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    15 November 1999, Volume 54 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Research on Macao’sMan-Land Relationship
    HU Zhao-liang, LIYan-ru, RUAN Xue-jin
    1999, 54 (6):  481-486.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (263KB) ( )   Save
    From the m iddle 16th century to the late 20th century, there had been several tim es ofdram atic changes in Macao’s city character and function. Som e essentials ofthe regulation ofm an-land relationship werereflected in Macao’sdevelopm entand transform a- tion. Macao’s talent show ing itself am ong the num erous ports of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong provinces reflects thatnaturalenvironm entis the absolutely necessary condi- tion for socialdevelopm ent. Macao’s actor as the bridge for the com m unication between theeastern and w estern world showsthatthenaturalenvironm entwon’tbecom etheim pe- tus for socialdevelopm entuntilm an need it. The declination ofthe portofMacao shows thatthe advancem entofthe navigation technology as wellas the enlargem entofthe ship type can resultin the evolvem entofthe m an-land relationship. The difficulties facing by Macao during the transform ation ofits econom ic structure reflectthathum an resource is m ore and m oreim portantin them an-land relationship.Thedeep naturalbrand in Macao’s city im ageand spatialstructure shows thatthedevelopm entofm an-land relationship does notm ean that m an can do withoutnature orignoring the law ofnature, butm eans that m an is deepening the utilization ofnature and the law ofthe nature. Using the regulation ofm an-land relationship to analyze therising and declination of Macao w illfurtherourknowledgeoftheessence ofMacao, and enrich the connotation of geography.
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    Solutionsto Macao’sDevelopm entViewing ItsEconom ic Environm ent
    ZHAO Da-ying
    1999, 54 (6):  487-495.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (264KB) ( )   Save
    Maca’seconom y has been declined since 1993, w hich wasresulted from the fol- lowing three m ajor factors, ①narrow and sm allarea and sim ple industrialstructure, ② notm ade the m ostefficiency ofthe free port, ③unfavorable investm entenvironm ent. Macao’s futuredevelopm m akebestoftheadvantagesand bypassthedisad- vantages. Because its w orstdisadvantages are the narrow and sm allarea and incom petent and inefficientgovernm ent, while the m ostim portantadvantagesare the free port, exten- sive internationalrelationshipsand the 400- year- old perfectharm ony ofthe eastern and western cultures, Macao should bein a positioning to be a regionaland internationalm ul- tifunction service center. There are three steps to achieve this. First, setoutin the tourism and gam bling in- dustry. Second, prom ote trade, finance and inform ation etc as leading industry. Finally, lead and prom ote the export processing industry’s transform ation to high value- added and high- technology. Four suggestions are putforw ard. Firstly, enlarge the area. Secondly, im prove the software of investm ent environm ent in the shortterm . Thirdly, develop and strengthen relationships with aurrounding regions.Finally,build infrastructureand com peteform ore hinterlands.
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    The RegionalPolicy Effectsand Regional Developm entStatesin China
    LU Da-dao, LIU Yi, FAN Jie
    1999, 54 (6):  496-508.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (52KB) ( )   Save
    The paper condensed the m ajor viewpoints of 1997 RegionalDevelopm ent Re- port ofChina. The report took the regionaleconom ic developm ent as the m ajor them e, sum m arized m ainly the regionalpoliciesatnationaland provinciallevelsduring theeighth- five-yearplan and early stageoftheninth-five-yearplan, analyzed and evaluated thepolicy effects, developm entstates, existing problem s, and put forw ard som e recom m endations for regionaldevelopm entpolicies. Based on thesystem aticdiscussions, thepaperdrew the conclusions as follows: 1) The m acro-strategy to develop the coastalregions as priority exactly m atched our country’s situations atpresentstage, and the policies to im prove the Middle and WestChina developm enthad positive effectsto reverse the trends ofenlarged differencesbetw een the Eastand WestChina; 2) To realize the overallstrategictargetsof “Three-stage-theory”stillrequired theenforcem entofcoastalm odernization pulling strat- egy, and the infrastructure and socialdevelopm entshould be the priorities in the Middle and WestChina developm ent; 3) The pole ofregionaldevelopm entshiftsouthwards, the econom ic grow th in theSouth wasm oreactive, thestructuralissuesin theNorth hinderedthe socialand econom icdevelopm ent. During the processes ofreducing the regionaldiffer- encesbetween the Eastand the West, the difference ofeconom ic activities and structures between the North and