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Table of Content

    15 December 1995, Volume 50 Issue s1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    PERSPECTIVES ON GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM:ITS THEORY AND METHODOLOGY
    Chenhu Zhou
    1995, 50 (s1):  1-12.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (575KB) ( )   Save
    The people new to Geographical Information System (GIS) and even many who have been working in it for some time are unsure about its extent and content due to its nature of comparative recency, rapid rate of development and diversity of application. The first part of the paper aims to provide an overview of the origin,brief development history and appropriate definition of GIS, and the relationship with other disciplines and technologies related. Three main views are evident,namely, the map, database and spatial analysis views,from point of view of usage of GIS as scientific tool.It is understood that the development of GIS is driven and affected by the technology improvements and revolution, wide and diverse applications.The next part tries to explain how GIS is used to describe the geographical feature and space in digital way, and how different kinds of geographical data are organized into an integrated database, and what kinds of spatial analytical tools are fundamental to GIS, and how it is used in our problem solution. It is concluded that GIS provide us a new way to think about our earth and analyze the complex issues we meet.The last paragraph, the front topics on GIS, begins with discussion abut the three-dimensional and temporal GIS. The nature of the multi-dimension of geographical information needs us to develop a new generation of such a system. However we still have a long way to go before such an useful and powerful system comes out. Then author spends a few of words on the geographical information sciences and geo-informatics.Bases on this discussion it is said that GIS will become a basic public information system used by all over society. 
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    GENERAL REVIEW OF GIS IN CHINA AND CONSIDERATION FOR ITS FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
    He Jianbang, Jiang Jingtong
    1995, 50 (s1):  13-23.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (735KB) ( )   Save
    The paper outlines the development of GIS in China in the past 15 years, including differentiation and identification of different stages, main research and application work, main achievements and problems at different stages. Based on the fact of rapid development of GIS in China, which has the trend of industrialization, six main problems about the further development are discussed.1. The different stages of GIS development of China in the past 15 years are:(1) Preparation Stage (1978-1980) (2) Primary Stage (1980-1985) (3) Development Stage (1986-1995) A. Primary Development Phasc (1986-1990)B. Rapid Development Phase (1991-1995 )(4) Industrialization Stage (1996-)2. Consideration about further development of GIS in China includes,(1) Compile outlines of development strategy, set up plan for the whole country, establish system of theory and technology, make clear market orientation(2) Strengthen standardization and normalization (3) Set up systems which are very important for national economy and society (4) Promote the development of urban GIS (UGIS)(5 ) Set up strategies of developing domestic GIS software(6) Set up concerned policies and regulations 
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    KEY ISSUES AND RESEARCH DIRECTIONS IN GIS’S SPATIAL DATA MODELS
    Chen Jun
    1995, 50 (s1):  24-33.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (473KB) ( )   Save
    A spatial data model provides data description concepts and methods useful for GIS spatial data modeling.The important concepts include the spatial entities and their spatial relationships which are used to construct spatial database schema in designing GIS tools and implemention GIS projects. Since spatial data models play a very important role in the development of GISs, many R & D efforts have been devoted to the study of spatial data models by GIS academic community and industry in the world.This main objective of this paper is to identify the cutting-edge problems of current spatial data models and discuss what should be done in the future R&D. After a brief introduction of the importance of the study of spatial data models, the second section examines the key issues and cutting-edge problems on the conceptual data modeling, logical data modeling and physical data modeling in GISs. Some of the research directions on spatial data models and the author’s research initiatives are discussed in the third section. 
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    SEVERAL KEY ISSUES IN GIS DATABASE DEVELOPMENT
    Shao Quanqin
    1995, 50 (s1):  34-43.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (457KB) ( )   Save
    Database is a base-stane of a GIS system. The establishment of a database takes not only quite lots of money but quite lots of labor and time resource as well. In China, numerous GIS systems have been established for differant purpose. Although the database technology has been mature, there are many problems which should be taken into consideretion in establishing a database, or the database established by quite high investment would be a ″garbage″. This paper was to discuss several important issues in developing a GIS database, based on our experience and practices of lots of case studes:(1) Normalizing attributes table and designing relations between tables. Using a example of land register database in Fangshan District, BeiJing. His paper had discussed:① relations between attributes tables defined by system and by user; ②relations between attributes tables defined by user;③ according to functional depondency, descompose a unnormalization table to normalization tables (3NF) having stacking relations.(2) The design of exampling elevation data.Using, example of elevation data base in Huaihe river basin (from Huaibin to Benbu). this paper had discussed: ① selection and unification of elevation datum plane;②selection of exampling method; ③ design of exampling distance; ④ particular dealing with dyke and river elevments in flood elevation database.(3) The registration of spacial information. Using example of Huaihe river basin and evaluations about flood disaster situations of Fuji and Gangdon in 1994. This paper had discussed:① the registration of spacial information from different scale maps: ② the registration of spacial information from maps and image ;③ the registration of image data from different remote plat form and from different time phese.(4) The data quality control of GIS database: ① the precision of source data and controling and checking method;② the precision controling of derivative data;③the temporal truth of data and solving method;④using data dictionary to trace the data quality.
