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    15 September 1999, Volume 54 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Review the Development of Geography in the 20 th Century and Prospect for Geography in the 21 st Century ——Congratulation on the 90 th anniversary of the Founding of the Geographical Society of China
    WU Chuan jun, ZHANG Jia zhen
    1999, 54 (5):  385-390.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (218KB) ( )   Save
    Chinese classical geography began during B.C. 770~B.C. 221. It is an important part of the Chinese ancient civilization. The founding of the China Earth Science Society (predecessor of the Geographical Society of China) in 1909 marked the geography in China from the classical stage to the modern stage. Composed of 17 discipline committees, 4 working committees, 7 branch committees, and the Editorial Board of Acta Geographica Sinica. Geographical Society of China (GSC) is an academic group with 18 000 society member. As one of the oldest Chinese national academic organization, GSC is playing an important rule in the development of geography in China. The duties of the GSC are to organize academy activities, to strengthen the academy interchange between China and other countries. In the last 50 years, the geography research attained significant academic achievements in China. Up to now, there are 53 departments of geography, 15 institutes of geography, more than 40 geography journals, more than 10 000 geographers in China (including Taiwan & Hong Kong). In 21st century, there are five research fields that will be enhanced in China: basic theory on geography, environment change and environment protection, regional resources system, regional comprehensive development, and geography information system.
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    Progress of China’s Industrial Geography in the 20th Century
    ZHANG Lei, LU Da dao
    1999, 54 (5):  391-400.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (405KB) ( )   Save
    China’s industrial geography, born in the early of the 20th century, has a hard struggle to become a very important subject of human geography. During the initial stage before the 1950’s, China’s industrial geographers paid more attentions to the roles of physical environmental factors on individual manufacturing in terms of the traditional location theories and practices came from the west. Along with a large scale of industrial construction booming throughout the country since the 1950’s, China’s industrial geography has went into a new stage with a great emphasis on the essential principles of the territorial production complex theories introduced from the formal Soviet Union at first and the Central Place Theory, Behavioral Geography as well as Industrial Organization theories sourced from the west as the following. Despite a huge progress China’s industrial geography has made, there are still great challenges on its way towards the 21st century, and it would be, therefore, tackled by the three following efforts: First, in order to speed up the national industrialization and compete with the economic globalization, the traditional concepts formed by the government dominated behaviors in enterprises location for the past should be changed to a new one rested on market dominated economy; Second, considering the declines of old industrial bases and state owned enterprises in the nation’s industrial economy, a great attention should be paid to a balanced development between both old developed and newly developing industrial areas through a coordinated spatial reorganization rather than only to industrial diffusion itself in the past 40 years; The last, but not the least, the improvement of location theories in terms of China’s practices would become more important due to a quick growing production scale and a more complicated regional pattern of the nation’s industry as a whole. This is particularly true when China’s economy is going to enter a new era represented by a primary shift from emphasizing on the quantity to the quality and the variable of industrial products.
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    On Geographic Spatial Thinking in Images ——The Development of Spatial Mental Images
    LU Xue jun, ZHOU Cheng hu, GONG Jian hua
    1999, 54 (5):  401-408.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (332KB) ( )   Save
    As carriers of geographic thinking and a kind of spatial thinking mode in images, Spatial Mental Images (SMIs) act as a “bridge” between the geographic physical world and the geographic conceptual computational model, providing a method for representing the geographic information and knowledge in images. With a stereoscopic effect on the mind and feeling, SMIs possess self learning capability. Although being born of the geographic perception experiences, SMIs create a much greater effect on the spatial thinking than the geographic perception experiences do. It is just SMIs that extricate geographers from pure sense perception world, and make their geographic thinking consist of two parts: descriptive thinking and thinking in images. Reviewing the development of geographic thinking, SMIs can be divided into four types: geographic region, geographic complex, geographic landscape and regional geographic system. The thinking method, implication and essence of the four kinds of SMIs have been discussed in the article. Though discussions of the development of SMIs, the spatial process research method of geographic landscape and the regional geographic system are expounded. The former embodies the essence of the geographic method research; and the latter, which combines quality and quantity, is the paradigm of modern geography for researching the earth’s surface layer. As a fundamental function cell of regional analysis, geographic landscape is a structural component for building and realizing a regional geographic system. When one geographic landscape being demonstrated, invariable basic cells of geographic region analysis can be applied. As unification of possessing invariable corresponding relationship between space and process, the invariable basic cells are the least unit of spatial function. In order to really and truly establish the geographic analysis oriented data model for geographic information systems (GIS), it is suggested to build Integrated Data Model of Geographic Landscape regarding the invariable basic cells as fundamental cells of organizing geographic information, and to build Distributed Net Model of Geographic Region based on network analysis of regional energy flow in which landscapes are functional nodes.