the South should also be taken into considerations; 4) The abso- lute differences ofeconom ic developm entlevels enlarged rapidly am ong allprovinces, au- tonom y regionsand m unicipalities. How ever, therelative differencesshow ed thetrendsof declining; 5) There were w idely progressatprovinciallevelsin industrialstructuralalter- nations and new econom ic growth pole innovations, the provincialdevelopm entcharacter- ized with uniquefeatures,thedifferencesoftransportation, com m unication, infrastructure becam e m ore obvious, the allocation of grain production bases shifted northw ards and westw ards, and the problem s eagerto success and ofduplicate construction w ere very se- vere in grain production aspects; 6) The out-wards econom ic developm enthavegreatcon- tributions to sustainable and rapid econom icgrowth since reform and opennessbegan, but the effectsoffavorite policies in specialregionsand coastalopen cities declined gradually, thecontinued absorption offoreign fundsdepended gradually on econom icdevelopm entac- tivities of particular regions. Our country’s out-ward econom ic developm ent should en- force the regionalcore rolesofspecialregionsand coastalopen cities w hich were m ore ac- tive in econom ic developm ent; 7)The changes ofpoverty alleviation strategies have taken place from quantity to quality. The differences ofpoverty alleviation effectsam ong differ- entregionswereobvious, so did the facing problem s; 8)Thetaxation reform m etthe sub- jectneedsto controlthe regionalresourcesin m arketeconom y, and itincreased the finan- cialcapacity ofcentralgovernm ent, butthedream to im prove theregionalcoordinated de- velopm ent did not com e true. The distribution ofcentralgovernm ent financialaids were unfair between the less developed and m ore developed regions, and the correlation was very w eak between the financialaids percapita and GDPper capita ofeach province, au- tonom y region orm unicipality; 9)Thescopeofregionaleconom iccooperation enlarged and the form s diversified. The cooperation betw een the East and the West had obvious progress, but the cross-regions econom ic and technicalcooperation w as facing financial and banking barriers; 10)High developm entgrowth rate resulted in m ore and m oresevere ecologicalproblem swith therelatively seriousw aterand airpollution and very severe eco- logicaldegradations.
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    Measuresfor Problem sofEnergy Issuesand Supply in China’sCoastalRegion
    LIU Yi
    1999, 54 (6):  509-517.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (455KB) ( )   Save
    The coastalregion, with 60% ofthe country’s totalGDP, is a key area forna- tionaleconom ic developm entin China. Despite ofm any favorable conditions, coastalre- gion is facing som e serious problem s in its future developm ent, and am ong w hich energy supply is the m ostseriousone. With 7% ofChina’s energy proved resources, the energy consum ption ofcoastalre- gion in 1996 was 47% ofthecountry’s total, com paring with thatitsprim ary energy pro- duction registered 26% ofthecountry asaw hole.Asa result, therecentenergy sufficien- cy ofthisarea is only about51%, and itis estim ated thatthe am ountofim ported energy willreach nearly 550 m illion tonesin 2010. Considering thespatialdisparity in energy pro- duction and consum ption in this area, such a huge energy supply willcause a big pressure on energy transport, particularly on the railway system . Whatism ore, the greatincrease in energy consum ption dom inated by coal (m ore than 74% of the total energy consum ption) w illm ake the environm entalproblem s w orse. Resting on allthesesfacts, som em easuresforim proving theenergy production in this area could be: first, speeding up the construction oftherm opowerprojects nearthe sea to save the fresh water; second, lim iting the scale ofrecentcoalproduction to save the re- sources; third, reinforcing industrialrestructuring and enhancing energy efficiency. Itis also im portantto im provethe transportfacilitiesforgetting m oreim ported ener- gy from inland China. Firstofall, therailroadsand harborsserved forcoaltransportation should be builtup in tim e, such astherailway linelinking the Shaanxiand Huanghuahar- bor, as w ellas Xi’an—Nanjing—Shanghairaillines. Secondly, the corridorofthe long- distance power transm it lines served for the hydropower stations such as at the upper reaches ofChangjiang river should be setup. The last, m ore and m ore oilshould be im - portfrom abroad to optim ize energy consum ption structure. As to the relationshipsofenergy supply, thedevelopm entpoliciesshould beem phases distinctly in differentareasofcoastalregion as follow s: the structuraloptim ization ofthe energy supply w ith a greatfavorin the developm entofthe hydropow erand nuclearpower and im portoilfor the south area, the construction oftherm opow er stations burning coal and the railw ay line for coaltransportfrom north area.
