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    15 March 1999, Volume 66 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    REGIONAL DIFFERENCES OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN CHINA
    He Canfei, Liang Jinshe
    1999, 66 (2):  97-105.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902001
    Abstract ( 432 )   PDF (253KB) ( 1082 )   Save
    Massive influx of foreign direct investment (FDI) since her opening to the outside world has made China the largest FDI receiving nation in the developing world. The distribution of FDI in China is highly uneven because of complex regional differences. On the whole, FDI has been concentrated in the coastal provinces and along the Changjiang River, namely in the provinces of Guangdong, Jiangsu, Fujian, Shanghai, Shandong, Liaoning, Zhejiang and Hainan. From the 1980s to the 1990s, there was a major shift from the south to the north and the middle reaches of the Changjiang River. This regional pattern is explained by coefficients of elasticity. Using SAS, this paper calculates the relative importance of three sets of factors affecting the distribution of FDI. The traditional factors used include comparative labor cost, market capability and capital productivity. The aggregate factors include infrastructure, the level of economic development and cumulative FDI. And the risk factors include cumulative FDI, the degree of openness, and geo economic factors. The following conclusions were reached. (1) The regional patterns of FDI reflect the existing unbalanced patterns of development. (2) The key factors influencing the patterns of FDI are information cost, market capability and risk factors. (3) A change in the selected factors affected the comparative advantages of regions, which in turn affected the regional patterns of FDI. (4) FDI has moved beyond the early exploratory stage of seeking quick profit to the mature stage aimed at market expansion. (5) The basic patterns of FDI distribution are difficult to change because of the inherent differences among regions.
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    URBANIZATION FROM BELOW IN CHINA: ITS DEVELOPMENT AND MECHANISMS
    Cui Gonghao, Laurence J C Ma
    1999, 66 (2):  106-115.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902002
    Abstract ( 875 )   PDF (433KB) ( 4357 )   Save
    Contemporary China’s urbanization has evolved along two lines: the growth of cities following urban economic development and population concentration, and rural urbanization based on the growth of towns in rural areas. The latter,conceptualized as “urbanization form below” has been propelled by the rise of rural enterprises, resulting in rapid rural employment transformation and the growth of towns. Rural urbanization since the reforms has developed rapidly. In 1995, the share of the designated towns’ nonagricultural population accounted for 9 5% of the nation’s total population, an increase of 5 3 percentage points over that of 1978. This nonagricultural population was 12 5% of the total rural population which was 7 5 percentage points higher than 1978. It constituted 42 5% of the total nonagricultural population of all cities and towns for the nation, rapidly catching up with the share of urbanization contributed by cities. Urbanization from below has been driven by the activities of rural governments and peasants. Three stages of development can be recognized. After the initial period of growth during 1978~1983, it experienced rapid take off during 1984~1988. It entered a period of expansion since 1990. However, the level of rural urbanization has lagged far behind the level of rural nonagriculturalization as well as the nation’s urbanization level in general. As rural enterprises will remain the mainstay of the China’s rural economy for a long period of time, they will continue to cause rural labor transformation and rural urbanization. But with increasing economic liberalization in urban economy and industries moving out the cities, the fact meaning of “urbanization from below” will have to be broadened to include all domestic and overseas forces affecting town growth that are non state in nature.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE METHODOLOGY FOR PRICE APPRAISAL OF CULTIVATED LAND TAKING YUDAI TOWNSHIP OF LIUHE COUNTY IN NANJING CITY AS AN EXAMPLE
    Ni Shaoxing, Qin Kun, Jiang Jianjun, Liu Yansui
    1999, 66 (2):  116-124.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902003
    Abstract ( 331 )   PDF (257KB) ( 547 )   Save
    The method involves the following steps. (1) The study area is first divided into several regions, each with relatively similar features such as soil, topography, ground water level, location attributes and income level. (2) In each region, a number of reference plots are identified, each bordering several other plots. The characteristics of a reference plot such as its physical features, land management, major crops, crop yield, plot size and shape should typify those of the adjacent plots. (3) Calculate the price of each reference plot based on its net annual income using the equation T=(O-I)/Sr where T is the price of a reference plot, O is its gross annual income, I is total annual expenses, S is its areal size, and r is the rate of return. (4) Establish a list of factors affecting land price in each region and determine their weights based on the Delphi measurement method. (5) Rank the factors and assign appropriate points to them. (6) In a region, delineate valuation land plots based on physical features, plot location, field infrastructure, major crops and crop yield. (7) Calculate the total points for each valuation land plot using the equation V = F i * W i where V is total points of the plot, F i is the points assigned to each factor affecting the price of the plot, and W i is the weights of the factors. (8) Calculate the average value of land price per point in a region using the equation K=1/n∑ni=1 Pi/Fi where K is the average value of land price per point, P i is the value of price of the reference plot, F i is the total points of the reference plot, and n is the number of reference plots in a region. (9) Calculate the price for all of the valuation land plots in a region using the equation P=V*k where P is price of a valuation land plot, V is the total points of the plot, and K is the average price per point of the region in which the plot is located. (10) Check the calculated land price through a comparison between the price obtained by using the approach described in this paper with the price calculated by income approach for the same sampling plot. (11) Rank the calculated land prices for all plots in the study area according to the limitation values of each class that are obtained from a statistical analysis of land price distribution against the area of all land plots in the study area. With the assistance of GIS technology, the method was used to appraise the price of cultivated land in Yudai Township, Liuhe County, Nanjing City. The results show that the approach is acceptable and has the advantages of being simple and practical. However, several points should be noted. The number of cultivated land regions to be delineated from a study area and the selection of the factors affecting land price must be in line with the local conditions. Also, the effects of such factors as variation in land management and income on land price must be considered when indices of income and expenses are used to calculate the net annual income. Moreover, to ensure the accuracy of land price appraisal, it is necessary to select an appropriate rate of return which is in line with the level of economic development of the study area.
