110009
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    This paper studies the spatial distribution and location factors of foreign manufacture enterprises (FMES) in Shanghai based on the 2004 Economic Census data. The research shows that the location of FMES has been undergone a progress of suburbanization science since 1990, and FMES are clustering at the same time. As a result, three manufacturing clusters have formed in the suburban areas and these clusters are the main component of the new production space in Shanghai. The regression analysis shows that the influence of traditional location factors has declined, and the influence of agglomeration factors is rising, and the influence of policies is the most important. In short, this study shows that globalization is an important force that makes Shanghai a global city.
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    Understanding Electricity Consumption Changes in Chinese Mainland from 1995 to 2008 by Using DMSP/OLS Stable Nighttime Light Time Series Data
    LI Tong, HE Chunyang, YANG Yang, LIU Zhifeng
    2011, 66 (10):  1403-1412.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1067KB) ( )   Save
    Electricity consumption (EC) is one of the basic indexes for the evaluation of electric power situation. Obtaining timely and accurate spatio-temporal changes of EC is significant for reasonable allocation of electric power resources. In this study, EC simulation model was developed by using the DMSP/OLS stable nighttime light time series data. The model was used to reconstruct the spatial patterns of EC in Chinese mainland at the county level from 1995 to 2008. In addition, the spatio-temporal changes of EC were analyzed. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The electricity consumption simulation model was reliable to represent the spatio-temporal changes of EC in Chinese mainland with an about 70% accuracy. (2) The EC of most regions in Chinese mainland was at low to medium level with marked temporal and spatial variations, while 49.72% of the high level EC was concentrated in eastern China. The six urban agglomerations (Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, Shanghai-Nanjing-Hangzhou region, Pearl River Delta, Shandong Peninsula, middle-south of Liaoning Province and Sichuan Basin) accounted for 10.69% of the total area in Chinese mainland, and consumed 39.23% of electricity. (3) The EC of most regions in Chinese mainland increased from 1995 to 2008, and 64% of the regions showed a significant increase in EC. The EC of eastern and central China showed a medium-speed increase from 1995 to 2008, being 61.62% and 80.65%, respectively, while the EC of 75.69% of western China showed no significant increase. Specifically, the EC showed a high-speed increase in the Shanghai-Nanjing-Hangzhou region, Pearl River Delta, Shandong Peninsula, being 77.27%, 89.35% and 66.72%, respectively. The EC showed a medium-speed increase in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region (71.12%) and middle-south of Liaoning Province (72.13%), while 56.34% of Sichuan Basin showed no significant increase.
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    Influence Model and Mechanism of the Rural Residents for Tourism Support: A Comparison of Rural Destinations of Suzhou in Different Life Cycle Stages
    WANG Degen, WANG Jinlian, CHEN Tian, ZHANG Yun
    2011, 66 (10):  1413-1426.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (918KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the theory such as place attachment, sustainable development, residents participation and stakeholders, this paper chooses five structural variables (place attachment, environmental attitude, participation, residents perception and support degree) to build a structural equation model reflecting their impacts on the support of tourism residents. According to different life cycle stages of Yugang, Wangshan and Jiangxiang villages, the paper authenticates and analyzes the relational model. The paper discusses the influence on support degree of tourism residents in different life cycle stages, based on the structural equation model analysis and factor analysis. The results are shown as follows. (1) The basic dimensions produce different effects on the model in different life cycle stages. The "place attachment" and "environmental attitude" plays a positive role in the support degree in the initial stage, but the "participation" did nothing. All the three factors play a positive role in the stage of rapid and stable development. (2) The "resident perception" produces different effects on the model in different life cycle stages, but did nothing in the initial stage. It plays a negative intermediary role in the stage of rapid development and a positive intermediary role in the stage of stable development. (3) The two-dimensional factors have different effects on the model in different life cycle stages. The "place attachment" and "basic environmental attitude" in the initial stage, and the "place attachment", "sustainable environmental attitude" and "surface participation" in the stage of rapid development as well as the "local dependence", "economic costs of environmental attitude", "deep participation" and "positive impacts and perceptions" in the stage of stable development exert significant positive impacts on support degree.
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    The Tourism Spatial Pattern Evolution of the Pearl River Delta
    CHEN Hao, LU Lin, ZHENG Shanting
    2011, 66 (10):  1427-1437.  doi: 10.11821/xb201110012
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    Evolution of tourism can sort out the context of tourism development, and search a certain regularity of tourism development. The article focuses on the evolution of tourism destinations in the Pearl River Delta since the reform and opening up started in the late 1970s. The paper, taking 1980, 1987, 1999 and 2008 as the four time sections, uses two indexes of the node development and traffic connection to examine the urban agglomeration tourism spatial evolution, and the urban tourism development to reflect the evolution of city node, and the road traffic between cities to reflect the evolution of cities connected. The development of urban tourism nodes are reflected by building models of performance indicators, and the inter-city road transport links of region are reflected by road transport accessibility and the road transport traffic. The article points out that the tourism spatial pattern of the Pearl River Delta has undergone tremendous changes since the early 1980s. The most important reflection is the Guangzhou-centered unipolar world into Guangzhou and Shenzhen as the two centers of the Pearl River Delta. The cities of the Pearl River Delta have witnessed a rapid development of tourism industry, inter-city road transport links and overall operating efficiency, but the development is spatially unbalanced, and there is a big difference between the east and west sides of the Pearl River estuary. With the construction of the bridge linking Hong Kong, Macao, and Zhuhai, as well as the building of inter-city rail transit, the tourism spatial pattern of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration will bring a revolutionary change in spatial patterns, and the regional space network system will be more perfect.
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