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    A System of Indicators for Regional Development Planning
    FANG Chuang lin, MAO Han ying
    1999, 54 (5):  410-419.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (245KB) ( )   Save
    Regional development planning is a product of a region which has reached a certain level of economic and social development. From the perspective of sustainable regional development under the condition of transition to a market economy, this paper proposes a basic framework and method for the evaluation of regional development planning. The system consists of weighted coefficient values for planning indicators based on an entropy technique using the hierarchy analysis methods as well as methods to transform qualitative indicators to quantitative indicators based on expert opinions. Applied to western China as an example, this paper constructs a multi layer, multi objective fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to assess the overall as well different levels of regional development. This indicator system is conducive to the ascertaining of the regularities of the dynamic changes in the levels of regional development and in detecting the general directions of regional growth. It is also a useful means for the design of effective programs to achieve specified levels of regional growth.
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    Foreign Direct Investment and Its Impact on Economic Development of Coastal China
    LI Xiao jian
    1999, 54 (5):  420-430.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (309KB) ( )   Save
    Foreign direct investment(FDI)has expanded rapidly in China since 1980s.China has become the second largest FD Irecipient in the world in recent years.Given this backg round,some scholars consider that FDI is increasingly becoming an important factor in affecting economic growth in China.By using a growth model,this paperillu strates that FDI has failed to be statistically accepted as a variable in the national economic growth since 1983.However,among the provinces and municipalities in China’s coast,FDI not only proves itself above a high significant level,but also,it shows quite high elast icity in economic growth.In Guangdong province,for example,one percentage growth of FDI in GDP in one year,according to the estimation in the model,may generate 2.93 percen tages of GDP growth rate this year plus 1.63 percentages of GDP growth rate in the following year.Fujian,Shanghai,Jiangsu,Beijing and Tianjin have different multiplier effects.In spite of its significant impact,FDI is not the most important factor in regional economic growth even in the coastal provinces and municip a lities.Labor plays the most important rolein economic growth of Guangdong,Fujian and Jiangsu,and structural change is the dominant factor for Shanghai and Tianjin.
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    Effect of Climatic Factors on Streamflow in the Alpine Catchment of the Qilian Mountains
    DING Yong jian, YE Bai sheng, LIU Shi ying
    1999, 54 (5):  431-437.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (354KB) ( )   Save
    The typical interior alpine catchments in the Qilian Mountains in the northwestern China are selected for this study. Linear multi regression of monthly streamflow model is used for analysis. Five parameters: monthly streamflow, precipitation and air temperature of the former month and monthly precipitation and air temperature are chosen as the effective factors. Regressive coefficients are treated by standardized methods. Then standard coefficient matrix and effective factor matrix have obtained. Size and symbol of the elements in matrix may determine the extent of various ingredients affecting the streamflow. The methods of standard coefficient and effective factor are used to analyze the main ingredient affecting streamflow. The standard coefficient method is more intuitional than normal method. The streamflow factor method can eliminate false, which gives quantitatively the size of the effect factors. By the above analyses, the following results in the selected catchments in the Qilian Mountains may be found: (1) The baseflow may be effective on the alpine streamflow through November to April or May of the next year. (2) Effect of precipitation on the alpine streamflow is obviously strengthened with increase of precipitation from June to September. Meanwhile, precipitation becomes the most effective factor on the streamflow instead of subsurface water. (3) In comparison with the records of the stations in proluvial fan, the effective factor in the inner mountain has its special features. Firstly, effect of precipitation on the streamflow appears much more earlier in the inner mountain and it is dominant in May. Secondly, effect of air temperature is apparent in April and it is more important than the baseflow. (4) Effect of air temperature can not be neglected, especially from February to April, the melting season of snow cover. (5) In September, the streamflow is only related to precipitation, probably caused by change of contribution of underlying surface. Saturated soil, after rainy season (June to August), makes the increases of runoff, and effect of precipitation on the streamflow in September reaches its maximum.