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    LONG TERM VARIABILITY OF THE SIBERIAN HIGH AND THE POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO GLOBAL WARMING
    Gong Daoyi, Wang Shaowu
    1999, 66 (2):  125-133.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902004
    Abstract ( 848 )   PDF (551KB) ( 1319 )   Save
    The Siberian High is one of the most important circulation systems influencing the climate of eastern Asia in winter. In this study, the intensity index of the Siberian High is defined as I=? 苮72n=1Pnδncosφn? 苮72n=1δn cosφn where Pn is the sea level pressure at grid n , φn is latitude, δn =1 when Pn ≥1 028 hPa, and δn =0 when Pn <1 028 hPa. This index indicates the level of anomaly from the average atmospheric conditions in the core region of the Siberian High. A long time series of the intensity index for the last hundred years was established on the basis of monthly mean sea level pressure data for the northern hemisphere obtained from CRU/UEA. Power spectrum analysis reveals that, for about four decades, the index showed decadal variability. In the 1960s, the Siberian High’s intensity was the highest. During the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the intensity was the lowest. The intensity was strongly correlated with the winter temperature of East Asia. A great deal of the temperature variance in the region 110°E~140°E and north of Bangladesh can be explained by the intensity index. Our calculation of the temperature data for 65 winters shows that 43 6 percent of the variance of North China’s winter mean temperature can be accounted for by the intensity of the Siberian High. The possible impact of global warming on the variability of the High was also investigated using the atmosphere ocean coupled general circulation model (HADCM2). The result of CO2 increase at the rate of 1% per year on global warming was compared with the result of control integration. It was found that in the last hundred years the impact of global warming on the Siberian High was not evident and that the High’s own natural variability played a more important role. Continuous warming in the future will significantly reduce the intensity of the system. However, the change will not be linear. With increasing Co2, variability at 5~6 year inter annual scale can be expected to become more prevalent.
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    A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS OF CHINESE CONTINENTAL SHELF DESERTIFICATION
    Chen Fang, Zhu Daqui
    1999, 66 (2):  134-141.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902005
    Abstract ( 356 )   PDF (229KB) ( 497 )   Save
    Wince 1991, some researchers have proposed a hypothesis claiming that the continental shelves of China were once a desert environment during the low sea level period of the last glacial maxima in late Pleistocene. This hypothesis has been used to interpret the origin and formation of the remaining deposits in the shelf regions. The hypothesis’ main evidence includes the disintegration of the integrated marine stratum, extensive mixed deposits, endless erosional surface texture of repose angle, buried dune groups and ventifacts, etc.. We argue that although it is logical to use such evidence for large scale analysis of the geological environment of China’s continental shelves during the late glacial maxima, it is inadequate to prove the validity of the hypothesis. Moreover, the hypothesis does not consider the impact of the post glacial marine transgression on the aeolian san which might have been on the continental shelves. The paper explores four specific issues. (1) Lacking biological evidence, the criteria used to analyze aeolian sand facies (ancient sand dunes) and desert environment (ancient desert) should be comprehensive and based on multiple indices. The selected indices should be able to diagnose the processes and environmental features. However, the hypothesis’ indices such as the “buried sand dune groups” are mostly multiorigin indices that are not unique to desert environment. (2) Although ventifacts (aeolian gravel) are an indicator of intensive aeolian process, they do not surely represent arid desert environment. A comparison of the characteristics of the egometry and surface textures of the gravel indicates that the gravel from the seabed of the South Huanghai Sea differ significantly from the typical ventifacts of the modern desert environment. Hence they should not be regarded as one and the same thing. (3) Under the dry and cold climate conditions during the glacial period, aeolian sands (dunes )were difficult to be cemented and diagenized, and they may be easily destructed or regormed by post glacial marine transgression. Therefore, such sediment structures as “texture of repose angle” and such sand dune morphologies as the “buried sand groups” are not likely to be preserved extensively. In conclusion, the remaining deposits on the continental shelves of China should not be regarded as ancient desert deposition.
