Table of Content

    15 March 1997, Volume 52 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Wu Bihu, Tang Junya, Huang Anmin,Zhao Rong, Qiu Fudong, Fang Fang
    1997, 52 (2):  97-103.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (127KB) ( )   Save
    Three thousand three hundred and ninety four questionnaires were received respectively from Shanghai, Xi’an, Chengdu and Changchun during 1992~1995. Data about destination choice behavior of the respondents in the 4 cities were collected and dealed with computer aided techniques. Traveling behaviors discussed in this paper include both tourists and leisurers in the population of urban areas. An average visited rate was used to demonstrate distance delay of destination utilities by urban residents, which consisted of that of the first five favorite destinations in urban area (0~15 km from origin), suburban area (15 km~50 km), and belts around city with radii of 50 km~500 km, 500 km~1500 km and that more than 1500 km. Destinations situated in urban area have a mean visited rate of 91.2%, suburban area has 59.5%, belt around city with radii of 50 km~500 km reaches 52.1%, 500 km~1500 km reacheds 29.9%, and that more than 1500 km 14.9%. Taking the total market fragmentation of a city as 100, more than 80 of it distributed within a distance less than 500 km from the city. Total destination choice behavior beyond 500 km of a city was biased toward other cities and sites near them, but not destinations of scenic spots far away from them. And those cities which were more favorite by urban residents often located along coastal belts, including Dalian, Qinhuangdao, Beijing, Tianjin, the medium sized cities in the Shandong Peninsular, the cities in the Changjiang Delta, Amoy, Shenzhen, Canton and Haikou. The main destination choice behavior from a city by those non local residents dominantly occurs in a range of 250 km away from the city. There was a distinguished difference between destination choice behavior and attitude. Most of the respondents had a strong preference to destinations located far away from metropolitan area with beautiful scenery and clear air and water in their attitude for recreation , while most of them actually had a behavior of traveling more often to destinations in the metropolitan. Two factors caused above phenomena of contradictions: various natures of the destinations will change the actual visited rate of it; determinants, besides attitude, especially under the circumstances around tourists, would influence destination choice behavior greatly. Characteristics of tourists and leisurers also had important impact on destination choice behavior. A difference existed between male and female respondents in their emissiveness, male respondents occupied a 55.92 percent of the total, while female occupied 44.08 percent. Male and female respondents had slight different preferences to destination types. Age groups determined destination choice behavior. Site of scenic spots far away from the metropolis means more difficulties for tourists, and it is not surprised that young people had more preferences to them than those who were older. At the same time, elders appeared more interested in sites with rich historic and cultural contents than young persons. Occupations to a certain extent determined income and destination choice behavior. Respondents of some vocations with higher income had more opportunities to visit more destinations. Education level influenced behavior of tourists. A case study was given about Xi’an Tablet Forest and Huashan Mountain (the West Sacred Mt.) by the authors to tell a detail story. The Xi’an Tablet Forest is a historic site in the former capital of ancient China, while Huashan Mt. is a physical landscape with steep cliff and overhanging rocks. Tourists at Tablet Forest were more educated than those at Huashan Mt.
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    Yang Wanzhong
    1997, 52 (2):  104-113.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (336KB) ( )   Save
    According to the strategy of economic and social development, the experiences of the industrial distribution in the Worldwide International Metropolis are used to solve the problem of the industrial distribution in Shanghai. The industrial distribution in 21st Century in Shanghai will be a special network pattern with one core, three circles, six developmental axes and eight middle cities. One core includes the Central Business District and Central Commerce District. Three circles mean one Comprehensive District taking Tertiary Industry as the dominant factor in the Inner Ring, another Comprehensive District taking Secondary Industry and Tertiary Industry as the dominant factor in the Outer Ring and the third Comprehensive District taking Primary Industry and Secondary Industry as the dominant factor out of the Outer Ring. Six developmental axes mean a developmental axis from east to west connecting the Second International Airport, Hongqiao International Airport and the Dianshan Lake, a developmental axis from south to north connecting Baoshan, Inner City and Jinshan, a developmental axis connecting Shanghai and Jiading, a developmental axis connecting Shanghai and Songjiang, a development axis connecting Pudong and Luchao Port, a developmental axis along the north bank of Hangzhou Bay. Eight middle cities are cities located in the development axes named Qingpu, Chongming, Jiading and Anting, Songjiang, Nanhui, Zhoupu and Jingshan.
