Table of Content

    15 December 1997, Volume 52 Issue s1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Kwan-yiu Wong, Rocer CK Chan, Zhu Jianru
    1997, 52 (s1):  1-7.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (481KB) ( )   Save
    The Hong Kong Geographical Association was founded in 1969 with the objective of pro-moting interest in geography among residents of Hong Kong and stimulating teaching and re-search in the field. Since that time, the Association has served as the organization which unites all persons in Hong Kong who work in geography and related subjects. Through its pro-gramme of activities, the Association continuously strives to promote the status and visibility of geography and geographers in Hong Kong.Membership is open without restriction to anyone who is interested in the aims of the As-sociation. All persons who share these aims are welcome to join the Association and contribute to its success by taking active part in its work. Upon the foundation of the successes of the last 1/4 of a century, we are looking forward to greeting another 25 years of rapid and steady de-velopment.
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    Yue-man Yeung
    1997, 52 (s1):  8-15.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1002
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    Hong Kong and Inland are geographically and historically inseparable. However, since the Opium War and the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. Hong Kong became under British colony rul-ing, but its links with China, especially the Zhujiang Delta, remained strong. Since 1949. Hong Kong’ s traditional hinterland in Inland was essentially lost and its economy and func-tions had consequently to evolve in different directions without relying on Inland.The postwar period in Hong Kong. despite its ups and downs, was generally one of rapid economic growth, hence its sobriquet as an Asian dragon. Hong Kong, in fact, was beginning to face problems in its chosen path of export-oriented manufacturing by the late 1970s be-cause of escalating land and labour costs and other problems. China’ s opening at the same time provided Hong Kong with a golden opportunity to enter another period of rapid growth Both Hong Kong and Inland witnessed explosive growth rates since the mid-1980s.By now, Hong Kong has become a world city, with key functional roles in finance, trans-port , telecommunications, producer services and manufacturing control in the global economy. It is also a pivot in subregional economic development involving Taiwan, Guangdong and Fu-jian. Known as the Southern China Growth Triangle, it is a form of cooperative economic de-velopment that has become current in the Asia-Pacific region.With Hong Kong’s return to China in 1997, its geographical advantages will likely be fur-ther enhanced for its own benefit and that of Inland. Hong Kong will further develop along re-cent trends towards greater integration with the zhujiang Delta, with the possible formation of a megalopolis with Hong Kong and Guangzhou at either end. Cities in the region will assume a higher economic profile and importance, given accelerating globalization influences. Competi-tion that Hong Kong faces from other Chinese and Asian cities will be equalled by the opportu-nities for cooperation that they beckon.
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    Victor FS Sit, Chun Yang
    1997, 52 (s1):  16-27.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1003
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    A few transborder regions have appeared in the 1970s as a consequence of international di-vision of labour in manufacturing arising from globalization of economic activities. The border-ing cities of Hong Kong and Shenzhen belong to different ideologies and systems of gover-nance, yet they have since the late 1970s gradually developed into a highly interrelated trans-border economic region. Such development has promoted economic growth of Shenzhen and deepened the structural transformation of Hong Kong into a higher status in international trade, shipping, and finance. The mutual causative transborder development in the past decade had largely been initiated and participated by private investors following the rule of the mar-ket. After 1997, with the return of Hong Kong to China,transborder cooperation is expected to receive more government attention and achieve promotion. Of course the continue existence of a demarcation is crucial to transborder cooperation and will benefit both places. The case of Hong Kong-Shenzhen is different from other transborder regions such as the Singapore Trian-gle.
