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    15 May 1995, Volume 50 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE DESIGN OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC ATLAS OF CHINA (NEAC) AND THE METHODS AND TECHNOLOGY OF CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION
    Liu Yue
    1995, 50 (3):  193-205.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503001
    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (800KB) ( 498 )   Save
    The National Economic Atlas of China (NEAC) is the first scientific large-scale atlas which reflects comprehensively and systematically the general status of China’ s social-economic development. It gathers a large amount of data from a wide variety of national economic fields during 1985-1990. The atlas, which was compiled after a systematic analysis and processing of data, as well as an elaborate scientific design, and with computer cartographic technology being the main compiling approach. depicts vividly and visually the general status and regional distribution of current development in the country’s economy and society. In its 10 map groups, the atlas depicted, from all pointviews and at varied levels. the resources. population, agriculture, industry, transportation,post and telecommunication, building. urban construction, environmental protection, commerce, foreign trade. tourism. finance. education. scientific research. culture. sports, and medical health care.It is an abundant information database of China’s current status.This paper briefly describes the main aspects of the research on the compilation of the NEAC.It consists of three parts. Five aims of the overall design for the atlas are expounded in the first part: (1) to reflect systematically and comprehensively our national economic system and industrial system. The atlas depicts more than 20 national economic sectors and departments and presents 38 industrial types and 217 sub-catergories. (2) to depict the general scale of the national economy and the developmet level of each industry and department. The gross national product, the national income. the structure of the primary. secondary and tertiary industries, as well as the basic scale. ratio,composition and economic-technical level of each industry. are presented in detail. (3) to reflect emphatically the characteristics of regional comprehensive economy and the mutual eocnomic connections among various regions. The conditions of "blocks" and "belts" (i. e. , regions and departments) are combined in order to emphasize the economic advantages of each region and the relationship among various departments. (4) to show the spatial structure and distribution pattern of the national economy we can see from the atlas the production pattern of every sector and department. and the economic distributive model.of varied provinces. municipalities and autonomous regions. (5) to present the progress of China’s economic development since the founding of the P. R.China, as well as its position in the international economy.In the second part of the paper. the author explains the approaches and technologies for the visualization of China’s social-economic features including the transformation of varied types of data,the method of cartographic classification, the selection of multi-grade cartogrphic units and presentation methods, the design of cartographic symbol system. as well as the cartogrphic generalization.The third part of this paper introduces some computer cartographic technologies in the compilation of the atlas, including the acquisition of data and establishment of database, the research and development of intelligent computer cartographic system. as well as a flow-chart of a workable integrated computer cartographic system.
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    THE SUBMERGED ZHUJIANG DELTA
    Huang Zhenguo, Zhang Weigiang, Chai Fuxiang
    1995, 50 (3):  206-214.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503002
    Abstract ( 624 )   PDF (396KB) ( 982 )   Save
    There is only one submerged delta on the shelf outside the estuary of Zhujiang River with an area of about 30 000km2 which is 3. 5 times of the modern Zhujiang Delta. It covers the shelf from the upper limit of 40m sea water depth contour to the marginal limit of 120m one.The arc-like distribution of depth contours which shows an especially wide shelf of about 270km outsisde the estuary describes the outline of the submerged delta.The relict landforms submerged on the shelf such as the five large systems of buried ancient valleys of 144 205km long, a number of tidal grooves, the shallows composed of medium-coarse sand and submerged dunes are all of the geomorpholgical types of the delta, and the fan-like distribution of these landforms presents more obviously a delta geomorphology.The relict sediments on the shelf which have an inverting distribution of grain Size from land to sea in the order from silts or fine sands to coarse sands show that the submerged delta is an old delta.By using the data of seismic investigation. a Quaternary depositional isopach map is compiled.from which it can be seen that the thickness of Quaternary is generally 250-300m and the isopach lines run with two strikes of NE and NW controled by structural line which is similar to that in the modern ZhuJiang Delta.From the dating data and the studies on the sedimentary cycles and stratigraphic correlation it is considered that the submerged delta has evolved through four evolution periods. The upper limit of the delta was near the water depth contour of 80m at the end of Q1 period and then the limit expanded southwest forward to the depth contour of 100m at the end of Q1 period, and the 3-beds structure was formed at that time. UP to Q3 period. a transgression and its deposition disconnected the submerged delta with the modern delta in the first time but the ancient shoreline may be placed on -130m during the culmination of the latest glacial period. Finally the transgression during the postglacial period produces a whole delta system including the submerged and the modern Zhujiang Delta .
