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    15 May 1996, Volume 51 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    AN ANALYSIS ON THE INTERNATIONAL BACKGROUND FOR OUTWARD ORIENTED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE COASTAL AREAS OF CHINA
    Song Yingchang
    1996, 51 (3):  193-201.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (562KB) ( )   Save
    Since China opened the door to the outside world in 1979.China’s coastal areas have succeeded in developing its outward oriented economy.Foreign trade and foreign investment have played an important role in its economic growth.Certainly,its economic sustainable development will be influenced by the changing tendency of the world economic pattern.In the end of 1980’s,a series of significant changes happened in the world.The new world structures are taking shape now,the characteristics of which are"triangles" and regionalizatlon,that means triangular structure── developed countries, new industrializing countries and regions,developing countries, three big poles── America, Japan and Germany, the regional economic blocks── Northern America, Western Europe and Western Pacific region.Since the middle of 1980’ s, the world foreign direct investment(FDI) has increased in an unprecendented speed way. From 1985 to 1990, the growth rate of the world FDI in name was 34%per year, which enormously exceeds that of the world exports value(13%) and that of the GDP of the world(12%) in the same period.It is very significant for developing countries to improve their investment environment and to absorb FDI.In 1990’ s, nevertheless,international capital shortage will be a long tendency because the capital demands greatly surpass the capital supplies.So,international competition in attracting FDI will be very fierce.Being influenced by international economic regionalizatlon,the basic tendency of the world capital flow in 1990’s will be in a form of cross──investment.The developed countries are the most important investors.Also, they are the most important absorbers of the world FDI.The developing countries only share a very little portion.Fortunately,the Asian "Four Small Dragons"(AFSD) have been a noticeable forces in international investment fields, which changes the traditional global investment patterns.Because of Geographical position and ethnic features,AFSD’s investments mainly concentrate on China’ s mainland and on some south-eastern Asian countries.In the future,overseas macro-background problems for China’ s coastal areas are how to deal with four hierarchies’ relationship. which are the first hierarch(Western Europe,Northern America,Eastern Asia),the second hierarchy(China,Japan,America),the third hierarchy(china’s mainland,AFSD,some South-eastern Asian countries),the fourth heierarchy(China’s mainlad,Taiwan,HongKong).The characteristics and the tendency of absorbing FDI for China’s coastal areas can be summarized as follows:(1) FDI is mainly from AFSD.Gradually,such developed countries as America,Japan and Germany,will increase their investments in the region.(2) Investment fields are mainly manufacture sectors,especially labr-intensive industries.Step by step,hige-tech items from western developed countries will increase.(3) Investors are mainly medium and small slied enterprisers.By degrees,multinatlonal enterprises’(MNEs) investments are increasing.(4) Investment location mainly concentrates on the south-eastern coastal areas. Progressively,FDIs will push towards the central and the northern coastal areas of China.Generally speaking,MNEs have advantages of high technologies.China strongly desires for MNEs’Investments in order to raise its industrial technological level.Because of the unfavorable soft investment environment,MNEs’ Investments In China’s coastal areas are very limited.Joining the world trade organization will be a very important measure for China to absorb MNEs’Investments.Accordingly,China will have to cut down its over-high tariff and to remove its non-tariff wall.If so,the opportunity for south-eastern China will surpass thechallenge for its competitively advantageous industries.Reversely,the challenge for northern coastal areas of China will surpass the opportunity for its competitively disadvantageous industries in the world industrial division.
