Table of Content

    15 July 1998, Volume 53 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Zhong Yingjie, Wang Zheng
    1998, 53 (4):  295-302.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804001
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    It is widely known that sustainable development is an important requirement of modern social development. Since 1992, many researchers have paid attention to the relationship between the economic growth and the social equity, which is an important aspect of sustainable development, as it is more important to developing countries than developed countries. The regional equity in China has been recognized as an essential content of sustainable development. Now China has achieved a great economic growth, and some researchers considered that interregional inequity has appeared between the East and the West of China during the process of China’s opening. According to the idea of development, one can not decide that every area has the same growth rate is good for national economy with a limited money, capital and labor force. In other words, the basic meaning of development is not to emphasize the interregional balance of economic growth, but the balance of the living standard of the residents and the condition of equity between various areas. In this paper, interregional equity in China is discussed from a new point of view, i.e. social demand situation, since it directly reflects people’s living standard and social developing trend. The working model, a demand analysis model, is introduced to understand the situation of equity in China, using the annual data of 1992 ̄1995 of urbanized residents in eight various areas in China whose economic developing standard are different. Working’s model is a powerful yet practically convenient model, which was devised by H. Working in 1943. And E.A. Selvanathan and Kenneth W. Clements provided evidence that this model is superior for long term case for recent development (1995). Therefore, Working’s model is much more helpful in discussing sustainable development compared to a number of alternative models. Furthermore, the basic data used in the model can be easily acquired from statistical annuals. In this paper, we mainly focus on the analysis of social equity situation in different areas of China, based on which we also provide some strategies of economic development involving in the adjustment of the structure of commodities and industries to seek a more equity as well as prosperity in future. In our investigation, eight consumption goods are classified, which include food, clothing, durable goods, medical treatment and health care, transportation, communication, education, and housing. The investigation suggests the following results: ① The consumption of food and clothing is the basic need for China, which is about 65% of all of residents’ consumption, the percentage of consumption of food is about 3 times that of developed countries. However, the difference between market shares and marginal market shares of the two commodities is small, almost zero for each, and there is not interregional difference. This means the problem of food and clothing has been solved and there is almost no difference between the East and the West of China on essential living conditions. ② Medical treatment and health care, education and durable goods are in the same standard of demand, and a difference exists between the central area of China and other areas. This means the development of the central areas has some difficulties. For instance, Heilongjiang Province, once the most important heavy industrial in China, was brought down to a rather depressive situation because of the adjustment of industrial structure in China following the open and reform policy. There emerges a new poverty phenomenon in Chinese heavy industrial regions. ③ Although the demand of durable goods, transportation and communication is increasing in each area, Shanghai, Guangdong and Beijing have relatively high marginal share, which means a difference exists between the East and other areas. Especially, only Shanghai’s marginal share of communication achieves 1/2 of developed counties and Beijing’s is smaller. This shows that there exists a difference in development level between Shanghai and Beijing.
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    Qi Qingwen, Liu Yue
    1998, 53 (4):  303-313.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804002
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    Cartographic Generalization has long been the key problem in cartography, and are becoming one of the most attractive and leading problems in the international realm of GIS. This paper sumarizes the author’s research on the theories and approaches of Geographic feature oriented Generalization in GIS environment (GGGEN). The paper contains five parts, i.e., the information mechanism, the theoretic models, the method of mathematic models combined with knowledge rules, and the development of integrated module of generalization of GGGEN. The author’s conclusions are as follows: ① Scientific cognition on geographic feature and geographic regularity, i.e., Geographic Cognition, is the subjective and objective basis of generalization for geo maps or geo databases, and it goes through each mapping stages, e.g., the designing stage, the map constructing stage, and verifying stage. ② The motives of generalization in GIS environment are no longer for only adapting graphic representation with the decreased scale, and generalization is a kind of method and technology not only for data and graph transformation for geographic data representation, but also for GIS data processing, integration, analysis and database derivation. The functions of GGGEN’s information processing include its generalization on the spatial distributive pattern of geo objects and its filtering on the complex geographic information. ③ The traditional concept of generalization, i.e., transformation from one paper map to another, is an obstacle of automated generalization, which should be realized in GIS database environment, through two stages as data processing and graphic representation, on the model of “object classes” inheritance and mergence, using the technology of integrating GIS tool, mathematic model base and expert system. That is to say, GGGEN is a kind of stepped information processing, which starts from geo data analysis and treatment in database, and ends at geo data visualization, i.e., graphic representation. The visualization principles have very important guidance to generalization. ④ From concrete view to detailed view, there are four levels of theoretic models for GGGEN, in which the first level is the database model scheme, i.e., the scheme from DLM to DCM, the second level is database hierarchical structure scheme, i.e., the scheme of Master Database Multiple Representation, the third level is the scheme of Knowledge and Object Based Procedure, and fourth level is the Generalizing Model of Geo Object and Class Inheritance and Incorporation, which is the kernel part of Geographic feature Oriented Generalization. ⑤ The combination of mathematical models and intelligent rules should be, and really is, a kind of prosperous approach to automatic generalization, in which the former function acts as concrete operations,while the latter,including structure recognition,course recognition,course modeling,assessment of final output,decision of the next operation,deals with the judgment and linkage of various operations. ⑥ By using the GGGEN module in GIS, which includes a generalization operator set with the Math Model base, a generalization inference engine with the knowledge base, and a GIS tool set with GIS environment, the author obtain satisfactory results for representing the natural landscape feature of Yanqing County, Beijing Municipality, and the humanistic landscape feature of transportation network in Zhujiang Delta Economic Zone.