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    The Influence ofSea LevelRising on the Em bankm ents in the Zhujiang Delta
    HUANGZhen-guo, ZHANGWei-qiang, LAIGuan-w en, LUO Shan-tong, FAN Jin-chun, JIANG Pei-lin
    1999, 54 (6):  518-525.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (226KB) ( )   Save
    Itisforecasted thattheam plitude ofsea levelriseforthenext40 years (1990~ 2030) isabout30 cm nearthe Zhujiang Delta. Based on the influence offlood ortide cur- rentthe delta can be divided into three areas, theflood, flood-tidaland tidal. Using a hy- draulicm odelundera typicalcondition ofcatastrophicstorm surge and sm alldischarge oc- curred atSeptem ber1993,therising am plitudesofthehighestflood-tidewaterlevelfor24 hydrom etric stations are calculated respectively, unter the assum ption that the rising is 30 cm . The calculated resultshow s thatthere willbe three influenced areas according to the two isolinesofthe rising am plitude of5 cm and 25 cm . Them axim um rising am plitude Willbe 31 cm in them ostinfluenced area, 25 cm in them edium area and 4 cm only in the uninfluenced area. Itis obvious thatthe influence ofrising 30 cm sea-levelwould be oc- cured m ainly in the tidaland flood-tidalareas. Being influenced by sea levelrise, the frequency ofthe highestflood-tide water level is increased, thatm eans the protection standard ofdyke againstcalam ties is notenough. Using a hydrom etric equation the rising am plitudes of the highist flood-tide w ater level corresponding to fourkindsoffrequencies, ofdischargefor17 stationsarecalculated. The calculated results arein accordancew ith thefrequency ofthehightestflood-tidew aterlev- el. The change ofreappearance periodsofflood-tidew aterlevalare show n in differentar- eas: in flood tide area, the reappearance period decreases by 1/2 class, thatis from 1/50 yrto 1/50~20 yr; in tide area, the decrease is 1.5 or2.0 class, thatis from 1/100 yrto 1/50~20yr. In otherw ords, itisnecessary to raisetheclassofdyke protection standard. There are 104 m u cultivating land orm ore underprotection ofover104 m u totallength of3 057 km dykes, w ithin which, 2 608 km willbeinfluenced by sea levelrise. However the dykesw hich arenotreached the design standard have1 126 km; thatis43% oftheto- tallength. Therefore in order to pledge the protection ofem bankm ents in the future, it should be considered thatnotonly to reach the design standard butalso to raisethedykes to m eetw ith the rise am plitude offlood-tide w aterlevelifsea levelrise 30 cm are real. It is calculated thattheprojectofcubicm etreofsoiland stonefor2 608 km length dykesis1 752×104m3 and the investm entis about21 hundred m illion yuan.