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    Becky PY Loo, CK Leung
    1997, 52 (s1):  28-38.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (702KB) ( )   Save
    The Open Policy can be seen as a step of the People’ s Republic of China (PRO to move towards market socialism. Accordingly, market mechanisms have been given a greater role to play. Since the 1970s, the export-oriented industries in Hong Kong have been declining due to rising production costs. The opening of the Zhujiang Delta region, with its abundant and cheap land and labour, has led to the large-scale relocation of industry into the region. Hence, there have been multiple increases in the flows of people and goods between Hong Kong and Guangdong, especially along the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong corridor. Transport short-ages have been increasingly blamed as the bottlenecks for further economic growth. This situa-tion has not only urged the government to open the transport industry but also send a signal of " unsatisfied demand" to potential investors. Hence, major regional transport infrastructure has been developed along the economic corridors of Guangzhou to Shenzhen (and Hong Kong)and Guangzhou to Zhuhai. The building of Guangzhou-Shenzhen Express Railway and Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Zhuhai Superhighway are some cases in point. Apart from economic considerations, the traditional political and military considerations of developing land trans-portation between Guangzhou and its surrounding provincial capitals (especially Hainan) have been overwhelmed by the paramount concern of the return of Hong Kong’ s sovereignty to the PRC in 1997. In this respect, the central and local governments have taken the initiatives to develop very large-scale transport infrastructure linking Hong Kong with Beijing. The Beijing-Jiujiang-Kowloon Railway and proposed Beijing-Guangzhou Expressway are two examples.Such change in the transport geography of the region has also been closely associated and enabled by changes in the related areas of transport finance,enterprise management and facility usage. The rapid economic development of the Zhujiang Delta region has enabled the commer-cial principle of building and maintaining transport infrastructure from the income generated by the facilities themselves to be applied. New financial arrangements, including the Build-Oper-ate-Own (BOO) and Build-Operate-Transfer (EOT) , have been introduced. Consequently, there has been increasing participation of domestic and foreign investors in transport develop-ment, especially after the mid-1980s. Moreover, there have also been changes in the manage-ment of transport enterprises according to the prudent commercial principle of " independent operation, finance,transformation and development". The concept of free usage of transport facilities has also been seriously challenged with the levy of road and bridge tolls. Under such changing circumstances, new problems, such as the questions of balanced regional developm-net, rural transportation and transport for the poor, are created; and they also represent new challenges to the Chinese government.
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    Anthony Gar-On Yeh
    1997, 52 (s1):  39-51.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1005
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    Hong Kong has lost its position as a major manufacturing centre in Asia and has under-gone rapid economic restructuring since the late 1980s because of the northward migration of its industries to China . It is transforming itself into a financial and service centre. Manufactur-ing employment decreased from 47. 0 per cent of the total employment in 1971 to 28. 2 per cent in 1991 whereas its financing, insurance, real estate and business services sector increased from 2. 5 per cent in 1971 to 10. 6 per cent over the same period. Economic restructuring in Hong Kong is mainly due to the adoption of the "open door" policy in China in 1978 which provided opportunities for Hong Kong manufacturers to establish plants in China. With lower labour cost and land prices in the zhujiang Delta adjacent to Hong Kong, many industries in Hong Kong have either migrated or set up outward processing plants there. Economic restructuring has had a major impact on the development of Hong Kong, especially in terms unemployment and manpower planning. It has also had an impact on urban planning in Hong Kong. Urban plan-ning has to deal with the decline of old urban districts, increased demand for industrial/office buidings, and changes in the locational demands of industries. It also has to develop science parks and office buildings to provide the basic infrastructure to attract new types of industries and economic activities to face the challenge of the rapid decline in its traditional manufacturing base.
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    Li Siming
    1997, 52 (s1):  52-61.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1006
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    The globalization of the world’ s economy, which has gathered momentum since the late seventies, has resulted in spatial restructuring of productive forces on the world scale. This has also led to the emergence of world cities. As a part of the capitalist world economy, this pro-cess of globalization has had immense impacts on Hong Kong’s economy. The opening of Chi-na has further accelerated this restructuring process. Hong Kong has rapidly transformed itself from a centre of light manufacturing to a world city. There have been corresponding changes in Hong Kong’ s urban form. These include the strengthening of central business district (CBD) functions and the expansion of the CBD, the restructuring of the former industrial ar-eas , and the changing form of social differentiation over space. A consequence of this develop-ment is the "dual city" phenomenon which presents a potential destablizing factor for the fu-ture Special Administrative Region government.
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    Zhu Jianru, Wang Jixian
    1997, 52 (s1):  62-70.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1007
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    This paper attempts to analyse the various phases of transportation development in Hong Kong from the perspective of territoriality and spatiality. It is argued that although Hong Kong is now a world city that it serves mainly the worldwide interests of international business organisations and their governments, the residuals of colonial spatiality and frame of mind have still been ingrained into the design and location of the latest projects planned and under con-struction. Examples include the " post & airpost development strategy " , the Western Rale Corridor and the design of border crossings at various checkpoints. A new frame of mind is needed in order to better integrate Hong Kong transport infrastructure with the nearby re-gions.