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    Wu Kai, Xu Yuexian
    1997, 52 (2):  114-122.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702003
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    The relationship between water resource utilization and agricultural sustainable growing in the Huang Huai Hai Plain was briefly discussed in this paper. The per capita or per hectare amount of water resources in the area accounts for 29 per cent of the country’s average. The grain yield per hectare is increased by 94.28kg and the total output of grains is increased by 2.05 billion kg, when the irrigation rate is increased by 1 per cent in the area. The present situation of water resource use and the environment problems of water resource utilization in the four type regions were expounded in the paper, such as water contamination and excessive exploitation of groundwater in the shallow layer in the piedmont plain region, fluorine in drinking water, funnel of groundwater and earth subsidence in the Lower Haihe Plain Region, floodwater in the Huang Huai Plain Region, running out of flood in the Huanghe River and the invasion of seawater in the coastal plain region and so on. In view of the water environment problems as said above, the adjustment and control countermeasures of water resource utilizaion were suggested, which can be used as references by the policy making departments in the districts (cities) and provinces (cities) concerned.
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    Yang Shilun
    1997, 52 (2):  123-130.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (386KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the surveyed data of seven coastal sections (4 in the Changjiang River Estuary and 3 in the Hangzhou Bay) and the collected data of wind, sea level, tide, offshore suspended sediment concentration and river supplied sediment flux from adjacent stations, the paper deals with the regressive correlations between the monthly average flat elevations and monthly average figures of the influential factors. All sections except Xijagang which is located within the river mouth show negative correlations between flat elevation and sea level height and between flat height and tide range, with the correlative coefficients being -0 53~-0 91 (averagely -0 77) under the former condition and -0 56~-0 97 (averagely -0 80) under the latter condition. All of the five sections with available suspended sediment concentration data show positive correlations between flat elevation and sediment concentration, with the correlative coeffitionts being 0 35~0 97 (averagely 0 66). Only two sections (one in the Changjiang River Estuary and the other in the Hangzhou Bay), which have the features of sand in sediment composition (Φ50 <4 0) and slope gradient (> 0%), show negative correlation between flat elevation and shoreward wind frequncy and average wind velocity, with the correlative coefficients being -0 57 and -0 69 (averagely -0 63) and -0 61 and -0 75 (averagely -0 68) respectively as in sand beaches. Other sections do not show uniform relationship between flat elevation and wind conditions. Due to the local marine factors the offshore water sediment concentration has obvious negative correlation with the Changjiang River sediment flux, which results in unrational negative correlation between flat elevation and river sediment flux. The paper also gives sediment dynamic and morphodynamic explanations of the above correlations. Sea level rise results in the spread of wave breaker zone from subtidal area to intertidal area and then increases the intertidal water energy. The larger the tide range, the stronger the tide current and the erosion effects. The larger the flood water sediment concentration, the easier for the sediment to deposit on the flat. In the condition of precipitous slope (as in sand beach) wind driven wave holds more energy when it reaches intertidal flat than in the condition of gentle slops, so wind playe a more important role in the former condition than in the latter condition.