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    Zhang Chaosheng, Zhang Shen, Wang Lijun, Wang Lizhen
    1998, 53 (4):  314-322.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804003
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    The Changjiang River and the Huanghe River are the two longest rivers in China. The differences between them, such as climatic conditions and bedrock compositions, have caused the differences of metal geochemistry in their sediments. Therefore, sediment samples were taken from the mainstreams of the rivers, and the total contents and speciation of 16 metals (Li,Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba,Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn and Al) have been analyzed, in order to reveal their differences and the relationships in the geographical and geological conditions. Eleven sediment samples were taken from the Changjiang River and other ten samples were from the Hanghe River. The speciation method was after Tessier et al., and five forms of metals were fractionated: ① exchangeable, ② carbonate, ③organic, ④ Fe/Mn oxide, and ⑤ residual. Total contents and contents of the five forms were detected by ICP AES. The total contents of metals in the two rivers are consistent with their crustal abundances. The coefficients of variances of all the elements under study are quite small, which is caused by the transportation and dispersion processes of sediments along the mainstreams. Mobile elements, such as Na, Sr, and Ca, have significantly negative correlations with the immobile elements in sediments of the Changjiang River which is caused by the strong weathering forces inside the watershed. By the weathering forces, mobile elements are removed from the sediments, and immobile elements are relatively enriched. However, such a kind of relationship has been weakened in the Huanghe River due to the relatively poor weathering forces. Ca and Mn have the lowest percentages of the residual form in both rivers, while the other elements have rather high contents of the residual form. The significant differences between the two rivers have also been revealed by the speciation study. The residual forms of most of the metals have lower percentages in the Changjiang River than those in the Huanghe River. However, the non residual forms of the metals in the sediments of the Changjiang River tend to reside in the Fe/Mn oxide and organic forms. These results are also in line with the stronger weathering forces in the Changjiang River watershed than those in the Huanghe River area. The sediments in the Huanghe River mainly consist of loess, and the loess contains quite little organic matter, which is another reason for the low contents of organic forms of metals in sediments of the Huanghe River.
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    Chen Xiqing, Chen Jiyu
    1998, 53 (4):  323-331.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804004
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    Both the theoretic consideration and the field experience suggest that the application of Bruun Rule in the muddy coast, especially in the Changjiang deltaic coast, is a complicated problem, for such coast presents a significant difference from sandy beaches in its coastal dynamics, geomorphology, sediment characteristics and transport. This paper presents a special study and discussion on the original equilibrium profile associated with Bruun Rule and its application. The study suggests that although the strict equilibrium coastal profiles, as described in the classical theory for sandy beach development, do not exist on the deltaic coast, the coastal profiles do show certain stable morphological features, such as, the closure depth, the most important parameter in Bruun Rule, which provide a basis for the application of Bruun Rule in this coast. Because the coastal profiles vary greatly, even within the same onshore offshore profile, the coastal slope shows a large variation and this may give a great difference in the estimate of shoreline retreat rate if an arbitrary distance L* is adopted. An integrated study of coastal dynamics, geomorphology and sedimentology in the coastal system suggests that, while estimating the shoreline retreat rate, the two closure depths of-8 m and-30 m should be considered in the open east coast of Shanghai, while on the north coast of Hangzhou Bay the single closure depth of-8m is enough due to the existence of 8m underwater platform of Hangzhou Bay: It is found that these two different closure depths are dynamically controlled by the two wave heights approximately with ≤1-year and≥10-year recurrence intervals, respectively. Furthermore, it is suggested that a study of longshore sediment budget is indispensable for obtaining a reasonable estimate of shoreline retreat rate within the studied coastal segment because historical evidence suggests that the dynamical changes in the middle to the upper part of coastal profile are largely controlled by this factor under a stable sea-level.