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    George CS Lin
    1997, 52 (s1):  71-79.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1008
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    The implementation of China’s "open door" policy since 1979 has significantly facilitated social and economic reintegration between Hong Kong and Guangdong Province in southern China. This study assesses the processes and consequences of Hong Kong-Guangdong integra-tion in the transformation of a local economy in the zhujiang Delta. Intensified economic ex-change between Hong Kong and Guangdong has been a recent phenomenon despite the exis-tence of their traditional linkages. The northward shifting of industrial facilities from Hong Kong to Guangdong has been motivated by the imperative of lowering labour cost, increasing the rate of return for investment, and strengthening the overall competitiveness of Hong Kong manufacture in the international market. Geographic proximity, cultural affinity, and flexible state policy are three most important factors explaining the growth and locational characteris-tics of capital inverstment from Hong Kong to Guangdong. The relocation of manufacturing ac-tivity from Hong Kong to Guangdong has not displayed a spatial tendency of high concentra-tion in large urban centers. The existence of personal kinship ties,an improved transport in-frastructure, an abundant supply of cheap labour and land space,and the lack of strict regula-tions on environmental pollution have combined to make the suburban area between Hong Kong and Guangzhou a place no less attractive than a congested large city to Hong Kong man-ufacturers. Economic reintegration between Hong Kong and the Inland has resulted in a signif-icant process c( deindustrialization and tertiarization in Hong Kong. It has quickened the pace of rural industrialization in China and facilitated a distinct urbanization process in which a great number of surplus rural labourers entered factories in the countryside without having to move into cities. The intrusion of global capitalism has also effected the culture, behaviour, and lifestyle of the Chinese people in the Inland.
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    Zheng Tianxiang, Zhao Daying
    1997, 52 (s1):  80-87.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1009
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    This paper researches the infrastructure conditions in Hong Kong and the P. R. D,and ex-plains the necessity for both regions to cooperate with each other. Only so. can both regions demonstrate and benefit from the integrated advantages. From the perspectives of regionaliza-tion, network nization, internationalization, the authors put forward some effective advice and metnods for the infrastructure cooperation between Hong Kong and the P. R. D,especially for the urgent and crucial problems.
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    Liu Junde, Song Yingchang, Wu Wei
    1997, 52 (s1):  88-94.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1010
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    In July 1, 1997, Hong Kong will be the Special Administrative Area of P. R. China. Shanghai, the No. 1 economic giant of China, is forging ahead toward the great goal of the one of the international centers of finance, trade and economy. Personalities of various circles at home and abroad have shown great solicitude for such things as: can Hong Kong be still as prosperous, steady and important as before after 97’ s return, is its possible for Shanghai to re-place Hong Kong in international economic stage? what’ s the relationship between them? In the authors’opinion, both Hong Kong’ s return and Shanghai’ s rerise will benefit the whole China and the two cities themselves. The two economic giants are supposed to coexist in the friendly competition and cooperation and benefit from close cooperation and reasonable division of labor. They cannot replace each other.
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    Yan Xiaopei, Leng Yong
    1997, 52 (s1):  95-103.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1011
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    This paper focuses on the coordinative development of Shenzhen-Hong Kong twin cities. The attention is initially paid to the conditions of the emergence of the twin cities. The analysis results have showed that the historical and geographical factors, reform and open-door policies, and the influences of economic globalization are main conditions. Then the socio-economic links between the twin cities are analysed. There exist close social and economic links between them, mainly including the flows of capital, goods, persons and information. The capital flow is mainly comprised by the investment from Hong Kong. From 1979 to 1995 ,the investment from Hong Kong accounted for 79. 2% in Shenzhen’ s total received foreign investment. The good flow in-cludes that through and between the twin cities. Hong Kong has been the largest import and export market of Shenzhen. Since the reform,Shenzhen’ s import from Hong Kong have beenmainly containing raw and processed materials, and fittings, which are needed by the joint-ven-tures in Shenzhen. And the products of these joint-ventures comprise a large share of Shenzhen’ s export. With the development of the social and economic links,the flows of person and information become more and more strong. The infrastructures like transportation and communication between the Shenzhen and Hong Kong are further linking up and become the necessary channels of the flows between the twin cities.Thirdly. the urban spatial expansion of Shenzhen and Hong Kong is examined. Because of the close links of the twin cities, the main economic activities and urban land use of Shenzhen have showed a border-oriented tendency, namely developing along the belt bordering Hong Kong. On the contrary,Hong Kong’ s urban spatial expansion mainly occurs in the south of the city, and the development of the north part has been ignored for a long time,which has resulted in the formation of non-blended economic space of the twin cities.Fourthly, the challenges and problems of the twin city development are identified. It seems that the twin cities face the challenges of external conditions,such as the prevalence of interna-tional trade protectionism, the gradual disappear of policy advantages which Shenzhen obtained at the begining of the reform,and the competitions from other countries. In addition,there have appeared some problems; 1 )the government of twin cities are lack of contacts; 2)the economic cooperations still stay at the low level; and 3)the link-up of infrastructures is not satisfactory.Finally, the suggestions and perspectives about the twin city development are put forward : DTo strengthen the cooperation, especially between the city governments. 2) To change the pattern of economic cooperation. 3)To make the economic space of the twin cities blend. It is believed that with the regain of Hong Kong revereignty in 1997,Shenzhen-Hong Kong twin cities will be further invoved the economic globalization and play an increasing important role in the world urban system.
