Table of Content

    15 January 1998, Volume 53 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    1998, 53 (1):  1-12.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (328KB) ( )   Save
    Professor Huang Bingwei, the Academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Honorary Director of the Institute of Geography, CAS, and Honorary President of the Geographical Society of China, is an outstanding geographer whose contributions to geography gained national and international recognition. In the development of modern geography in China, Prof. Huang Bingwei, in accordance with the features and laws of the discipline, has paid close attention to the international trend and direction of the geographical study, advocated interdisciplinary research across the natural and social sciences, emphasized comprehensive studies, energetically introduced new ideas, new technologies and new methods, attached importance to the combination of theory with practice, though highly of bringing geography to serve economic construction, especially agriculture, and made notable contributions to the development of Chinese geography and international cooperation as well as improvement of research level of geographical science in China. As early as the 1930s, Prof. Huang Bingwei had stared to pay attention to and studied physical environment and regional differentiation of its components in China. The Physico geographic Regionalization of China, the most detailed and systematic work of this field completed in 1950, revealed the basic characteristics of physical areal differentiation of China and served as a foil to the law of natural zonality of geography. In the 1950s, he contemplated to promote the studies on contemporary physical, chemical and biological processes of the earth surface. The aim of it is to provide basis for fully utilizing and transforming nature by means of tracing back to the law of migration and transportation of matter and energy among different bodies in nature. The birth of this notion in China was about 25 years ahead of its counterpart in the developed world. In the 1950s, he for the first time, distinguished soil erosion on the Huangtu (Loess) Plateau into pydraulic, gravational, wind force and cave forms and compiled the first 1∶4 000 000 scale regional map of soil erosion of the middle reaches of the Huanghe (Yellow) River. In the 1980s the forwarded the issue of utilization and transformation of steep lands. All the above said work are his pioneering contributions in this realm of scientific inquiries in China. In the 1990s, Prof. Huang has gradually entered into a new realm in his studies, i.e., the researches of scientific basis of sustainable development strategies, and made great endeavors to this field. In 1996, he won the IGU special honorary certificate. 1998 is the 85th birthday of Prof. Huang Bingwei. This group of articles reflects his academic thoughts, particularly the theory, structure and methods on researches of scientific basis of sustainable development strategies from different aspects.
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    Fan Jie, Wolfgang Taubmann
    1998, 53 (1):  13-23.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801002
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    Of the great changes that happened in the social and economic field during the reform of more than 10 years the development of outward oriented economy and rural enterprises were two outstanding aspects. The former promoted the transfer of China’s economic system from a closed to a completely open one; the latter brought about the change of rural economic structure from an agricultural to a non agricultural one which mainly concentrated on the development of industry. The combination of two aspects——the development of outward oriented economy in rural enterprise——inevitably becomes one of the important issues China is confronted with in current economic development. The rural enterprises play a more and more important role in China’s outward oriented economy. The share of export goods delivery value of rural enterprises in that of all export increased from only 9.19% in 1986 to 44.47% in 1993. The reasons accounting for that rapid growth were as follows. 1) The industrial structure of rural enterprises which took light industry and textile industry as the pillars was nearly identical with the composition of export commodities. 2) The majority of the rural enterprises had a small size, which was beneficial for the reception of a small amount of foreign investment and at the same time they were good at doing short term business, taking on urgent tasks and small batch production and were relatively powerful in risking bankruptcy. 3) Abundant and cheap labour forces were the fundament for the rural enterprises to get higher profit and to increase their capacity for competition. 4) Extensive and intensive relations with overseas Chinese maintained by provincialism played a very important role in introducing foreign investment and marketing products. There were great regional differences in the development level of outward oriented economy. The export value of rural enterprises was highest in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shandong and Guangdong. The share of these 6 provinces in that of the whole country increased between 54% and 76%. Due to the outward processing of HK, 95% of the enterprises income came from processing and assembling provided raw materials, component parts, and samples, and from compensation trade generated by these kinds of enterprises in Guangdong province. 94% of the output value of the enterprises with foreign investment came from the coastal area which resulted in a great disparity between the interior and the coasta provinces. In recent years more foreign investment fell on the interior provinces. In 1992, foreign investment in the coastal areas decreased to 78%. Using factor analysis the development level of the outward oriented economy of provinces with regard to export, foreign investment and the development of the enterprises with foreign investment was classified as 7 grades and the map was drawn to show the regional differences. The structure of the outward oriented economy has changed. In the early 80’s the share of primary mineral products, animal products, arts and crafts articles, and textile products, all with low benefit and low added value, took up a large part of the export goods. By 1992, the proportion of these products decreased and the share of textile, products of light industry, chemicals and related products, and machinery increased. There was a difference in the composition of export goods among the provinces. Using cluster analysis and taking the deviation coefficient, the proportion of the primary sector, the composition of three subordinate sectors as parameters, the industrial structure of the export oriented economy of the provinces was divided into 4 groups which reflect the regional distribution. There were four regional types which were of importance for the development level of the outward oriented economy: 1) the specialized industrial structure of export oriented economy in less developed areas; 2) arts and crafts, food, and textile industry in the coastal area of Boha.