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    Yan Shun, Mu Guijin, Xu Yingqin, Zhao Zhenhong
    1998, 53 (4):  332-340.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804005
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    The Lop Nur depression is at the east margin of the Tarim Basin. It is the lowermost place and the conflux center of the basin, covers about 50 000 km 2. The lowermost place is 780 m above sea level. The bio species in the region are limited and their quantity is rare. Especially the species are rapidly reduced after the lake dried up due to human activities in 1970’s. The data from the field survey of 1980 and 1981 show 13 families, 26 geniuses and 36 species. The boring site of K 1 locates at the middle of the dried up Lop lake, at 90°15′E and 40°17′N. Depth of the well is 100.2 m. The core is totally divided into 92 layers according to natural sedimentation, and classified into 26 depositional cycles in terms of rhythmic sedimentation from coarse to fine. In general, Holocene series is about 2.70 m thick, including the layers from No.1 to 7. The surface is salt crust, and then mainly clay underneath, upper Pleistocene series is about 14.65 m thick, including the layers from No.8 to 17, and mainly composed of earthy yellow and earthy gray clay; mid Pleistocene series is about 48.86 m thick, including the layers from No.18 to 72. Its Lower part is mainly composed of earthy gray, dark gray and grayish green mudstone with thin beds of gypsum, and upper part is mainly the exchange of dark gray muddy rocky gypsum, mudstone with gypsum. At the top there is a buried weathering crust. The mid Plesistocene series is unconformable with an angle about 15° on the lower Pleistocene. The lower Pleistocene series is about 34 m of visible thickness, including the layers from No.73 to 92, and mainly composed of dark gray mudstone and earthy yellow mudstone. Many muddy gypsum beds and gypsum mudstone beds are interbedded in the middle part. The strata decline with an angle change from 15° to 5° top down. In Paleogene the bio group was carring very important characteristics of the tethys region, and the climate of the basin was moistly warm, and produced large coruferous forest and broad leaf forest with some bushes, herb and hydrophytes. The climate of the Tarim Basin changed sharply from Miocene to Pliocene. The broad and deciduous leaf forest reduced by means of either species or total quantity. and the ever green species extincted basically. The coniferous forest decreased, but herb and bush plants occupied the region. According to the variety of species and quantity of pollen found, the whole profile is divided into 15 pollen zones (Fig.1).The zones from No.1 to 4 belong to early Pleistocene,from No.5 to 10 belong to mid Pleistocene,from No.11 to 14 belong to later Pleistocene, and No.15 belongs to Holocene including 3 sub zones. In the early Pleistocene the pollen and spore show coniferous broad leaf forest and steppe. The trees composed of Picea, Pinus, Abies, Betula, Ulmus, Salix and other including Tilia, Juglans, Carpinus, Alnus, Carya , etc. Abundant gypsum mudstone and gypsum beds appear in the mid Pleistocene strata of the K 1 core. It implies that the lake water was in high mineral contents and rich of Ca 2+ and SO 2- 4, and that the evaporation capacity was much higher than precipitation, and stand for outstanding arid time. The pollen assemblagres of the mid Pleistocene indicate that the vegetation in the vicinity of the lake had an alternative process from desert steppe type, then steppe, desert, steppe, desert to desert steppe. It was dominated by semiarid or arid climate with clear alternation from arid to moist environment in the surrounding region of the lake. In the later Pleistocene the lake water was not very deep, and surrounded by swamp and peat lands. Hydrophyte was abundant. Mineral contents of the lake water were not very high. The pollen assemblages show 2 circles of alternation of the vegetation evolution from desert to desert steppe. Under the domination of arid climate alternation of the climate was remarkable. In Holocene series, swamps and peats were well developed around the lake. The lake water was in very high mineral contents.