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    Yang Leang
    1997, 52 (s1):  104-113.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1012
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    AbsractThis paper gives a brief analysis of the development and applications of artificial intelli-gence in spatial analysis and spatial decision making. Basic approaches to the representation of and inference with unstructured spatial knowledge are first introduced. They include preposi-tional and predicate logic, production systems,semantic networks, frames, and object-orented systems. The paper then discusses uncertainty in spatial inference. Basic frameworks such as probabilistic inference, subjective Bayesian,certainty factor, evidence theory,and fuzzy infer-ence are briefly examined. Theory of inclusion, a paradigm for reasoning under uncertainty,is then introduced as a general framework suitable for spatial analysis and decision making in a complex environment. In addition to the symbolic approaches, massively parallel distributed systems such as neural networks and genetic algorithms are proposed as powerful knowledge representation and inference models, especially for automatic acguisition of spatial knowledge through learning by examples. Lastly, the paper explores ways of using integratively and inter-actively spatial knowledge, unstructured and structured (such as mathematical and statistical models) ,and spatial information systems in spatial analysis and decision making. It also propos-es ways by which intelligent spatial decision support systems can be effectively built and applied to solve real-life decision problem.
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    CF Lee, Chen Hong
    1997, 52 (s1):  114-121.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1013
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    Physiographically, Hong Kong is a hilly terrain with thousands of steep slopes, on which are constructed numerous tall buildings and high-density residential complexes. The rapid pace of urbanization and building construction, coupled with the topographic relief, led to the occur-rence of numerous disastrous landslides during the rainy season. Landslide hazard has thus be-come the major natural hazard in the Hong Kong region. This paper reviews a number of ma-jor landslides which occurred in the past three decades, analyzing the characteristics and causative mechanism of landslides in Hong Kong. It is concluded that the landslides are trig-gered by heavy rainfall, which infiltrates the subsoil, leading to a singnificant increase in its degree of saturation and a corresponding loss in suction and shear strength of the soil. This re-duction in shear strength upon saturation and wetting is the main reason for the occurrence of landslides. Slope failures often occur during the later part of a heavy rainstorm, in decomposed granite and volcanic residual soils. Most of the landslides involve relatively shallow depths. The paper also outlines the slope stabilization measures commonly adopted in Hong Kong, in-cluding shotcreting or chunaming of slope surface to prevent infiltration of rain water, surface and subsurface drainage, anchoring, soil nailing, slope angle and/or slope height reduction, etc. By far, the most effective slope stabilization measure consists of slope surface protection coupled with drainage. It is further noted that the study of debris flows on natural slopes will be a major focal point for research in the years ahead, with particular emphasis on causative mechanisms and predictive capability.
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    Otto Poon
    1997, 52 (s1):  122-126.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1014
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    According to the Territorial Development Strategic Review published by the Hong Kong Government in 1996, the population of Hong Kong would grow from 6. 3 million of the pre-sent to 8.1 million in 2011. This would pose a substantial demand in land supply and reclama-tion is an easier and more economical approach to satisfy this need.In the past 150 years, total area reclaimed was in excess of 4 000 hm2. Suggestion by the Government to further reclaim the Victoria Harbour, Green Island and Lantau Island was re-ceived with scepticism and grave concern on the visual and environmental impacts.The author was not against reclamation and there are benefits to be gained if it is carried out with careful selection of sites without affecting the fairways. However, before large scale reclamation is to proceed, priority must be given to alternative sources of land supply such as derelict farm lands in "New Territories", reconstruction of the old industrial, commercial and residential areas as well as new towns along the route to the new airport and redevelopment of the Kai Tak Airport.Before engineering works of large scale reclamation, cumulative environmental impact studies must be undertaken to avoid irrevocable visual and ecological impacts.