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    LANDSLIDES AND DEBRIS FLOWS IN THE LOWER REACH OF THE JINSHA RIVER, CHINA
    Wang Zhihua
    1999, 66 (2):  142-149.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902006
    Abstract ( 519 )   PDF (489KB) ( 605 )   Save
    The lower reach of the Jinsha River, the study area of this paper, lie in the Hengduan Mountains in the transitional zone between the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau and the Yuannan Guizhou Plateau. Stretching for 786 km from Panzhihua to Yibin, the topography of the area rises and falls sharply. The area’s geology is complex and tectonic movements new and active. The area has rich water resources. The Ministry of Electric Power has planned 4 large scale hydroelectric stations with an installed capacity of 36.9 million kW. The area has experienced repeated landslides and rock mud debris flows that have seriously affected its engineering work and economic development. Remote sensing interpretation and site verification reveal that the area has 400 landslides with volumes >10 8 m3. These landslides are distributed mainly along the middle section of channel bank and in the river’s tributaries where the elevations range between 400 m~ 3 200 m. The forms of the landslides are various and complex. Those with high rushing speeds and large scale clastics are the most damaging to engineering work and the environment. At present, about 70% of the landslides are partially active. The study area’s drainage basin is >0.2 km2 in size. In the first grade tributaries of the river, there are 438 large scale debris flows whose deposit fans are 0.01 km2~3.1 km2. These debris flows are distributed mainly in the study area’s middle section where the elevation is 500 m~4 000 m. The areal size of 80% of the debris flows’ drainage basins is 1 km2~50 km2. The study area has 299 viscid debris flows, accounting for 68% of the total, with only 11% of the total being dilutive. The numbers of gullies where debris flows of extra large, medium and small scales may occur are, respectively, 6, 136, 183 and 103. Numerous new debris flows are being developed in the area. Landslides and debris flows have caused serious damages to the area and strongly impacted the environment. The massive volume of silt the river carries from the area posses a major problem to the Three Gorges Dam downstream.
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    ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES OF SUBURBAN BEIJING DURING THE QING DYNASTY
    Han Guanghui
    1999, 66 (2):  150-157.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902007
    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (354KB) ( 977 )   Save
    Suburbs are a transitional zone between city and country with the characteristics of both. Peripheral to and administered by a city, suburbs have nonetheless always been an important part of cities. Historically they represent an important stage in the development of cities. During the Qing Dynasty (1644~1911), the suburbs of Beijing were known as chengshu (literally, “belonging to the city”) whose administrative boundaries were demarcated during the mid Yongzheng reign (1723~1735). But because of inconsistent historical records, scholarly views regarding the locations of the boundaries have long differed. Using information and maps on Beijing’s suburbs recorded in the local gazetteers compiled during the Qing, this study first ascertains that Beijing’s chengshu were indeed its suburbs. After raising questions concerning the areal extent and the boundaries of chengshu recorded in documents, the approximate outer boundary of Beijing’s chengshu is identified by relying on the data from the imperial edicts of Emperor Yongzheng. The edicts provide information on the city’s garrison and police district that corresponded to the city’s suburban area. This boundary was stable until the Republican period (1911~1949). The significance and function of the boundary are then discussed. Whereas China’s administrative systems and regional divisions appeared quite early in history, regional divisions at different administrative levels were usually controlled by long and customary traditions without any clearly defined legal boundaries. For example, during the Sui (581~618) and the Tang (618~907) Dynasties, administrative regions known as sizhi badao (literally, “four reaches and eight arrivals”, referring to the four cardinal directions plus the additional subdirections of northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest), were merely very general administrative areas of different levels without any rigid administrative boundaries. The Qing more clearly demarcated the boundaries at different administrative levels to maintain border peace and for better social control, including the delimitation of Beijing’s suburban boundaries. In the history of urban growth in China and elsewhere, this development is important. After their boundary had been delimited, the suburbs of Beijing provided space for the Manchu Bannermen to concentrate in who had come from the city, for the construction of imperial gardens and villas, and for the development of handicraft industry, trade and services.