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    Shen Dajun, Liu Changming
    1998, 53 (4):  341-348.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804006
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    The Middle Route of China’s South to North Water Transfer Project (MR SNWTP) is one of the key engineerings to alleviate water resources crisis in the North China Plain. But water transfer from the Hanjiang River would result in changes in hydrological regimes and water use in the basin. The paper deals with the effects of different water transfer scales on the down stream of the Danjiangkou Reservoir water source of MR SNWTP. The advantages and disadvantages of three water transfer scales: 6 billion m3, 15 billion m3, and 23 billion m3 (in annual average water transfer quantity in 2020), were discussed. The effects of three scales on water tables, streamflows, navigation and irrigation were analyzed. The results demonstrated that, the scales of 1 5 billion m3 and 6 billion m3 would have small effects on the down stream of the reservoir and little change in navigation and irrigation water use, and do not need to build compensation engineerings; the scales of 15 billion m3 would have moderate effects on water tables, streamflows, navigation and irrigation, and need to build compensation engineerings for irrigation at the lower stream of the river; while the scale of 23 billion m3 would have great effects on water tables and streamflows and on irrigation and navigation, and need to compensate completely for water table decline and water quantity decrease for both irrigation and navigation.
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    Ni Jinren, Yang Xiaomao, Wang Guangqian
    1998, 53 (4):  349-355.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804007
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    The border regions between Shenzhen and Hong Kong have been the most noted areas since the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone was developed in 1980. On the north part of the transborder, rapid economic development has been carried out during the recent years with its great achievements. Meanwhile, the rapid urbanization and the improper land use have also resulted in some environmental problems because of the loss of water and soil and the subsequent sediment transport. The apparent increase in sedimentation rate coincides with a rapid development within the Shenzhen river catchment. Relationship between the characteristics of economic development under the special process in the study area and those of sediment transport under the process of erosion, transport and sedimentation are discussed. As results, environmental impact on the sensative ecosystem within the Shenzhen H.K. border regions due to sediments are evaluated. According to the recent investigations, the serious deterioration of the ecological system resulted from the loss of soil and water appears mostly around the Buji river and in the newly developed areas in Baoan and Longgang District, which requirs the urgent countermeasures to control further erosion and conserve the natural system. As the contrast, the influence of the increase of the sediment deposition and water pollution in the ecological sensitive areas near the river mouth in the Deep Bay is still environmentally acceptable. However, in the view of the development plans in both Shenzhen and Hong Kong sides within the transboundary band in the near future, pre protection measures must be carried out to decrease the potential environmental impact which will possibly place restriction on the equitable economic development in the process of the “second economic revolution” in the area. To ensure the sustainable development in the area, some measures must be implemented, and the sediment related problems must be taken into consideration in various kinds of regional plannings such as water and soil conservation planning in the fluvial system, non point source pollution control planning, water project construction planning and other plannings.
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    Zhang Xinping, Yao Tandong
    1998, 53 (4):  356-364.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804008
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    China is situated in the eastern part of Eurasia and the western coast of the Pasific Ocea. Climatic diversity causes the differences in the regional distribution of stable isotopic ratios in precipitation. According to the calculation on the avaliable data, the δ18O is not completely parallel to the latitude, but shows the typical saddle distribution. There are the high δ18O in the southeast and the northwest of China. The high δ18O in the southeast of China is mainly caused by the ocean airmass in the low latitudes. But, the high value in the northwest of China is related to the dry climate condition. There are low ratios in the Northeast and in the southern Qinghai Xizang Plateau. On one hand, the low value in the Northeast is the result of temperature effect, and on the other hand, it is influenced by the latitude effect; the low values in the southern Qing Zang Plateau and the variational gradient of δ18O from the north to the south are related to the special influence of the great topography. Mean δ18O during the summer half year (Apr. to Sep.) is higher than that during the winter half year (Oct. to Mar.) in mid high latitude zones, i.e. Δδ18O>0, which shows that the temperature variation plays an important role in the seasonal variation of δ18O, whereas δ18O during the summer half year is lower than that during the winter half year in mid low latitude zones, i.e. Δδ18O<0, which shows that the seasonal replace of air mass from different origins plays an important role in the variation of δ18O. In China, the temperature effect mainly appears in mid high latitudes, and the more toward the inland continent, the closer the positive correlations. There are great parts of negative correlations in mid low latitudes and in the southern Qing Zang Plateau. The distribution of relations between δ18O and temperature is corresponded to that of Δδ18O. The amount effect appears in southeastern coastal regions, the Yunnan Guizhou Plateau and Qing Zang Plateau, which are obviously influencd by monsoon climate. The meteoric water lines (MWLs) of different regions are of certain divergence, which is closely related to the stable isotopic infractionations of the two processes, namely the evaporation of origins and the precipitation of vapor.