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    CY Jim, Howard To Liu
    1997, 52 (s1):  127-143.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1015
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    As the major cities of the south China, Hong Kong and Guangzhou have nearly with simi-lar geographical and physical conditions. However, there are significant differences in the char-acteristics and composition of their magnitude of domination have their respective unique fea-tures. As a cosmopolitan city, Hong Kong has introduced more tree species and resulted in a roadside tree stock of richer species diversity and higher percentage of exotic composition than those of Guangzhou. With a different urban history and resulting city morphology , the aver-age density of roadside trees in Hong Kong is less than that in Guangzhou. Comparing with Guangzhou, Hong Kong’ s roadside trees are dominated by species with small final-dimen-sions. The confined and high-density habitats in Hong Kong have limited more significantly the formation and growth of its roadside trees than those in Guangzhou.
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    Fung Tung
    1997, 52 (s1):  144-151.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1016
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    This paper used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)derived from SPOT HRV multispectral data to study the environment of Hong Kong and its changes from 1987,1991,1993 to 1995. Using conven-tional change detection techniques such as image differencing or principal components analysis helped to high-light salient changes. Integrating the NDVI value at the tertiary planning unit (TPU) level with census and land cover data showed that the NDVI value was related to woodland, tall scrubland and urban land . It was also related to crowdedness as depicted from a factor analysis of census data. Tracing the changing pattern of NDVI revealed that a consistent increase in NDVI value only scattered around various districts within the city whereas a consistent decrease was shown in a large part of "New Territories "and western Hong Kong Island. This would provide valuable information for environmental planning and management.
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    Wong Koon Kwai
    1997, 52 (s1):  152-160.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1017
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    Although Hong Kong is one of the most crowded city in the world, yet about three-quar-ters of its land area is countryside. A wide variety of animal and plant life can be found in the territory, especially in the "New Territories". Many rural areas, with green hillsides and wooded valleys, remain virtually untouched by the rapid urban development of the past two decades. These areas provide the basis for the development of nature conservation system in Hong Kong. When properly preserved and managed, Hong Kong still be able to contribute substantially to the maintenance of biodiversity of the territory. Nature conservation programs started only in the mid-70s when the Country Parks Ordinance was enacted in 1976 to provide a legal framework for the designation, development and management of country parks and spe-cial areas. To date, Hong Kong has 22 country parks, 14 special areas and 58 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). Together, they cover about 40% of the land area of Hong Kong. Moreover,the Marine Parks Ordinance,enacted in May 1995, provides the necessary statutory powers for the designation and management of marine parks and marine reserves in Hong Kong. However, in recent years, the integrity of our the existing country parks and other conservation areas are increasingly threatened by encroaching deveclopment projects. This pa-per first discusses the variety of the physical environment and the biodiversity of Hong Kong. It then examines the development of conservation policies and programs and the crisis con-fronting nature conservation in recent years. Finally, the paper reviews recent survey findings about the ecological consciousness of Hongkongers and the implications of the findings for the nature conservation development of the territory.
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    Hui Lin, Lu Guonian, Song Zhiyao, Wang Jiechen, Chen Zhongmin, Shi Yi
    1997, 52 (s1):  161-169.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1018
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    This paper describes the systematic research on Tide Dynamic System under the support of Geographic Information System and ocean fluid dynamics model. Through the high resolu-tion numerical simulation, we found some previously unreported phenomena such as a low tide amplitude zone of M2 Constituent nearing Zhoushan isle, a low tide amplitude zone of K1 Con-stituent nearing Taiwan isle, and circular flow point band. The results of this research also show that the formation of tide wave system are affected by sea bottom friction coefficient, to-pography under water and shore line morphology. The change of shore line morphology and huge change of topography under water play an important role in the tide wave system. Under specified conditions on input tide wave, shore line morphology has a dominant impact on the formation of the tide wave system. With the systematically reconstructed sea level and the coast change of thirty periods since full period of the last glacier, the evolution process of tide wave system of East China Sea was simulated. Based on the simulation analysis of relationships among topography, shore line and tide flow, the conclusion of this study shows that the char-acteristic of tide dynamic system is a dominant influencing factor on the formation of large scale sand ridge clusters. In this paper, the system integration of geographic information system, tide numerical simulation system and tide movement visualization system are discussed as an example for related studies.