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    Element Migration of Karst Dynamic System
    JIANG Zhong cheng
    1999, 54 (5):  438-444.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905007
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    Abstract The cycle of CO2-vater-calcium in the karst dynam is system is able to drive the elementmigration of the karst environments The element migration can be divided into foiw and migration of elements and backw and migration of elements When karst dynamic system gainCO2from ahnosphere or soilair, afonvard migration of element soccurs with the dissolution of the carbonate rocks in water. If some carbon dioxide escapes from thewater, a backw and migration of elements occurs with the depo sition of calcium carbonate. The ellementmigration in karst area is sensitive to the variation of the karst dynamic conditions CO2 content in soil varies with seasons With the increase of CO2 content in soil, pHvalue of water gets down, and Ca2+ (also Mg2+ in dolomite) content in karst water increases Under the waim and humid environments, karst dynam is conditions exihitites strongly, and a high solution rate occurs, then soluble CaCO3 and CaMg(CO3)2 in rocks can be dissolved quickly. As a result, there is lower Ca and Mg content in soil than that in semiarid area.For example, Ca0 and MgO contents in soil in Guilin are only 1 .51% and 1.13% respectively, b u t in Beijing, they are 8.34% and 4.34%. This regulation can be extended to deep soi1s. The higher solution rate, the stronger element migration happens There are different element m igration features in different vegetation conditions. For example, the content of trace elements in karst water is low in bare rock area, but the content of trace elements in karst water in the dense forest ismuch higher. The highest temporary hardness of spring water in the dense forest can reach 19 German degree, and the insoluble Fe, Si, A1, CoandMn can also be partly dissolved into karst water. The geochem ical background of rocksplay an important role in the elementm igration of the environments Ca (also M gin dolour ite) content in the carbonate rocks is high, so the karst areas becom a calcium-rich and a little alkaline geochem ical environm ents with elementmigration. For examp1e, there are calcareous soi1 where its chemical composition has a close relation with the karst processes, high hardness karst w ater, and enriched calcium trees The element migration processes are not same in different carbonate rocks. There is a higher karst water hardness in dolourite than that in linestone, And the maimconstituents and some trace elements increasewith the depth in soilof dolomite area, but no gradual change law of elements in soilprofile of limestone area. The relative abundant background value of trace elements in the argillaceous and silicaeous carbonate rocks also can result in the relative high m ineral nutritious elements in water, soil and vegetation.
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    The Evolution of Dust Storms Since Last Interglacial in Gansu as Reconstructed from Loess Record
    DAI Xue rong, LI Ji jun, YU Li zhong, SHI Yu xin, WANG Jia cheng
    1999, 54 (5):  445-453.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (308KB) ( )   Save
    The present dust storms in Gansu are severe. The records show that about six extraordinary dust storms have happened in the corridor area since 1950 A.D.. The evolution history of dust storm during the last interglacial are reconstructed through analyzing the particle size of loess, and by comparing it with the present extraordinary heavy dust storm numbered “930505”. The main information on dust storm from loess record includes: The deposition rate of loess may indirectly reflect the frequency of dust storm. The general grain size has the good relationship with the intensity of dust storm. While the coarse grains (fine sand) in loess implies an extraordinary dust storm event (EDS). The grain size curves of some proxies gave a general process of the dust storm. Comparing the grain size curves with the magnetic susceptibility curve of loess, we may analyse factors influencing the formation and evolution of the dust storm. Also we can discuss the possible mechanism of dust storm formation. The loess samples were taken from a newly dug loess well (45 m deep) at Gaolanshan in Lanzhou, Gansu province. This well penetrates S 1 paleosol and spans over the past 150 000 years. Since the resolution of loess record in this area is high and the paleosols are poorly developed, a new loess division method called the loess magnetic susceptibility stage (LOMSS), which is basically corresponding to the marine isotope stage MIS), is adopted in this paper. 180 samples of loess of LOMSS-5 and partly LOMSS-4 and LOMSS-6 at 5 cm interval were analyzed by using the SKC 2000 Particle size Analytical System. According to the magnetic susceptibility proxy and some grain size proxies of loess (<4 25φand 4 25~4 50φ), the high resolution loess formed during the last interglacial (LOMSS-5) can be divided into five sub stages, LOMSS-5a to LOMSS-5e, that are corresponding to MIS-5a to MIS-5e respectively. Studies show that the LOMSS-5 dust storms might be significantly weaker than those in LOMSS-4 and LOMSS-6. During 5a, 5c and 5e sub stages, the dust storms were comparatively weaker, and it must have been impacted by the orbital factors (Precession Cycle). 5b and 5d sub stages are a little stronger. From beginning to end, the Last Interglacial dust storms have experienced a growing process in intensity. According to the deposition rate of loess and the content of coarse materials in loess, the occurring frequency of dust storm can be lined up as 5c>5b>5a>5d5e, with 5d>5b>5a>5e>5c in intensity.