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    STOCHASTIC MOVEMENT EQUATION OF SPATIAL DIFFUSION IN NONHOMOGONEOUS FIELD AND ITS APPLICATION FOR THE APPRAISAL OF LAND PRICE
    Shan Weidong, Bao Haosheng
    1995, 50 (3):  215-223.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503003
    Abstract ( 512 )   PDF (304KB) ( 572 )   Save
    Innovation does not diffuse identically and evenly. The diffusion process which initiates around the diffusion center is influenced by the multiple quality (m) including natural and social-economical factors and distance (x) to the center. T. Hagevstrand founded spatial diffusion theories based on MIF (Mean Information Field) in 1971. There are some problems to be further researched, such as diffusion in nonhomogeneous field and diffusion expression by a general spatial diffusion function relating to m and x. Furthermore. some reasons why basis land price can not be satisfiedly evaluated by seperating differential income are analysed.This paper theoretically imitates stochastic spatial diffusion in nonhomogoneous fields and regards the process as the movement of random grain mediums. supposing that the system of the multiple quality m and distance x consists of many single and very small checks. Innovation influence is composed of infinite and noncontinuous small grain mediums, and the volume of which is 1. The mediums seperate each other and make relative movement in the m-x system. the movement of grain mediums can be described as the random movement of grain mediums. So, the movement of a large amount of grain mediums can be expressed as a stochastic process. The model of the random movement is set up by three neighboring checks. Thus. on the basis of the principle of random movement ,we can obtain a probability equation. By expanding the equation by Taylor series and taking a limit,a general diffusion equation of parabola type is deduced. It is proved that the diffusion process accords with the Kolmogorov diffusion equation. By solving a partial differential equation, a diffusion probability density function is obtained. By making some assumptions and intergrating the density function, a general expression on the nonhomogenous spatial diffusion is obtained. It can describe the multiple influence of expansion diffusion, hierarchic diffusion and relocation diffusion.The principle of defining parameters and the approximatly computing methodes of Gauss complement function is given. Some methodes are also recommended. The best one is Marquardt algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters.By means of the spatial diffusion equation, the main problems in the appraisal of basis land price can be solved. Finally , an example of the basis land price in Fuyang is given. The conclusion of calculations is that fitting error equals + 9 Yuan/m2 and maximum curve fitting error equals 24Yuan/m2.
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    A STUDY ON THE CHARACTERISTICS AND QUANTITY OF THE PEBBLE. BED LOAD AT THE MINJIANG RIVER
    Lin Chengkun
    1995, 50 (3):  224-233.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503004
    Abstract ( 556 )   PDF (575KB) ( 511 )   Save
    This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the pebble bed load (the PBL) with large sorting coefficient at the Minjiang River. In the Minjiang River, the PBL causes serious problems.Due to the difficulties in measurement. there is still a lack of data on the PBL for the main stem of the Min jiang River. The composition of the PBL of the Minjiang River spreads widely. The maximum diameter can be 539mm. More than 91. 1% of the PBI have the hardness more than 6 (measured by Mo-hardness metre). About 84. 5% of specific gravities of the PBL are between 2. 75 to 3. 02.In the light of regional geological and geomorphological conditions and their effect on petrographic composition of the PBL, three source areas of the PBL in the Minjiang River watershed can be identified: the Dadu River, the upper and middle reaches of MinJiang River and the Qingyi River. The coverging region is at the Leshan reach of main stem of the Minjiang River. Based on the evaluation of petrographic composition in the supplying regions and the converging region a computational model is established. The results are that 40. 6% of the PBL come from the Duta River.36. 1% from the upper and middle reaches of MinJiang River and 23. 3% from the Qingyi River. Knowing converging percentage of the Dadu River supplying region and knowing that total amout of the PBL supply from the Gongzhui Reservior of Dadu River is 0. 677 million tons per year.then the amount of the PBL at the main stem of Minjiang River is computed as 1. 668 million tons per year. This numerical value has been checked against the value obtained by wearing method of the PBL at the upper and middle reaches of Minjiang River. which shows that there is only a difference of 1. 9 % between the calculated value checked value.