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    Fang Chuanglin, Mao Hanying
    1998, 53 (1):  24-31.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801003
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    Coal mining and collapse are a pair of contradictions which are usually objective realities in resources overlapping areas. Yanzhou Tengzhou Lianghuai (Huainan Huaibei) region is the most important energy base of the region of East China, the long period overloaded coal mining here has contributed indeliblely to the relaxation of energy supply tension in East China. Now it is one of the 19 major territorial comprehensive development regions in China. But the land collapse due to the coal mining has given rise to a series of ecological problems and deeply social contradictions. To sovlve these problems, it is effectively to begin with the approach to the basic laws of dynamic evolution in coal mining areas using the mining collapse theory and the theory of fluid michanics. Only after this should we adjust the coal mining policy, improve the mining method, adopt the restrictive mining strategy, and multiform coordinate exploit pattern, take forth the exploit management pattern coordinated by government, enterprise and peasants, renovate separately in line with 1ocal conditions, and determine the time series and intensities of the region development of overlapping resources according to the law of market price, we should also make favourable policies, take more fund from multiple channels, so as to ensure the coordinate exploitation of various resources at the same areas and the sustainable development of the region.
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    Chen Tongbin, Chen Shiqing, Xu Hongtao, Huang Shikeng, Chen Yan
    1998, 53 (1):  32-41.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801004
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    Based on the mass balance of available nutrients and the all experimental results published later after 1980, the present study simulated nutrient uptake, and nutrient supplies from soils, applied chemical fertilizers and manures in the whole China; and then predicted the optimal ratios of N, P, K fertilizers required for crop production in the country. It is predicted that the optimal ratios of N∶P2O5∶K2O would be 1:0.38:0.25 for N, P, K fertilizers in the year of 2000. It is indicated that chemical fertilizers and manures contributed 34% and 18% to the total crop N demand, 18% and 25% to the total crop P demand, 13% and 19% to the total crop K demand, respectively, while the other percentages were occupied by soil supplies. Manures which are traditionally employed as main fertilizers in China supplied a large quantities of nutrients, especially K and P, to crop production. Therefore, the application of manures had great effects on the prediction of demands and ratios of chemical fertilizers although little attention on this disturbance has been paid to the prediction of fertilizer demands until now.
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    Deng Huiping, Tang Laihua
    1998, 53 (1):  42-48.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801005
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    Impacts of climatic changes due to CO2 doubling on hydrologic balance in Tuojiang Basin, Sichuan Province are studied in this paper. A monthly water balance model is developed. Based on the recent study about relationships between flux and profiles over rough vegetated surfaces, Penman Monteith equations is rededuced in order to analyze the error when it is used to calculate evapotranspiration of high vegetation covered area. With the water balance model, monthly evapotranspiration, soil water content, surface runoff, ground runoff are calculated. Scenario based on NCAR CCM Outputs is selected. For the sensitive study, hypothetical scenarios based on OSU, GISS, GFDL and UKMO GCMS outputs are also selected. Impacts of climate changes on magnitude and timing of hydrological elements are estimated. Sensitive studies with the hypothetical scenarios show that runoff is not sensitive to temperature changes but sensitive to precipitation changes. Temperature increases 2~4 degrees, runoff only decreases 5%~10%. While precipitation changes 20%, runoff changes about 35%~40%. With the NCAR CCM Scenario, seasonal distributions of hydrologic elements changes obviously.