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    SENSITIVITY AND ADAPTATION OF CHINESE AGRICULTURE UNDER GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
    Cai Yunlong
    1996, 51 (3):  202-212.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (631KB) ( )   Save
    Historically,China has experienced numerous climatic changes or variations.In the last hundred years,it seems that China’s climate has become generally warmer and drier.Temperature increases have been Particularly notable in the north,with less evidence of changes in South China.Records show an obvious drying trend in eastern and northwestern China since 1910.Estimations for the future climatic change include:(1) Most Parts of China l be warmer in 1990s, cooler during 2010 2030,and warmer again after 2040.(2)The greenhouse warming would strengthen the warmer period,hence the average temperature will ne in the next century,about 2℃ higher during the warmest period than that at present.In the warming process,however,there would be fluctuations in a temporal scale of 20 30years and with a extent of 0.5 1.0℃.(3)The precipitation will decrease in the east and increase in the west.China’s agricultural vulnerability to climatic change is amplified by the high degree of dependeuce on a diminishing agricultural resources base.DEspite its vast size.China is poor in agricultural resources per capita,especially cropland and water resources.On the other hand,the population will increase.So the cropland per capita will be even less.Furthermore,the productivity of cropland is hindered by water shortages.This moisture constraint on food prduction is likely to be aggravated by climate change.Investment and technology are important in adapting to climatic change.However,China’s prospects for investment and technological development in agriculture are relatively modest.There fore,the Capital put into agriculture is limited.With huge rural populations but relatively scarce scientists and technicians and with inadequate equipment in agriculture, China has very limited prospects for technological adaptation to climatic change.Most researchers agree that global climate change would impact greatly on Chinese agriculture,whatever the regional climate change may be,because Chinese agriculture is already sensitive to climate-related conditions.At least,the followings will occur:(1) A loss at least 5% of overall agricultural production as aresult of warming,because of increased evaporation.wind erosion of soil,drought,and increased frequency of typhoons.(2) Several forest species face serious losses and some forest areas will be converted to steppe,covered by non-productive hot or warm-natured shrubs and grasses.(3) Significant damage to coastal areas from even a moderate sea level rise would occur,with extensive flooding and destruction of existing salterns farm-land and fishery farms,that large food sources for coastal China.In regard to deltas,where the most productive land is found and the densest population and the richest infrastructure and settlement in China are located,half of the Zhujiang River-Delta,abut 3500 square kilometers,might be inundated,and wide scale flooding is projected for more developed areas of the Changjiang River and Huanghe River deltas.Thus the food production in China will be challenged greatly and this will happen at a time when Chinese population and living standards are increasing greatly.The future national security of food sufficiency would be in more uncertainty.The feasibility of production may shrink,the flexibility of resource-use would be less,and the vulnerability would be increased.Concerns over potential agricultural impacts of clmatic change have promoted consideration of adsptations.The question of adaptation has been approached in two ways. First,It is likely that farmers and rural communities,when faced with changed climatic conditions,will adjust their practices.Thus,any estimate of agricultural implications of changes in climate needs to consider possible "spontaneous" adaptive strategies,and the prospects for their adoption.Second.in the face of crop losses or new production opportunities associated with climatic change,public authorities may promote adjustments in the nature and organization of agricultural production,in order to minimize climate-related losses and to realize potential be
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    LOCATIONAL BEHAVIOUR OF HONGKONG BUSINESS INVESTMENT IN MAINLAND CHINA
    Li Xiaojian
    1996, 51 (3):  213-223.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (661KB) ( )   Save
    Since the reform policies commenced in 1978,overseas investment in China has increased rapidl HongKong direct investment(HKDI) comprises a large share of this growth.This raises a question in terms of the regional disparity of the investment.Namely,why do some areas have large concentrations of overseas investment while others are unsuccessful in attracting outside money? It is clearly related to the locational behaviour of the investors and to the environment of the areas concerned.Therefore,the research intends to analyze changing spatial patterns of industrial location and characteristics of the investment behaviour of HongKong-based companies.This has been achieved through a number of surveys and interviews with HongKong business managers.Since the research examines China’s investment environment from the perspective of demand side,the results are expected to be more helpful to increase mainland Chinese in further understanding the spatial investment behaviour of HongKong business.This will benefit both investors and local people,and especially assist the less-developed areas of China in attracting investment.The study indicates that regional differentiation of HKDI in China was enlarged in 1980s and has ben reduced since 1991.The regional changing patterns can be summarized as:concentration of HKDI in the Southern China and the coastal areas has been replaced by the trend of moving Northward and Inlandward after 1989.But in terms of manufacturing industry this trend has not appeared by now.The changing patterns are clearly related to the behaviour of HongKong investors.The survey shown that"enjoying lower Production cost" is the most imPortant motive for Hong Kong industrial investment in China.In consequence,"close" to Hong Kong,"cheaper labour" and"favourable policy" are major factors factors determining investment locations.This behaviour,together with most investors’ habit of not doing comparison study for their locations throughout China,can well explain that Guangdong attracted most Hong Kong investment in 1980s.As the cost increasing in Guangdong,some companies started to look for Non-Guangdong locations for their investment at the end of 1980s.This trend has been proved by the possible investment locations specified by surveyed companies,which covers 22 provinces,municipalities and automonous regions.The most attractive locationsinclude those in Guangdong,Shanghai and Beijing.In addition, Hunan.Fujian, Hainan,Sichuan, Zhejing, Shandong,Jiangsu, Tianjin and Hubei are optimistic in future investment.Form the behaviour analysis of Hong Kong invested companies,some suggestions are made for regional governments to attract investment:a)To increase accessibility and reduce transport distnce:b)To try every possibility helping investors to reduce the overall cost;c) To make policies stable and implementation thoroughly d)To improve local manager’s ability to enhance localizating management;e) To let the potential investors aware of the regional environment by using various media.