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    Chen Zhongyuan, Hong Xueqing, Li Shan, Wang Lu, Shi Xiaoming
    1997, 52 (2):  131-137.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702005
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    The southern Chang Jiang delta plain is primarily characterized by the Taihu Lake and chenier ridges distributed in the eastern coast of China. This plain is well known due to its distinctive sedimentological/geomorphologic formation and many Neolithic sites. The region records considerably the Neolithic history of our ancestor’s settlement related to environmental changes in terms of delta construction and eustatic fluctuation. Mainly obtaining detailed information from Neolithic culture and numerous Neolithic sites, in association with many sediment boreholes, this paper primarily focuses on the southern delta plain evolution, especially the origin of Taihu lake and chenier ridges directly affected by eustatic sea level rise since the mid Holocene. The geomorphological processes will also provide invaluable insights into the evolution of Neolithic culture. In fact, the Chang Jiang delta began to form approximately at the 7 000 aBP, this coincidentally brought the of habitable environment for our ancestors, who apparently moved down from the highlands, west of the Taihu lake. It is revealed that there was a tendency of residential migration for our former habitants, progressively from scattered sites in the delta plain to the backside of the chenire ridge, during the 7 000—4 000 aBP. This evidenced that sea level rise aggravated largely the habitable conditions in the study area, in addition to the backside of the chenier ridge, which began to form at the same time as the delta evoluted and is believed to protect the habitants from the Holocene sea invasion. Apparently, outer belt area surrounding the Taihu lake aggraded corresponding to the sea level rise, it eventually turned the former residential area, including Suzhou, Qingpu and Kunshan into a so called Taihu dish like depression. Also, water table rise due to eustatic rise originates the Taihu lake, as well as many small scale fresh water reservoirs in the southern delta plain from 6 000—3 000 aBP. Consequently, the expansion of fresh water reservoir in the study area halted the domicile in the Taihu region in the later period of Liangzu stage.
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    Wang Xueyu
    1997, 52 (2):  138-145.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702006
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    This paper deals with the origin of the Linying stoneforest by the sedimentary study of the terra rossa around the buried karren in two sections of Carboniferous and Permian formations in the area of Linying stoneforest, Dahu township. Yongan Municipality, Fujian Province. The grain size, mineral and chemical compositions of the terra rossa, and micro texture of the quartz sand surface demonstrated that the terra rossa was the weathered residual products of limestones. So the stoneforest in the studied area was developed from the limestones by weathering and dissolution, first as the buried karren, and then through denudation and revealing of the ground deposits to finally become the karst stoneforest consisting of rock kege, rock towers in different sizes and forms. All these must be formed under the conditions of a stable geographical environment and an unitary exogenic hydraulic action in the long period. Howerver, where the river flowed through at that time, river transportation and deposition strongly effected on the formation of the buried karren and stoneforest.
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    Dong Yuxiang
    1997, 52 (2):  146-153.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702007
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    Sandy desertification disaster is one of the most improtant disasters in the world. Assessment on the regionalization of its hazard degree has very important significances in theory and practice. This paper, judging by the basis and rules of regionalization assessment of hazard degree of sandy desertification disaster, gives its assessment criteria system, establishes the quantitative assessment model and uses this model to regionalize the hazard degree of sandy desertification disaster in northern China. In the result, it is regionalized into 15 hazard degree regions, which include 6 slight regions, 5 moderate regions and 4 severe regions. At last, basic conditions of every hazard degree region are briefly analysed.
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    Jin Desheng, Chen Hao, Guo Qingwu
    1997, 52 (2):  154-162.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702008
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    Nonlinear chaos fractal study is a forward problem of nonlinear geomorphological theory, especially for fluvial geomorphology, and also is one of important boundary faces in intensive investigation on geomorphology. This kind of studies is just beginning at home and abroad. In this paper, based on the review of the studies on fractal in geomorphology, the fractal of different reaches and the river pattern on longitudinal profiles in the Lower Yellow R. and the Middle and Lower Changjiang River has been measured and tested. A preliminary study shows that, obviously, these is a fractal property in the longitudinal profile for alluvial river channels. Fractal value of channel longitudinal profile changes with time and space. A small vibration of fractal for longitudinal profile is able to cause difference and divergence in river pattern. It is related to envirenmental factors and hydraulic conditions, e.g. there exists a negative regression between fractal and gradient in the rever channel, which can be regarded as an evidence in analysing the evolution of river pattern and with which the development of longitudinal profile can be prospected.