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    Zhang Xiaolin
    1998, 53 (4):  365-371.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804009
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    Rural Geography is a weak branch of Human Geography in China, especially with regard to its theoretical development and some basic concepts. First of all, this paper analyses rural definitions systematically from a multi dimention point of view (occupational、ecological、socio cultural). As an occupational definition, “rural” means an area where farming is the main mode of production. As far as ecological definitions are concerned, it means a settlement whose population scale is smaller, outside urban area, with rural landscapes showing unmistakable signs of being dominated by extensive use of land, and with discrete spatial units isolated from the outside world. Socio cultural definitions are in terms of clear differences in behavior and attitude between people in rural and urban area, such as ways of life, spatial behavior and aspirations. The author thinks that all the definitions are lack of delimitations of rural totally and essentially. Rural can not be summarized by a simple definition, because it is a complicated and indistinct conception. Difficulties of defining rural lie in dynamic evolution of the whole rural, unconformity among rural elements, relativity between rural and urban, and relevant rural urban continuum, which makes the boundary between rural and urban more indefinite. To a certain extent rural is regarded as areas differing from urban greatly and the difference can be compared in many aspects such as production activities, ways of life, etc. The close extent between urban and rural represents different stages of rural development. The author suggests rurality should take place of rural definitions under the background of urbanization in the world of today. Rurality refers to the manifestation of rural characters which take urban as criteria of reference within a specified area. The author draws his conclusions. First, every region can be looked on as a unity of urbanity and rurality. The more urbanity a region is, the less rurality it will have. Urban and rural are continuous and there is not any broken locality between them. Second, the size of rurality index takes urban as unit of reference. Using different urban criteria can reflect difference of rurality and stages of its development. Finally, rurality is concerned with scale, index and method which are used in our research. We can weaken some rural characteristics and improve regional urbanity in practice such as village town planning and regional planning by estimating rurality index of different areas. In order to be favourable to urban rural planning and management we also need to put forward rural countermeasures concerned correctly.
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    Zhou Chenghu, Lu Xuejun
    1998, 53 (4):  372-380.  doi: 10.11821/xb199804010
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    Geo information Science emerged recently as an accepted term with the popularity of geographical technologies such as geographical information system, global positioning system and satellite remote sensing, and great demand for effective use of the geographical information to deal with complex issues like the regional sustainable development and global change. It may be believed that Geo information science will grow to be an important branch of Earth System Science and play when we step into the information age of 21th century. The authors attempted to probe the fundamental issues and principal area for Geo information science in this article form its origin and main contents and research topics. Firstly, we discussed the Geo information science from the technological and application sets. From the point of view of the technology development, there exist several relevant and similar terms such as Geomatics, Geographical Information Science, Iconic Informatics, which were advanced from different principals, like photogrammetry, remote sensing. It was said that all these principals concerning the geo information collecting, analysis and communication promoted and contributed, to some extent, the emergency of Geo information science. At the same time, the research of the global change, regional sustainable development and other comprehensive and complex issues concerning the earth system asks us to reveal the principals governing the movement of the matter and energy, the interaction among the different geo spheres not only from the matter and energy cycles, but also from the information flow. As an umbrella for the fundamental problems surrounding the geo information collection, storage, analysis and communication, the main research contents for Geo information science may include Geo informatics, Geo information technologies and its application. Geo informatics, as its basic theory for revealing the development and evolution of the earth system, includes the geo information expression, structure and characteristics, information transfer process and amplification and decreasing among the geo spheres, spatial cognition and uncertainty and forecastability, and others. The geo information technologies involves the aspects for information collection such as remote sensing and GPS, simulation and analysis such as GIS, DBMS, and communication like Information Highway, electric atlas. Geo information science has a wide application area, especially finds utilization in the global change and sustainable development research. Therefore Geo information science, a multi discipline spanning over the Earth Science, System Science and Information technologies, will bloom up and become a supporting branch of the Geo information science soon.
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