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    STUDY ON DESIGN OF CORE GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM
    Zhang Mingjin, Zhang Ping
    1995, 50 (s1):  44-53.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (669KB) ( )   Save
    The problems of integrating spatial analytical models with Geographical Information Systems (GIS)are discussed in this paper. The low degree of openness, insufficient capabilities of presenting of the real world,inseparable usage of GIS functions, and lack of efficient application development tools are the main shortages of current commercial GISs.Referring to the new advances of current computer operating systems, based on the database management system (DBMS) and client/server model, GIS is redesigned as the basic extension of the computer operating system. This new designed GIS is called CoreGIS. CoreGIS are composed of CoreGIS core, CoreGIS Application Programming Interface (API), CoreGIS development tool, CoreGIS operating environment, and spatial analytical models. The core of CoreGIS consists of four categories of servers.CoreGIS API is the standard interface of CoreGIS core. Other components of CoreGIS are built on the former two components. CoreGIS may overcome the obstacles of integrating spatial analytical models with GIS, and help accelerate the GIS development.
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    STRUCTURAL ADAPTIVE MODELLING OF SPATIAL GEO-INFORMATION
    Wang Jianfeng
    1995, 50 (s1):  54-61.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (400KB) ( )   Save
    Spatial geo-information includes global linear trend, local temporal-spatial linear, cycles, nonlinear components, and white noise. The global linear trend is filtered out by ordinary linear least square; Considering the possible temporal-spatial correlation, the local temporal-spatial signal is filered out by 7 temporalspatial linear regression equation; The cycles are filered out by Lomb frequence method;the nonlienear components are filered out by error propogation neural network model.The components are integreted sequencely or simulteouly. With training dataset and testing dataset, and model diagnostic and prediction indices, the control parameters in the model are adjusted adaptively and the model with the hast generation is found and is used for spatial prediction.
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    DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF VICTIM EVACUATION IN DETENSION BASIN (I)──TECHNOLOGY AND METHOD REASERCH
    Wan Qing, Li Huiguo
    1995, 50 (s1):  62-68.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (413KB) ( )   Save
    The concerned burean must pay close attention to the safe shifting of victim residents and property in flood storage regions which are taken as main projects to treat catastrophic flood. Based on the spatial and temporal characteristics of retreating process of the victim residents, the paper analyse and simulate the resident retreating process. Led by GIS technique,computer simulation technique and transport allocation theory, the paper study on the dynamic simulation method and technique of resident retreating process and creat the dynamic simulation model of resident retreating process.
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    DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF VICTIM EVACUATION IN DETENSION BASIN (Ⅱ)──Study on victim in Junshan farm
    Wang Qing, Li Huiguo
    1995, 50 (s1):  69-75.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (386KB) ( )   Save
    Taking the dike surrounded Junshan farm of Dongting lake in Huhan province as an example, the paper researched of the simulation of victim evacuation by using the model in described in the paper one. Several schema of victim evacuation were conducted according to decision-making parameters. The position of evacuation under the emergent situation will be dynamically displayed on the screen. The testing results indicate that victim residents in Junshan farm can reach the nearest safe place from the most remote area on foot in 80 minutes under current circumstances and all the farm property can be transfered to safe places by vehicle in 11 hours.
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    Urban Flooding Analysis and Modeling Using GIS
    Zhang Li
    1995, 50 (s1):  76-84.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (561KB) ( )   Save
    The dual drainage system and urbanization makes the study on urban flooding more complicated than that of rural areas. This paper reviews literatures on urban flooding study, discusses the methedology for urban flooding analysis and modeling, and puts forward a series of GIS approaches to these problems. It covers several GIS and hydrologic areas, e. g.,extraction of hydrologic parameters for urban areas, distributed rainfall-runoff model based on GIS grid model for urban areas, flood routing model, integration of hydrologic models and GIS, and visualization of urban flooding process using GL and Explorer modular. These metheds have been applied to the modeling of urban flooding process of May 3, 1994 in Sanming city, Fujian province.This study has achieved a satisfactory result and will be of wide application value and theoretical significance to urban flooding simulation, GIS system integration, and visualization of environmental processes.
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    THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FOREST AND VEGETATION ──METHODOLOGICAL STUDY BY GEO-INFORMATION SYSTEM
    Chen Yufeng
    1995, 50 (s1):  85-94.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (535KB) ( )   Save
    The integration of geographical information system and spatial analysis is a main trend of geo-information system (GIS) development. More attention have been attracted to study the effects of climate change on vegetation by GIS. In this paper, as a case to study the impacts of climate change on Lindera communis in Tengchong of Yunnan province,a integrated methodology and flow-line how to use GIS are set up:(1) using the spatial data input and management of GIS to build the data base of forest, vegetation and relative physical geographical features; (2) ensuring the ecological ranges of forest and vegetation by crosstab analysis in GIS;(3) identifying the main ecological factors on the growth and spatial distribution of forest and vegetation by factor analysis; (4) spatially selecting the potential and possible change areas of forest and vegetation under climate scenarios by GCM simulation. As results, GIS integrated with spatial analysis is a neccesary tcol to study the effects of climate change on forest and vegetation as it can contributed to improve the understanding for the characteristics and laws of forest and vegetation change by climate.