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    Gao Yanchun
    1997, 52 (2):  163-168.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702009
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    regional water resources system is structured by three parts: nature, society and the relationship of water supply and demand between nature and human society. Similarly, surplus or shortage of regional water resources depends on following three factors corresponding to the three parts: water supply and demand, and the coordination degree between water supply and demand. Clearly, the appraisal system of regional water resources should reflect the three factors impartially. However, in the existing appraisal system, the two factors, water supply and demand, are attached with great improtance, while the third factor, the coordination degree between water supply and demand, is neglected at all. It inevitably intensifies the contradiction between water supply and demand, aggravates the problem of water shortage. In order to get an objective reflection of coordination degree between water supply and demand in the appraisal system of regional water resources, in this paper, a new concept, Coordination Coefficient (C0), is put forward. Its calculation method is introduced, and a case study is also carried out. C 0 is an indispensable complement for the existing appraisal system of regional water resources. Additionally, its introduction is certainly favorable to the further development of water resources research.
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    Jiang Zeping, Wang Huoran, Wu Zhonglun
    1997, 52 (2):  169-176.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702010
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    North America (incl. Central America) is one of the improtant donors of Chinese exotic tress. About 500 woody species in 202 genera have been grown in China for many year. Improtant tree species are Pinus spp, Taxodium spp, Robinia pseudoacacia, Amorpha fruticosa, and Populus spp, which make up 75% of the exotic tree plantation area in China. Prosperous woody species are those of Cupressaceae, Quercus, Acer, Carya, Prunus, Swietenia, Fraxinus, Magnoliaceae, and Cactaceae etc., which originate mainly form E. North America and tropical America, while those species originated in W. North America, such as Picea sitchensis, Pinus radiata, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Simmondsia jojoba, are unsuitable for plantation in China except in SW. China. Provenance trials have been conducted since 1970s for a few major tree species, species/provenance trials are still needed for most exotic woody species.
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    Yang Bangjie, Blackewll PS,Nicholson DF
    1997, 52 (2):  177-183.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702011
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    Surface resistance to soil evaporation rs plays an important role in land surface energy models. The order of aerodynamic resistance is 10 1 and the rs is 10 0 to 10 3 and even more as the surface from saturation to air dry. Evaporation model is more sensitive to rs than ra. One layer, two layer theoretical models and an experimental model of soil surface resistance to evaporation are discussed and the field measurements in Western Australia for tillage research are presented to introduce the field measurement method. The one layer’s model considers the resistance resulted from vapor diffusion from water surface to land surface through the gradually increased top dry soil layer and maybe estimted by: rs=z(t)/Dv where z(t) is the depth of evaporation surface in the soil and Dv is vapor diffusivity in dry soil. The two layer’s model adds additional resistance from vapor cross water air interface. It is difficult to model such complex processes and a simple experimental model is used for tillage research: rs=a(θsl)b where a is the diffusive resistance across water air interface and b is the fitted parameter with measured rs data. The rs field measurement method with small lysimeters and calculating methods are introduced and the application of rs to estimate evaporation from ridge and furrows for tillage research are presented in the paper. The model is also used for regional water balance modeling.
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    Zhang Chaosheng, Zhang Shen, He Jianbang
    1997, 52 (2):  184-192.  doi: 10.11821/xb199702012
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    The spatial distribution characteristics of 11 heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Co, Ni, As, Cr, Mn, and Fe) in the sediments of Changjiang River system were studied using geostatistics method. The spatial distribution features were quantitatively described by variogram. Based on the variograms, Kriging interpolation was performed, and distribution maps were produced. The results show that all of the heavy metals being studied have good spatial structures, and their variograms could be fitted by spherical models with nuggets. Most of the ranges of variograms are around 1 000 km, which are consistent with average distances among patches with the same feature in the distribution maps. Over about 500 km, most elements show some directional features, and most of them have relatively good correlations in the directions of NE-SW or NW-SE, which are consistent with the trends of their spatial distribution.
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