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    Wang Wei, Zhang Dian
    1997, 52 (s1):  170-178.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1019
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    Three bay barrier beaches in Pui O, Mui Wo and Cheung Sha bays on the south coast of Lantau Island, Hong Kong were selected as examples for the study of morphodynamic changes of bay barrier beaches on the Hong Kong coasts. The selected beaches were studied by means of geomorphology and sedimentology including the analysis of two years longshore and cross-shore variations of beach morphology in association with the changes of grain size and cusp spacing along the beaches in the same period.The study shows that firstly, according to the directions of arriving refracted waves, the sediment process on the bay barrier beaches is different in the deep and shallow indented bays. In deep indented bays,the sand movements on the bay barrier beaches are mainly in an on-shore/offshore direction with the longshore movement near the stream outlets. Both lateralsediment movements and onshore/off shore ones are of similar importance for the beach process in a shallow bay.Secondly, under the condition of a tidal range larger than wave heights on the Hong Kong coasts, the profiles vary along each beach in the bays due to a longshore variation in wave heights, offshore width and sediment grain size. In places where the wave heights are small, sediments are not well sorted and the sediment supply is sufficient to build up a wide and shal-low offshore, the beach profiles are characterized by a high tide beach, which has a relatively steep beach face, termimated rather abruptly at its base by a wide low-tide terace, a low tide beach. The high tide beach slope becomes gentle connecting at its foot to the low tide beach without the abrupt change, while the wave heights increase reducing the difference between the tidal range and wave heights. If the sediment supply is not sufficient supply is not suffi-cient , the beach slope will become steep, even the difference between the tidal range and wave height is small.Finally, under the local geological, monsoon climatic and wave conditions, the barrier beaches in Hong Kong have a very regular yearly change in sand movements which can be summarized as a tendency for late summer cut followed by a stable period in winter and early summer fill. However, the barrier beaches in Hong Kong may also have irregular changes in response to abrupt changes in coastal environment, such as big storm waves attacks or human impacts on the beaches, because of the beaches developing based mainly on the materials from the inland strems, which are limited resulting in the bay barriers and beaches on the Hong Kong coasts having formed in small size.
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    Wan Qing, Ye Shunzhan, Hui Lin
    1997, 52 (s1):  179-186.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1020
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    Beijing- Kowloon Railway (BKR) will obviously have very significant impacts to the eco-nomic development in both Inland and Hong Kong. The areas along BKR is becoming a new hot belt of economics growth and investment activities. There is a strong relationship between investment environment and geographic factors. Many researchers are trying to utilize Geo-graphical Information System (GIS) to research and analyze the investment environment. This paper introduced the research results of the zero phase of the project-investment environment information system of the areas along Beijing-Kowloon Railway, discussed the design frame-work , research content, methodology and expected results of the project.
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    Zhou Chenghu, Shao Quanqin
    1997, 52 (s1):  187-196.  doi: 10.11821/xb1997S1021
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    This paper represents an attempt to fully describe how GISs are to be applied, the methodology of GIS application’ The first section examined the application background of the GIS development and evolution. It can be believed that advancement of the related technolo-gies, especially computer technology, has provided the possibility to build up more powerful GIS, while the application requirement has been vital motive to promote GIS development.The second section discussed the functionality of GIS and its main users.The databasefunction finds special use in the field of resources investigation and management, social and economic statistics, and the surveying and mapping agencies mostly utilize GIS to produce maps of high quality. Spatial analysis has been widely used by the research departments.GIS can be used as a tool box or methodology to solve the problems with spatial notion. As a tool, GIS can act like a spatial transaction processing system (ST PS), spatial management information system (SMIS)or spatial decision support system (SDSS). STPS uses only database function while SMIS adopts database function and spatial analysis and single/multiple models.SDSS is based on the CIS’ s database, spatial analysis and model-base technology . SDSS is model-driven while SMIS is data-driven.The scale of GIS application may fall into one of the following types, project GIS, depart-mental GIS, enterprise GIS.Most users pay more emphasis on the technology aspect, e. g. data structure and algorithms, not the on-going system.On the departmental GIS level, a practical system is to be developed for transaction processing and management. An enterprise GIS is generally a distributed system which is used as a decision-making tool.The last parts of the paper discussed the design and evaluation of the GIS systems. There is difference between building a applied system and prototype GIS. A applied system should be designed strictly by using life cycle or prototype-model design strategies. There is more advan-tage to combine these two design methods together. The system evaluation can be executed from the point of the economic and/or synthetic views.
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