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    STUDY ON INCREASING SELENIUM FLUX IN FOOD CHAIN TO CONTROL KASCHIN BECK DISEASE AND KESHAN DISEASE
    Li Ribang, Tan Jianan, Wang Wuyi, Zhu Wenyu, Yang Linsheng, Li Dezhu, Wang Lizhi, Miao Chengbo, Wang Jiuxing, Zhang Jianke
    1999, 66 (2):  158-164.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902008
    Abstract ( 438 )   PDF (395KB) ( 887 )   Save
    The pathogeny of Kaschin Beck Disease and keshan Disease have not known yet by now. Some scholars think that it is resulted from the biological toxin and some think that the chemigeological factor is their pathogeny. Author agree the later view. By co operative study with the medical workers for several ten years, we found that the geographical distribution of Kaschin Beck Disease and Keshan Disease coincided with the distribution of low selenium zone in China. So that the pathogenical doctrine of selenium deficiency in environment about these two endemic diseases was suggested. It was thought that Kaschin Beck Disease and Keshan Disease were actually environmental diseases. The prevention and cure of them therefore should started with improving local environment for the permanent control of these two diseases. Based on this consideration, this study increased selenium intake of local residents by improving the cycle of nutrional material such as selenium in food chain, and finally control these two endemic diseases. The serious affected area of Kaschin Beck Disease and Keshan Disease in loess plateau, Binxian County, Shaanxi province was selected for the example study on spraying Se on leaf of wheat, vegetables and adding Se into diet (bread) to control these two diseases from 1992 to 1995. The result of the example study shown that the Se concentration in wheat sprayed selenium raised to 0 081 μg/g, it was obviously higher than that (0 009 μg/g) of wheat unsprayed selenium. The Se in diet from experimental village reached 0 076 μg/g and higher than that (0 014 μg/g) of control village. The average Se intake of residents in experimental village raised from 13 40 g/person. day to 60 39 μg/person.day. The X ray positive rate of Kaschin Beck Disease in experimental village came down from 43 33% to 6 45% and came up to the natioal control standard of Kaschin Beck Diease. This indicated that it was obvious effective to prevent Kaschin Beck Disease and Keshan Disease using trace element selenium, and that selenium really relates to the prevalence of these two diseases.
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    A COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR COASTAL LOUISIANA
    Ivor Ll. van Heerden
    1999, 66 (2):  165-176.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902009
    Abstract ( 334 )   PDF (364KB) ( 330 )   Save
    Louisiana has lost in excess of 4 000 km2 of its coastal wetlands in the last 70 years. Much of this loss is directly attributable to man’s activities. A major coastal restoration effort is needed or many coastal communities will have to be abandoned. Recognizing the seriousness of the wetland loss problem, several federal and state programs were initiated in 1991 to attempt to address the problem. However, it was imperative that the state develop a long term comprehensive coastal wetland creation/restoration plan to aid the wetland restoration programs. The plan herein described was first presented to these agencies in 1993. Various aspects are now being implemented. The plan promotes diverting sediment and fresh water from the Mississippi River. It attempts to simulate natural delta growth processes by creating river diversions, re establishing former distributaries and restoring restoration of Louisiana’s barrier islands.
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    NEW PROGRESSES OF INTERNATIONAL STUDY ON LAND QUALITY INDICATORS (LQIs)
    Leng Shuying, Li Xiubin
    1999, 66 (2):  177-185.  doi: 10.11821/xb199902010
    Abstract ( 575 )   PDF (397KB) ( 877 )   Save
    The study of land resources in China and abroad since the 1970s has evolved into an important and comprehensive field of applied research in earth sciences. This field encompasses the study of land types, land assessment, land productivity potential, land capacity to carry population, land use and land cover, land planning, and land information system, etc. During the 1990s, a key focus of study has been the changes in land cover. More recently, in an attempt to better understand the changes in land quality, an international collaborative project has been initiated to develop land quality indicator systems. Participating agencies include the World Band, United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations Environment Program, United Nations Development Program, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Agri Food of Canada. This paper introduces the this project in the hope that it will arouse the interests of Chinese scholars at a time when the nation faces extremely serious problems of land degradation, especially in environmentally fragile regions. The project is based on the theoretical framework of pressure state response to measure the pressure on land resources, the impact of the pressure on land quality, and societal responses to the pressure. Different land quality indicators have been established through the analysis of land quality problems in typical agricultural ecological zones of the world in the tropical and subtropical regions, including the humid tropical rainforest region, seasonally dry tropical region, Savanna region, subtropical region, semi arid region, and arid region. In each region, the indicator system takes into consideration such variables as land quality, land use, agricultural production, population, resources and societal responses. On the other hand, other indicator systems are designed to evaluate a specific problem, such as land degradation. Such indicator systems can be disaggregated into pressure indicators, land condition indicators and societal response indicators. Although designed mainly for use at the regional and national levels, some systems have been developed for use by local places and farms.
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