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    THE DIVISION OF THERMAL BELTS IN THE TROPICAL AND SUB-TROPICAL WESTERN REGIONS IN CHINA
    Pang Tingyi
    1996, 51 (3):  224-229.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (389KB) ( )   Save
    There are many mountains and vast plateaus in the western region in China.Owing to the influence of vertical zonality,It is difficult to divide the climatic belts.But the vertical climate is established based on the base vertical climatic belts that have the characters of latitudinal zonality.Therefore,the divided western sub-tropical thermal belts are latitudinal zones.Thereafter,YunnanGuizhou Plateau and Jinsha River Velley should be in the middle sub-tropical zone.The latitudinal zonality is destroyed by the Tibetan Platearu.Therefore,there is a boundary of western sub-tropical zone which is located on the eastern side of the Tibetan Plateau.It is a boundary on the north,the middle and the south of the sub-tropical which runs into the Tibetan Plaleau.But there is not a transitional zone between the sub-tropical belt and the Tibetan Plateau.The method of dividing the western subtropical is advanced in this paper.
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    NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECTS OF FACTORS OF UNDERLYING SURFACE ON CLIMATE FORMATION AND VARIATION
    Qian Yun, Qian Yongfu
    1996, 51 (3):  230-239.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (594KB) ( )   Save
    Climate is a slowly-varying equilibrium system due to the interaction of atmosphere,ocean and land under the effect of the solar radiation.As the basic energy resource of the atmosphere motion,solar radiation is a decisive factor with important impacts on climate formation,while the factors of underlying surface,such as land-sea distribution,topography and properties of land surfaces,directly affect the spatial and temporal distributions of solar radiation,and consequently affect the features of general circulation in the earth-atmosphere system and the distributions of global climatic fields.So,local climate can not be parted from specific underlying surface conditions and geographic environment.Recently,many scientists studied the causes of the climate change and tried to predict the tendency of the climate variations by various methods.It has been found that climate fluctuation is affected by tropical sea surface temperature anomalies,the advance and retreat of the polar ice and concentration variations of aerosols and absorption gasses (such as CO2 and other trace gasses)in the atmosphere.In the past,it seems that people overemphasized and exaggerated the function of the orographic height on the climate,while paid little attention to the influences of land-sea distribution and properties of land surfaces,and the effects of each underlying surface factor on the process of the climate formation and variation have not been studied systematicaly.In this Paper,we discussed 3 problems:(1)effects of land-sea distribution on general circulation,(2) climatic effects of topography,(3) impacts of land surfaces on climatic change.A coupled general circulation model in a zonal domain belt (60癝 to 60癗) is used to simulate the development of general circulation and the climate variations in summer.In the simulations the earth is assumed to change from a globe with a homogeneous surface to that with land-sea distributions,the global land is set to be flat with gradually uprising to the real topography.The results reveal that without land-sea distribution the climatic fields are zonally uniform,the wind fields in the atmosphere show the properties of planetary wind system and three-cell circulations.i.e.the Hadley,the Ferrel and the polar circulations,With land-sea distribution,in the north hemisphere in either the upper or the lower level atmosphere.the circulation status shows a zonal two-wave structure which is consistent with the land-sea distribution.So,land-sea distribution may be the fundamental factor which forms the modern general circulation pattern.The Tibetan Plateau topography intensifies the,Soil desertization strengthens the pressure system over the continent,increases the surfacial and atmospheric temperatures and the extent affected in the continental area,The topography and the types of land surfaces have the effects with a comparative order on the climate variation,but both of them can not change the fundamental pattern of the general circulation,Any factor in the climatic system will affect the sensitivity extent of other factors,Therefore,in order to simulate the paleoclimate during the geological periods,besides the plateau topography more factors should be considered,especially the variations of land-sea distribution and the types of the land surfaces.