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    An Integrated ModelForm ulation ofStream - aquifer Interaction System and ItsApplication
    JIANGYe-fang, ZHANGXing-you
    1999, 54 (6):  526-533.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (358KB) ( )   Save
    Based on theanalysisofhydraulicm echanism ofstream - aquiferinteraction sys- tem, an integrated m odelis developed to sim ulate the interaction process. To allow accu- rate sim ulation ofthesystem response, stream flow and ground waterflow aresim ultane- ously m odeled and a water exchange m echanism which can dealwith continuous flow and noncontinuous flow is designed to integrate the stream flow m odeland ground waterflow m odel. Mathem atically, the stream flow issim ulated by using Saint- Venant’s continuouse-quation w ith stream storage neglected and Euler’sApproach isem ployed to generate solu- tions to the equations. The stream system is discretized by im posing a grid ofretangular cells that are assigned num ericalvalues for selected hydrologic conditions and hydraulic properties. Ground w aterflow m odel, w hich isin the form ofphreaticaquiferequation, is solved with finite difference m ethod ofirregular triangulated netw orks. To integrate the m odels, the stream nodes overlap the aquifernodes where stream spass. The volum e of w ater exchange betw een stream s and aquifers is sim ulated by using Darcy’slaw, w hich isbased on thedifference betw een stream stage and watertable in the cell, and theverticalhydraulicconductivity ofthestream bottom, and itreachesthem axi- m um degree when noncontinuous flow occurs beneath the stream bottom . It can be ex- pressed as: (E= m in[γ·(Hr - (H) ·η,Em,qu] (H < (Hr γ·((Hr - (H) (H ≥(Hr (1-3) where E(m /d) is the exchangerate, γ= kzm, k(m /d) and m (m ) are theverticalhydraulic conductivity and thethicknessofthepoorly perm eablestrataon the stream bed respective- ly, (Hr(m ) is the stream stage, (H(m ) is the ground w atertable, Em (m /d) is the m axi- m um perm eability capacity ofthepoorly perm eablestrata and qu= Q/·1/W, Q,Land W are the stream flow, stream coordination and stream w idth respectively, and ηisa dim ension- less factorwhich isinversely proportionalto sand contentofthe stream w ater. Acasestudy showsthatthe integrated m odelcan accurately sim ulatestream flow and ground w ater m ovem ent and the calculated volum e of each stream section flow m atches properly w ith theobserved values. Thefactsprovethatthem odelresultsareaccurateand reliable.
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    NitrousOxide Em issionsfrom Soiland Som eInfluence Factors
    QIYu-chun, DONG Yun-she
    1999, 54 (6):  534-542.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (235KB) ( )   Save
    The globalchange isvery im portantto the change ofenvironm entofhum an be- ings. The increasing ofcarbon dioxide, m ethane, nitrousoxide and othergreenhousegas- es in atm osphereisoneofthem ain inducem entto theglobalclim atechange. Thestudy on greenhouse gaseshas alw ays been the topicofgeneralinterest. Am ong greenhousegases, interestin the increasing ofatm ospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) has been stim ulated by the understanding that this gas plays an im portant role in the chem istry ofthe stratosphere and the ozonelayerdestruction, itslong lifetim ein theatm osphereand asignificantinflu- ence on the earth therm albalance by the absorption oflong w ave infrared radiation (the greenhouse effect). Itisim portantto understand the sourcesand sinks, production m ech- anism s and m itigation m easuresofthe greenhouse gases. In this paper, we w illgenerally discuss aboutthe relevantstudy progressofN2O em ission in the recentyears. The scholars ofChina and othercountries have done num erous field experim ents and laboratory sim ulation studieson globaldistribution ofN2Osourcesand sinks, theseresults illustrated thatthe N2Om ainly com esfrom soil, w aterbody, biom ass burning, fossilfu- els com bustion and som e industrialprocesses etc., and the sink of N2O generally is thephotochem icalreaction in the stratosphere. Itism ore clearthatthenitrification and denitrification in soilare them ain N2Oem is- sion m echanism s. Thefactorsthatinfluencetheem ission ofN2Oin soilare sum m arized as follow s: (1) The application ofnitrogen fertilizer. The studiesshowed thatthe soiltreat- ed w ith the enduring effectfertilizerw illem ission less N2Othan those treated w ith the or- dinary effectfertilizer, and the application ofenduring effectfertilizercan also increasethe yield ofthe crop. (2) Soilm oisture. The m axim alem ission ofN2Oappears when the soil m oisture is 90% ~100% field capacity or 77% ~86% w ater-filled pore space. When the soilm oisture is below the saturation m oisture content, the nitrification is the m ain N2O production m echanism . When the soilm oisture is above the saturation m oisture content, the denification isthem ain N2Oproduction m echanism . Thesoilwillproducem ore N2Oin the transition from w etto dry. Thediffusion coefficientofgreenhouse gases in unsaturat- ed soilis2~4 orderofm agnitudebiggerthan thatin the saturated soil. (3) Soiltem pera- ture. 15~35℃is the favorable tem perature range forthe m icrobe activities ofthe nitrifi- cation, 5~75℃is favorable tem perature range for the m icrobe activity ofthe denitrifica- tion, the em ission flux ofN2O is norm aldistribution varying with the 5 cm daily average soiltem perature. (4) soilpH . The optim alpH is 7.0~8.0 forthedenification rate. (5) The contentofsoilorganic m atter. The m ineralization ofthe soilorganic m attercan pro- vide nitrogen (N) to soil. The favorable C/N ofsoilis 25~30∶1 to form N2O. (6) Soil porosity. When the soilporosity islow, such as betw een 10% and 12%, the denification willenhance, there are m arked increasing oftheconcentrations ofN2Oin the soilairafter their being com pacted by a tractor, but the flux of N2O from soilto air is lower in the com pacted soilthan thatin theuncom pacted soilbecauseofthe hindrance during the em is- sion process. (7) Plants them selves. The root grow th ofplant and the secretion of the rootcan change the soilcondition (chem icaland physicalcondition), som e crops such as soybean, m aize and rice them selves can also em ission N2O. w hat m ore, the illum inance and the cultivation ofthe fields etc. can also affectthe em ission ofthe N2O.