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    DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF SPATIAL MODELLING SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR INVESTMENT ENVIRONMENT EVALUATION
    Lin Hui, Chen Jin, Wan Qing, Li Xingong, Kong Yunfeng
    1995, 50 (s1):  95-104.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (641KB) ( )   Save
    Present GIS is short of powerful analysing tools for the distribution and the change of spatial and temporal phenomena and events. In our research of" multimedia spatial information system for investment environment evaluation of Nanchang-JiuJiang industrial corridor", a GIS-based framework of spatial modelling support system for investment environment evaluation was built based on the rule of ONC RPC. The Principal function modules such as exploratory spatial data analysis, extraction of data sub-sets, multicriteria evaluation model, scenario management of this surport system and its user interface were discussed and designed. It can be proved the support system was plausible and utilizable by a case study on investment environment evaluation of Nanchang-Jiujiang industrial corridor using the system.
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    APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM TO STUDIES OF LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY
    Liu Haiyan
    1995, 50 (s1):  105-111.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (316KB) ( )   Save
    In the paper, the author makes a brief introduction to Geographical Information System and basic theories of landscape ecology at first, then makes an analysis on the application of Geographical Information System in studies of landscape ecology, especially in respects of analysis of landscape patterns and landscape change modeling. In the end the author suggests some points worth noticing,(1) proper choice of spatialtemporal scale,(2) studies of landscape information,(3) small area researches, (4) interface problem of landscape models and general GIS, and (5) data extroplation from point to area.
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    INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REGIONALIZATION ──A Case Study in Turpan Basin
    Wang Yongxing, Li Yan
    1995, 50 (s1):  112-118.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (407KB) ( )   Save
    Environmental regionalization information system is a thematic information system. On the basis of the theorems and the index system of environmental regionalization, it was designed and built up. This paper began from analyzing the characteristics of the regional environment, and then discussed the designing, modeling and setting up the database and model-base of the system. Environmental regionalization was proceeded with a case study for Turpan Basin. Based on the studies above, an application model for evaluation of the environmental quality was studied and discussed. Some significant understanding were gotten from the study:(1) The system should be designed to be an user-oriented system; the storage structures of the spacial maps and the attribute databases, the uniform objects of cross analysis of the databases should be determined by the principles of regionalization. For some special study areas where the oasis distribute isolated and the data about the natural geography, such as precipitation, temperature and so on, are not enough, the data are composed according to the administration boundaries, so that it meet the needs of the regionalization.(2) The study shows that GIS provides a very powerful tool for regionalization. The GIS not only makes the regionalization very fast and accurate, but also provides many computation tools, and all the information related to the regionalization, including maps and data. Further analysis can be done on the databases of GIS. Therefore GIS provides a better method for any kind of regionalization.
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    APPLICATION OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TO OCEANIC PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY RESEARCHES
    Shao Yubin, Li Guosheng
    1995, 50 (s1):  119-125.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (273KB) ( )   Save
    Oceanic primery productivity, which is a main topic of ocean science, has critical meaning at the study of ocean biological system and global marine resources and environment. This paper presents the mechanism and methodology to obtain oceanic primary productivity using remote sensing and GIS technology based on sea truth data.Supported by GIS, applications related with primary oceanic productivity, eg. potential marine resource evaluation, red tide monitoring and evaluation, and global change are primarily studied.
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    RESEARCH ON REMOTE SENSING DYNAMIC MONITORING BASED ON SPATIAL INFORMATION DATABASE ──Case study of monitoring and mapping of Nanjing land-use
    Fu Suxing, Zhang Chonghou, Zheng Ke, Zhu Congguang
    1995, 50 (s1):  126-130.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (316KB) ( )   Save
    The paper discusses the theory and method of geo-science analysis of remote sensing dynamic monitoring and cartography, on the basis of the spatial information database. With TM image of multi-temporal, we have done the research on land-use change of Nanjing, trying to find out the changeable direction of the landuse types in the region with machine dialog mutual procession by programming. It provides scientific information for urban planning and management.
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    CONTOUR CREATION BY SUING FILTER
    Zhou Chunping
    1995, 50 (s1):  131-134.  doi: 10.11821/xb1995S1016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (253KB) ( )   Save
    A new method to create geographic thematic contour map has been presented from spatially referenced rastered data using the filter technology based on comprehensive analysis on the defects of classis smothing lineal object, and then the choice and optimization for modular parameters were discussed. Using the filter in TIN with ARC/INFO GIS software, the ocean surface temperature contours were successfully created by multi-filtered procession.
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