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    A THEORETICAL STUDY ON CRITICAL EROSION SLOPE GRADIENT
    Jin Changxing
    1995, 50 (3):  234-239.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503005
    Abstract ( 857 )   PDF (313KB) ( 929 )   Save
    The effect of slope gradient on soil erosion has been studied extensively. A common result is that the amount of sheet erosion increases with the increasing of slope gradient. However, to a certain critical slope gradient. the amount of erosion decreases, because the increasing of the slope gradient decreases the actual project area of slope under a certain slope length and thus decreases the amount of flow on slope and the erosivrty of slope runoff. For a long time. scientists have attempted to determine the value of the gradient by both experiment and theory. Laboratory and site experiments give a common critical gradient of about 25?. but the theoretical results were different.In this paper. sheet erosion was supposed to be proportional to the flow energy exhausted to overcome the friction force of slope ground on the flow. The maximum energy exhausted produces the greatest amount of erosion. By solving the equation of energy it was found that the critical slope gradient is between 24癮nd 29?. depending on the ratio of flow depth to the diameter of soil grains which are equal or great than 84% in soil particle composition. The result is in consistent with the experimental result.
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    AN ANALYSIS OF THE INVESTMENT ENVIRONMENT OF CHINESE CITIES
    Cheng Liangsheng
    1995, 50 (3):  240-247.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503006
    Abstract ( 845 )   PDF (432KB) ( 770 )   Save
    The investment environment is the organic whole of a series of key elements of production and conditions of production that could promote the increment of capital. It is the combination of the following four aspects: internal economic scale, external economic scale, transport economic scale and urban economic scale. The investment environment consists of subject system. interrelated system,transmission system and service system.The crux of the investment environment is the chance for choosing the optimal combination of key elements of production and conditions of production. If a region has the optimal combination of key elements of production and conditions of production, it has good investment environment. On the contrary, it does not have if the optimal combination of key elements of production and conditions of production, it has poor investment enviroment. The mathematical model for cities’investment environment could be expressed by applying the principle of entropy of thermodynamics. The entropy is the measurement of complication of relations among all kinds of enterprises in cities. The basic features of entropy values of the investment environment of Chinese cities are:the values of coastal cities are higher than those of inland cities, the values of open cities are higher than those ordinary cities. and the values of big cities of are higher than those of small cites.Utilizing the two concepts of the degree of development (Ssh) and the increase rate of investment environment (Sch) . the cities’ investment environment could be divided into four types:(1) Increment type Ssh> 1. Sch>1(2) Stable type Ssh> 1, Sch<1(3) Potential type Ssh< 1, Sch> 1(4) Development type : Ssh< 1, Sch<1The three basic measures to perfect the cities’ investment environment are to urbanize the enterprise gathering, to pluralize the industrial composition, to make the transmission system into a network.
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    THE SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL DISASTERS IN CHINA
    Wang Zheng, Zhang Peiyuan, Liu Xiaolie
    1995, 50 (3):  248-255.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503007
    Abstract ( 1056 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1651 )   Save
    The spactial characteristics of nature disasters in China have been discussed in this paper. The spatial characterstics were discribe as follows:1. Disasters action (DA) in China can be divided into 4 DA territories: North DA territory,South DA territory, West DA territory and the Sensitive-zones DA territory. They are shown in Fig. 1. each territory is characterized by the most frequent disasters in Tab. 1. DA region is the second level classified area, 14 DA regions can be found in China which are shown in Fig. 1. China’s disaster distribuion is controlled by a quasi-Qinlin-Huaihe line (at about 34°N) .2. The Huang-Huai-Hai area is an area with huge amount of per unit area economic loss caused by a disaster, which was called as a disaster loss center. the area between Zhengzhou and WuhanDongting Lake is a large disaster action center in China, which was called as a disaster scale weight.In the border zone of Yunnan-Shichang-Guizhou-Guangxi, a hazard may result in a larger number of injuries and deathes.3. The most ferquent zones of disaster action in China are North-China, which are affected by drought and flood, and along Hu-Line zone. Which are affected by drought or arid, landslide and earthquake.In this paper, we used following data: agricultural harversts recordes in the period of 137 BC-1990 AD, and natural disasters during 1990-1991 AD.