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    INTRODUCTION TO GEOMORPHOLOGIC MAP OF CHINA SEA AND ADJACENT REGIONS(1:8 600 000)AND GEOMORPHOLOGIC LASSIFICATION BASED ON PLATE TECTONICS
    Liu Xiqing, Ma Daoxiu
    1996, 51 (3):  240-250.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603006
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    Scientists have developed tectonic geomorphologic classifications in different ways based on plate tectonic theory.This paper deals with the ideas and methods of the geomorphological classification based on plate tectonic thory in the Geomorphologic Map of China Sea and Adjacent Region(1:8600000).This classification has three characteristics:1.Plate tectonic theory was used In the first order classification,and the divisions of continental landforms and submarine landforms were not accepted as units of the first order classification.2.According to the modern plate environments,intraplate and plate margin geomorphologies were classified.The modern and the plaeo-plate margins were not considered as geomorphological types in the same order.3.The horizontal movement was emphasized and the intraplate organic classification was used for dividing mountain types.The 12 first-order global geomorphologic types were divided.The studing areas has three first order units:the intraplate continental landform,the continental margin trench-arc-basin and the oceanic-margin trench-arc-basin landforms.They were further divided into 11 second-order types and more than 20 third-order types.
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    MICRO FAUNA IN BOREHOLE AB-67 AND ITS PALAEO ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE IN BARROW,ALASKAN ARCTIC
    Li Yuanfang, Zhang Qingsong
    1996, 51 (3):  251-259.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603007
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    A60cm depth core of about 450 years old was drilled from Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaskan Arctic(70°21’N, 156°40’W)in the August,1994.The drilling site was located in a water Of 2m deep and was 1.5km away from coast.About 50 samples with intervals of 1-2cm were taken from the core to analyze the micro-fauna.Based upon the distribution properties,8 genera and 13 species of foraminifera were identified and three assemblages were distinguished:(1) At the lower part(35-60cm) of the borehole AB-67 Assemblage Elphidium orbiculareElphidium clavatum were distributed,in which the in which the dominant species were Elphidium orbiculare,E.clavatum, E.bartletti,Buccella frigida,et al.,without gluey shell foraminifera;(2) Assemblage buccella frigida-Ammotium cassis were found in the middle part(19-35cm)of the core;(3) Assemblage Elphidium asklundi-Elphidium excavatum alba were in the upper part(0-19cm)of the core. 9 general and 9 species of ostracoda were identified too,which can be divided into two assem blages:(1) Assemblage Limnocythere sp.-Normanicythere leioderma which were distributed In the lower section(31-60cm)of the core and were characterized by existence of both maritime and ter restrial ostracoda;(2) Assemblage Cytheromorpha macchesneyi were distributed in the upper section(0-31cm)of the core.Based upon the assembled characters and ecological features of the microfauna in the borehole AB-67,environmental changes in Barrow,Alaska in the past 450 years can be recognized as follows:(1)Before 1740 AD(e.g.from the mid of the 16th century to the 18th century),It was rela tively cold and in a low sea level stage,which were concluded by the existence of both marine and non-marine micro-fauna.The non-marine ostracoda indicates a lake-stream deposition environment with fresh-brackish water.The marine micro-fauna was likely eurythermal and euryhaline forms,so the drilling site was estimated to be located at a river mouth or in a tidal zone near the coast and the sea level might be 2.5m lower than that of the present between the mid-16 century and mid-18 cen tury,which coincided with a little ice age.(2) From mid-18 century to mid-19 century,it was becoming warmer and a slight transgres sion commenced.(3)From mid-19 century to present,it as warming,accompanied by continuous transgression.