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    TheSpectralAnalysisfor a Lam ina ThicknessSeriesof a Stalagm ite in Beijing and the Clim ateVariation in Last1 ka
    QIN Xiao-guang, LIU Tong-sheng, TAN Ming, WANGXian-feng
    1999, 54 (6):  543-549.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (233KB) ( )   Save
    The stalagm ite lam ina is one ofthe high-resolution records in the paleoclim ate research. In order to study the cycles ofclim ate oscillation in Beijing area and their shifts in the last1 ka, a m oving spectralanalysis is used to revealthecharacteristicsofcyclesin the lam inathicknesssequence ofa stalagm ite from Shihua Cave. Itisfound thatthedom i- nantcycles in the tim e series are of2yr, 3.3yr, 5~6yr, 10~12yr, 16~18yr, 133yr and 194yr. Som e ofthese cyclesare close to thecycle of3.5yr, the cycleof5~6yrand the cy- cle of11yrthatare found in m any m odern clim aticrecord. Itm eansthatthe dynam icforc- ing and the clim ate oscillationsin thelast1ka are sim ilarto thoseofm odern clim ate. The 3.3yrcycle isstrongerand continuous before D4 and the 5.8yrcycle is m ore distinctthan the 3.3yrcycle after D4. There are differentdom inant clim ate cycles in different periods. Usually, the dom i- nantcyclesare strongerand clearerwhen thelam inaearethicker. Thedom inantcyclesare weak when the lam inae are thinner. Itm ay reflectthatthe stronger clim ate cycles in the wetperiod could leave m uch clearer prints in the stalagm ite lam inae. Therefore the lam i- nae thicknesscan beused asaproxy ofclim ateoscillation in northern Chinaifthesam ples are carefully selected. Itis noticed thatthe cycles m ay m erge, branch, replace, abruptly appear, disappear or shift in frequency w ith the clim ate evolution. These phenom ena dem onstrate that the clim ate oscillation is nonlinear. Itis very im portantforunderstanding the clim aticoscilla- tion ofBeijing area in the last1 ka.
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    Geoeconom ic Processesin the Northwestern Adriatic CoastalPlain
    Bruno Menegatti
    1999, 54 (6):  550-558.  doi: 10.11821/xb199906009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (308KB) ( )   Save
    There are m any reasons for interest in the northw estern Adriatic coastalplain, such as subsidence, beach erosion, industrialpollution, increasing seaside conurbation, and environ- m entalpreservation. The region as defined has an innerborder thatis both a m orphologicaland historicallim it of perm anent settlem ent. The progressive exploitation of this space has dem on- strated that itis a region organized into parallelstrips w ith hom ogeneous characteristics thatco- incide w ith the differentphases ofthe hum anization ofthe coastalarea. How ever, since the Sec- ond World War, there has been a rem arkable differentiation, because ofreclam ation, polarized industrialdevelopm ent, the construction of a tourist conurbation and, especially, the adm inis- trative division of the entire coastalstrip, a division thatinfluences the policies ofterritorialor- ganization. Thus, to date, the various coastalsubareas have no com m on teleology that renders the entire region a system ic whole.
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