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    INFLUENCE OF TOPOGRAPHY ON STORM RAINFALL
    Chen Ming, Fu Baopu, Yu Qiang
    1995, 50 (3):  256-263.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503008
    Abstract ( 893 )   PDF (344KB) ( 717 )   Save
    In this article. we analyse the influence of complex mountain surface layer on the formation and distribution of storm rainfall. The results show that topographically induced convergence and upward motion is one of the most important mechanism that may cause and strengthen storm rainfall. In moist regions, precipitation of storm rainfall caused by topography is much more than in less moist regions.In the humid region. leeward slope is usually dry with little or no rainfall, that is the so called rain shadow. In the semi-humid region with strong stable air passing over niountain. there is a high frenquency of leeward wave storm rainfall. In this srtuation. leeward wave storm rainfall is about eight times of that of windword slope. In the arid region. local gale may occur on leeward slope with little or no rainfall.Local thermal circulation and land-water circulation may cause cyclonic convergence with violent convective motion which can motivate nocturnal storm rainfall in the semi-humid region. In humid region, however. it may cause storm rainfall which is very strong but only lasts a short time.This kind of storm rainfall is dangerous but difficult to predict.In the mountain valleys. the moist warm air flows more paralell to the valley. storm rainfall is more easy to form or become strong. On the contrary. with air flow direction perpendicular to valley direction, the valley will be filled by dry and relatively hot air with no rainfall.
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    A DYNAMIC PRECIPITATION-RUNOFF MODEL FOR A WATERSHED BASED ON GRID DATA
    Shen Xiaodong, Wang Lachun, Xie Shunping
    1995, 50 (3):  264-271.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503009
    Abstract ( 782 )   PDF (271KB) ( 1089 )   Save
    After having studied the precipitation-runoff process affected by the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and the spatial differences of physi-geographic parameters on the earth’s surface, this paper developed a dynamic model based on grid data. The model takes topographic map.soil distribution map. land use map. precipitation. evaporation. seepage and moisture content of soils as inputs. The hydrological grid data base is supported by the Geographic Information System (GIS). XMGIS 2. 0, which is made by the authors. According to the model, necessary analyses of digital topographic model and grid superposition are made, and the grid element assigned grade and flow forms a fully watershed (Fig. 2).When the runoff yield and the inflow of surface and subsurface. taking the grid element as a unit . are respectively calculated. the outflow of a grid element is one of inflows in the corresponding subgrid. All the grid element is continuously calculated in the order of grade , and the flow process in every time interval is finally obtained.