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    RESPONSE OF TIBETAN SNOW COVER TO GLOBAL WARMING
    Li Peiji
    1996, 51 (3):  260-265.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603008
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    A study is presented of trend testing of Tibetan snow cover variation by using daily snow depth records at 60 primary climatic stations covering the period from 1957 to 1992.A statistical model consisting of a trend plus serialy correlated noice is fitted to the areal and point time series data to test for trends in snow cover variation.The results of three trend estimates based on difference of average.least squares fitting.and slope AR(1) process imply that the increase in annual snow depth is a systematic development as evidenced by the presence of a deterministic trend.The increase of snow depth is almost omnipresent over the Tibetan plateau.However noable exceptions are the Yarlung Zangbo valley to the west of Lhasa,and along highway between Da Qaidam and Beilu Heyan.further examination of year-to-year fluctuation of snow cover over the Tibetan plateau and surface air temperature in wintertime over the northern Hemisphere during the period between 1957 and 1992.reveals a positive relationship between the two.This association tends to contrast sharply with reduced extent of snow cover in extratropical Lands in late 1980s,but coincides with the recent increases in Antarctic and Greenland snow accumulation.
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    REMOTE SENSING INFORMATION MODELS OF GEOGRAPHY
    Ma Ainai
    1996, 51 (3):  266-271.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (374KB) ( )   Save
    Remote sensing,GIS,GES.which are excellent methods and GRSIMs which are geographyphysics-mathematics models to study geographical phenomena and theory,have to develop in advance of mathematics in the modern geography,Remote Sensing,GIS,GES,came to computerize,so GRSIMs must be computerized.GRSIMs propel the geography forward from the spherical structure to the independent factors,It is the same as biology forward from the cellular structure to molecular biology,Certainly,different branch of science has different characters and different developmental steps.Right now,high technology-space technique and computer technique bring the opportunity for devdoping geo-science and astronomy.Remote sensing,GIS GES,GPS(Global Positioning System),telemetry.and satellite communications are going to everywhere,especially In geograPhy,In recent decade,we have founded new way of geographical theory which is established on the independent factors and is named as Geographical Remotes Sensing Information Models (GRSIM).There are two kinds of GRSIMs,One is based on the independent varables and the other is based on the independent knowledge of geography,Based on the independent varables,GRSIMs are pure quantity caculation,for example,debris flow veloslty equation,concentration of suspended sediment,soil moisture,soil erosion,thermal diffusion,etc.Based on the independent knowledge,GRSIMs are combined by quality and quantity with geographical information coded models (GICM).For example,soil erosion in small scale1:5 000 000 maps,etc.Based on DOS and WINDOWS,GIS software have been established on micro-computer which is named MCGIS. The MCGIS is a new design with Remote Sensing Information Models,
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    PROBING REVITALIZATION OF THE LOWER CHANG JIANG DELTA METRO-REGION
    Andrew M.Marton
    1996, 51 (3):  272-282.  doi: 10.11821/xb199603010
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    The distinction between city and countryside in China’s spatialeconomic structure is disintegrating as industrial development in urban and rural regions are complimenting and infiltrating each other.A complex multiplicity of factors are examined to determine how they have influenced the spatial proliferation of non-agricultural activity in Kunshan at the edge of Shanghai.Analysis of the conditions and circumstances of rural industrial development peculiar to the region reveals certain contradictions.Although it may be sensible,even preferable.to locate industry based on the factors highlighted in the conventional models of industrial location.local level realities militate against this.Thus the conventional wisdom of established theories of industrial development and urbanization does not adequately explain the emergence of certain relatively productive "mega-urban "regions.The resulting theoretical reformulations have culminated in a framework for planning and policy formation embedded in the concept of“metrofitting”.This artical critically evaluates metrofitting in the context of the spatial economic transformation observed in the lower Chang Jiang delta.Findings from recent field investigations fundamentally challenge assumptions regarding the processes which underlye this transformation. More appropriate regional development strategies are therefore.suggested.Moreover the analysis demonstraies that general conclusions about China’s mega-urban regions must rest upon a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of local economic change.
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