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    Jiang Zixun, Ji Zixiu, Yu Xiubo, Zhang Chen
    1998, 53 (1):  49-57.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801006
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    The region bordering Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan and Anhui Provinces, in the northeast of Huaihe River Basin, belongs to a subhumid warm temperate zone. Water environment problems, such as flood, drought and water pollution, have seriously hampered the sustainable development of the border region of the four provinces. This article mainly deals with the causes and effect of water environment problems in this region. The disasters are caused by natural factors and human activities. The natural factors include relief and rainfall. (1) The Huanghe River changed its way several times in the historic period. It caused the original land surface and river system to be disturbed. (2) The rainfall is seasonally distributed and the interannual difference of rainfall is great. (3) As a result of (1) and (2), the ecosystem in this region is usually fragile. The influences of human activities are as follows: (1) the population density has increased to 602人/km2. The per capita amount of water resources only makes up 20% of that of the country. (2) Along with the rapid development of industry and energy resource and population growth, a great deal of industrial waste water and domestic sewage is drained to rivers and lakes, leading to a serious water pollution. (3) The conflicts of water supply and drainage among different river reaches are apparent in the border region. The present water environmental management is inadequate to the purpose intended. Therefore, some effctive countermeasures have to be taken, and suggestions are made for the purpose of accomplishing the sustainable development. (1) To establish a model of water environment management combining basin management agency with local goverments. (2) To bring environmental protection into national economy and social development plan. To combine two apparently contradictory objectives—economic development and environmental protection. (3) To implement more effective integrated control on water pollution and disasters of drought and flood.
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    Fang Hongliang
    1998, 53 (1):  58-65.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801007
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    In crop yield estimation using remotely sensed data, it usually needs to calculate the crop planting area in a particular administrative division. Most previous investigators do as follows: first, they cut down the target image of the study area with the administrative boundary, then conduct land cover/use classification and crop identification work, and finally calculate the crop area. Other researchers conduct the land cover/use classification work first and then cut down the study area with administrative boundary, and calculate the crop area at last. We call these two methods strategy A (cut and classify) and strategy B(classify and cut) respectively. In this paper, we applied these two strategies to rice planting area identification. Our results indicate that strategy B is obviously better than strategy A in the unsupervised-cluster process and the accuracy is over 84%. Previous work The author tried to retrieve as many as possible previous works on land cover/use classification and on crop area calculation in an administrative division. It showed that much of these works was done based on strategy A (cut and classify) using supervised or unsupervised automatic classification method as well as visual interpretation. Strategy B (classify and cut) was used by fewer investigators, in cases supervised classification method was applied. Study area and data The study area we selected is the county of Jiangling in Hubei province, China. Jiangling county, located in the middle Changjiang River Plain, is a major rice production county in Hubei province. The early rice is sowed in the third ten days of March or the first ten days of April and transplanted in the third ten days of April or the first ten days of May. The moderately late rice is sowed in the first ten days of May and transplanted in the third ten days of June. According to the farming practice of the area, Landsat 5 TM CCT, dated 8 June, 1992, when it was clear and cloudless, with scene of Path 124, Row 39 containing the whole county, was acquired from the Chinese Satellite Ground Station. The image processing system we used is ERDAS software and ARC/INFO GIS software is also supplementally used. Moreover, 1∶50000 scale topographic maps, recent vegetation type maps, soil maps, land cover/use maps and other ancillary information were available. Methods and results The process to compare the two strategies was described in detail in this part. For strategy A, similar to previous works, we cut down the image of Jiangling county with its boundary stored in a GIS which was built with ARC/INFO software. Then, unsupervised classification was applied and 50 classes were got at first and then recoded into 10 major land cover types referring to the soil maps and topographic maps. As to strategy B, an image containing Jiangling county was cut down with a circumbox and then go on with unsupervised classification. Fifty classes were got firstly and then recoded into 10 major land cover types also. The classification result was cut down with the same boundary as strategy A. The thematic rice area was extracted using the above two strategies. Results analysis and discussion The results indicated that strategy B is obviously better than strategy A in the unsupervised classification-recoding process. For supervised classification, it made no difference whether strategy A or strategy B was applied. It is expected that some previous visual interpretation results would also be improved if strategy B was used instead of strategy A. The same results can be got for NOAA AVHRR and SPOT images. Conclusions and further research In summary, it may be said that strategy B is far more suitable and robust in the unsupervised classification-recoding process than strategy A. Strategy B, rather than strategy A, should be of first consideration in similar projects. Applying this strategy in our study, the accuracy of the rice area identified is exceeding 84%. In practical use, the rice planting area is always much lager than our study area.