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    THE COMPARATIVE STUDY ON BIOLOGICAL CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT IN PURE KESHAN DISEASE AREAS AND PURE KASCHIN BECK DISEASE AREAS
    Li Ribang, Tan Jian’an, Zhu Wenyu, Yang Linsheng, Hou Shaofan
    1995, 50 (3):  272-278.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503010
    Abstract ( 608 )   PDF (389KB) ( 528 )   Save
    Shenping village in Mouding county, Yunnan province is one of the serious Keshan disease areas, but Kaschin Beck disease has not been prevalent there yet. It is a pure Keshan disease area.Mangkeng village in Yulin county, Shaanxi province is a serious Kaschin Beck disease area to be found recently, and no Keshan disease patient has been found there. It is a pure Kaschin Beck disease area. It is very significant to compare the ecological environment in Keshan disease areas with that in Kaschin Beck disease areas for exploring the elemental difference in ecological environment between Keshan disease areas and Kaschin beck disease areas, finding out the elements related to these two endemic diseases, providing scientific basis for animal model experiment, and breaking throμgh the pathogeny of endemic diseases.The results of the research show that Se in ecological system materials such as soil, food (rice and wheat) and hair in pure Keshan disease areas in Yunnan province and pure Kaschin Beck disease areas in the north of Shaanxi province were lower than those in soil (0. 125μg/g) food (0. 025μg/g)and hair (0. 200μg/g) in non disease areas. It indicated that the ecological environment in these two endemic diseases areas were still in low Selenium status. This was the basic pathogeny of these two endemic diseases. On the other hand, the state of Se deficiency in ecological environment in pure Kaschin Beck disease area was more serious than that in pure Keshan disease areas. Comparing the chemical element in ecological system materials in both two disease areas, it was found that many elements ware significantly different. Among them, As may be a element with pathogenetic significance. As in soil. wheat and hair in pure Keshan disease area in Yunnan province were higher than those in pure Kaschin Beck disease area in the north of Shaanxi province. Because as can act against Se in biochemistry, so high As in human body may control the biological activity of Se and may reduce the pretection of Se for heart muscle, and result in the prevalence of Keshan disease. Therefore.as may be an important complex pathogenetic factor of Keshan disease.
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    THE PHILOSOPHICAL PREDICAMENT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
    Bai Guangrun
    1995, 50 (3):  279-287.  doi: 10.11821/xb199503011
    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (626KB) ( 1169 )   Save
    Immannel kant raised that space can exist without material, thus human knowledge can be classified into history, geography and other sciences corresponding to space and time in phiosophy. Geography is a subject which researches the relations among different things but the universal character.In fact. time and space are both exist in the moving matter, space-time can not be separated frommaterial. The Kantian thought leads to the centrifugation and dispersion in geography and the scientific cognition system can not be set up for geography.Neo-kantiansm considers natural science as the subject to establish regulation and social science as the subject to record and narrate individuality. They have great difference in methodology.This thought is the philosophical basis of dualism in geography. It causes that geography is divided into physical geography and human geography over a long time. The regional school whose representative figures are Alfred Hettner and Richarel Hartshorne. regards geography as the science to narrate individuality. It leads geography to deviate from universal scientific methodology, and take the road of isolationism and execptism. It hinders the development of geography.Logical Positivism advocates unity in scientific methodology. It is of positive significance to the development of geography. But it considers geography as a space science, in this extent, return to the kantianism that ignores the research on the surface material environment. " quantitative revolution" and " theoretical revolution" in geography do not make remarkable achievement because the revolutions are influenced by the above methodology and the methodology for simple system is applied to study the complicated system.In 1960’s, with the outstanding environmental problems, social needs are raising for geography.At the same time. the improvement of methodology on complicated system provides favorable conditions for geography development.Although advanced technological means is very important in the development of geography, the key to the question is to have a correct epistemology and methodology. On the development of modern geography, we have some philosophical thought as the follows.To hold firmly to monism in geography. It does not mean that subjects should be mixed and systematic geography should be negated. It means regarding epigeosphere system as a developing evolution integration. Geography environment is a unitary connective integration which is made up of man and nature. Geography dualism to research on pure nature or pure society is wrong. The view of mechanism that wants to distinguish the proportion of nature or society from the whole system is wrong either, but research from the viewpoint of integrated law is the right way. Geographic environment is a unity composed of time-space and moving matter. The view that only researches on the space from the material environment separates the objective world. Geography study must return to the epigeosphere.Toattach importance to the study of the global environment. This is the basic point of theoratical study in geography just as the significance or atom and molecule in chemistry and physics. Global system is the basic point of geography study. The planetary law and the law of matter cycle and energy transformation on earth surface control and influence the motion and evolution of every part or factor of the epigeosphere.To strengthen the study of classification. Though there is difference in thousands of ways on the epigeosphere it can be differentiated as regional types and environmental types. Exploring the general law of the same type has universal significance for recognizing and building environment and benefits to the construction of geographical theory.To strengthen the study of modelling. It is difficult to find out closed " geographical generally acknowledged" or " geographical law" because of the complicaton and variety of geographical environment. Modelling approaches the practical fact more than rule. Model is the junior general knowldge and is a bridge to theory.
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