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    A Method for Correcting Remote Sensing Data by Bare sand Soil Line
    CHI Hong kang, ZHEN Wei ying, ZHANG Hai lei
    1999, 54 (5):  454-461.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (247KB) ( )   Save
    The atmospheric correction of remote sensing data is one of the main topics of quantitative remote sensing research. Bare sand soil line is adopted to correct atmospheric effects in this paper. There is an unchanged bare sand soil line in the plane reference frame shown in red band ( R ) and near infrared band ( IR ) for same bare sand soil type within a certain region. This line can be expressed: ρ R=b+a·ρ IR . Where a and b are slope and intercept respectively. There are large differences between the soil lines made up by the satellite data of bare sand and that from the corresponding ground bare sand because of atmospheric effects. Then, correct the former one to the latter. The average of R and IR, Δ R and Δ IR, can be obtained in the process of the correction. All of pixels in the satellite image are corrected with Δ R and Δ IR . This method was tested by NOAA meteorological satellite data in the Loess Plateau area. The results indicated that this method of the bare sand line for correcting atmospheric effects is simple, convenient and possess high accuracy in this region. (1) Camparing the corrected bare sand satellite data with not corrected one, the maximum relative error for the corrected one is 1.72% and 30%, the not corrected. (2) Comparing the corrected grassland satellite data with that not corrected, the maximum relative error is 1 47% for the corrected one and 72.46% for the not corrected. (3) The corrected and not corrected forest satellite data are compared with the ground data respectively. In the range of red band, 0.58~0.68 μm, the reflectance of forest on ground is 2.5%~2.8%. The corrected reflectance is 2.59%, with a range of 2.5%~2.8%, and the not corrected reflectance is 6 5%. However, the errors of the corrected water body in satellite data in IR band is large. The corrected remote sensing data from different meteorological satellite, if they are in the series, can be compared each other. This method can be applied to atmospheric correction for satellite remote sensing data in the arid and semiarid regions.
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    The Holocene Evolution of the Ebre Delta Catalonia, Spain
    Antoni Canicio, Carles Iba ez
    1999, 54 (5):  462-469.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905010
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    The existing scientific literature about the Ebre delta states that it formed in very recent times (mostly since the middle ages) and that in Roman times it was an estuary. This belief is based on erroneous interpretation of historical data, rather than on scientific evidence. We present the first data about the position of early coastlines based on radiocarbon dating. The evidence proves the existence of the Ebre delta as much as 5 750 a BP. Another early coastline that dates to 3 045 a BP has also been identified. Using this information and other sources such as old maps and present day bathymetry of old eroded deltaic lobes, we constructed the first evolutionary sequence of the Ebre delta during the Holocene. Cartographic information was carefully and critically assessed in the process of selecting those maps that are coherent with geomorphic structures. Details about the evolution of deltaic lobes are only given for the last millennium. The development of the southern lobe was at its maximum about 1 ka BP. By the 16th century the lobe had already been strongly reshaped (maximum retreat about 8 km) after the abandonment of the old river arm. At that time the Ebre delta already had developed a surface similar to that of the present. The maximum penetration of the lobe into the sea (about 25 km) is clearly indicated in bathymetric maps. During the 17th century the northern lobe reached its maximum extent (also about 25 km), and at the end of that century the central lobe (the one presently active) started to form, reaching its maximum growth (again about 25 km) by the beginning of the 20th century.
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    A Study on Fractal Dimensions of Spatial Structure of Transport Networks and the Methods of Their Determination
    LIU Ji sheng, CHEN Yan guang
    1999, 54 (5):  471-478.  doi: 10.11821/xb199905011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (46KB) ( )   Save
    Three types of fractal dimensions were presented to characterize the spatial structure of transport networks. The geographical meanings of these dimensions were illuminated and the methods of the determination of them were illustrated. The three fractal dimensions can be expressed as follows. 1 Length radius dimension: it is always defined by the expression L(r)∝rDL where r is radial distance, L(r) is total length of communication lines in the area of π r 2, and D L is the fractal dimension reflecting the change of density of the transport network around a measured center. 2 Dendrite radius dimension: it can be given by the formula N(r)∝rDb and N(r) is defined as N(r)=∑rk=1n(k) (r=1,2, …, k=1,2, …,r) where r is gyration radius, k is ordinal number of each ring belt divided with r,n(k) is the amount of branches of communication lines in the k th ring belt, and Db is the fractal dimension revealing the spatial complexing of transport network. 3 Spatial correlation dimension: it can be expressed in the formula C(r)∝rDS where C(r)=1/N2∑Ni∑Njθ(r-dij ) is spatial correlation function, θ(x) is Heaviside function (when x≥0, θ(x)=1 ; whereas, when x<0, θ(x)=0), r is yardstick, dijis distance between two cities, N is the total amount of cities and towns in a region. When dijrepresents‘cow distance’, Ds can be regarded as fractal dimension mirroring the features of spatial connection and configuration of transport network.
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