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    Ni Jinren, Wang Guangqian
    1998, 53 (1):  66-76.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801008
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    On the basis of classification of various kinds of debris flows with the emphases of their dynamic behaviours in relation to the corresponding constitutive relations, a conceptual two phase flow model of debris flow is developed in the present paper. The model is well structured by defining the conceptual liquid phase which is the slurry actually composed of water and cohesional fine sediment particles and behaves as non Newtonian fluid, as well as the conceptual solid phase which is composed of the particles with their diameters larger than certain critical size. Basic equations for both phases are given based on the concept of solid liquid two phase flow theory, but the differences between the debris flow and the two phase flow in common sense are fully considered, which is just the “Conceptual” means. With the generalized model presented, the complex motion of debris flow can be reasonably described, and simple flows such as muddy flow and water rock flow can be included as special cases, under which the model can be greatly simplified. In consideration that the successful application of kinetic theory of gas molecules to the granular flow, analogy between the conceptual solid phase in debris flow and the gas molecules is made. Furthermore, greater details are given for water rock flows, including both saturated flows and non saturated flows. The model presented herein will result in the exact solution of water rock flows under the condition of 1 D steady uniform flow. Thus, various special characteristics of water rock flow may be revealed correspondingly.
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    Ni Jinren, Wang Guangqian, Xiong Yuwu, Zhang Jun, Kang Zhicheng
    1998, 53 (1):  77-85.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801009
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    Based on the conceptual two phase flow model developed in the companion paper, applications of the model to the mechanism of various debris flows including muddy flow, water rock flow as well as the general debris flows are discussed in greater details in the present paper. Specific characteristics of debris flows are sumarized and theoretical explanations are given subsequently. Special attention is paid to the flow characteristics of debris flow with cohesionless particles in either mild or steep flumes since there are enough reliable measured data in this study field. Predictions for the specific particle concentration profile, velocity profile, fluctuation profile as well as the particle transport properties are made for both saturated and non saturated water rock flows. It is indicated that the saturated water rock flow occuring in the mild slope channel behaves more like the laminated flow does, with common particle concentration, fluctuation profiles as well as transport characteristics, but with typical particle velocity profiles different from those in sediment laden flows. However, the non saturated water rock flow occuring in the steep slope channel behaves more like the rapid granular flow, dominated by the collision among particles, and thus demostrate all kinds of special characteristics reported on the water rock debris flows. The maximum concentrations at the flow surface and other special behaviours are succesfully modeled. The predicted results are reasonably verified by the experimental results. It is also indicated that more characteristics of debris flows will be possible to be explained theoretically by using the conceptual model in case that the technology of measurements is improved in the near future.
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    Zhang Chaosheng, Zhang Shen, He Jianbang
    1998, 53 (1):  87-96.  doi: 10.11821/xb199801011
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    The spatial distribution characteristics of 11 heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Co, Ni, As, Cr, Mn and Fe) in the sediments of the Changjiang River system were studied with methods of spatial autocorrelation and fractal. Moran’s I indices were calculated to quantitatively describe the significance and the directional characteristics of their spatial autocorrelations, and spatial correlograms were drawn to show the variation of spatial autocorrelation along with the changes of distance. Fractal dimensions were calculated to reveal the complication degrees of the spatial distributions. Significant spatial autocorrelations are detected for all of the elements studied. The spatial autocorrelations of heavy metals in fine grained sediments are better than those in raw sediments. The positive autocorrelations extend to about 500 km, which is consistent with the sizes of patches in the distribution maps. Fractals exist in about less than 1 000 km , and fractal dimensions are around 2.76~2.95. The variation of fractal dimension among elements has negative trend against Moran’s I, which shows consistence of the two indices. Most of the elements have relatively good autocorrelations in the directions of NE SW or NW SE, which are consistent with the results from variogram method.
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