Table of Content

    15 January 1995, Volume 50 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Hu Xuwei, Mao Hanying, Lu Dadao, Guo Wenqing
    1995, 50 (1):  1-12.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (638KB) ( )   Save
    In the coming decades around the year of 2000. it will be critical for China′s coastal region to keep a sustainable and an appropriate economic growth rate. According to the authors. the appropriate average annual growth rate in the next ten to fifteen years is expected to be 8%- 9% for the overall national economy, while 9% - 11% for coastal region. Even for the provinces with the highest vitality for economic growth. the annual growth rate ought to be kept under 14%- 10 %.It is essential for China′s coastal region to carry out the restructuring of regional economy closely combined with the development of its outward-oriented economy. that is. to realize the restructuring and upgrading of economic structure together with the internationalization of economy. As for the development of different economic sectors. it is important to sustain the basic role of the primary industry. to enhance the leading function of the secondary industry and to promote the overall development of tertiary industry.The major construction projects of basic industries. including energy. raw materials industry and transportation in the next 10 to 15 years are supposed to be rationally located on the basis of macro planning. central management and control. in order to avoid the problems of over-decentralization and duplicated construction.The urbanization of coastal region will be speeded up in the coming years. and the overall urbanization rate will be increased from 30. 5% in 1990 to 40% in 2000. The on-going agglomeration of population and industries in large cities ought to be brought under strict control. while speeding up the development of middle-sized and small cities around the over-concentrated large cities. Probably metropolitan areas with large cities as cores will take shape in the developed areas in coastal region. such as Yangtze River delta, Pearl River delta. Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region and middle and south Liaoning.Resources shortage, especially the shortage of fresh water resource in the north part of coastal region. land resource shortage in the south part of coastal region and the energy shortage in both north and south part of coastal region. has become a major constraint factor for the sustainable socio-economic development of China′s coastal region. Policies and measures for resource-saving and rational exploitation and utilization of resources are put forward in the paper.The ecological environment of coastal region is getting worse, and such a tendency is mainly reflected in following aspects the more and more serious pollution of urban and rural ecological environment, the gradual sharpening of acid rains, the high occurrence frequency of natural disasters such as flood and storms. seawater erosion in coastal areas. the rise of sea level, the increase of red tides, and so on. Four measures to resolve the problems of ecological environment through carrying out comprehensive management and protection jointly are set forth by the authors.In general, the fundamental approaches to deal with the above-mentioned problems are put forward, that is, on the one hand to let go the market mechanism to guide naturally the regional economic development on the basis of promoting market system. While on the other hand, to enhance the macro planning and control over regional sustainable development on the basis of speeding up the transition of governmen′s functions.
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    Fan Xipeng, Huang Wensen
    1995, 50 (1):  13-24.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501002
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    Fuzhou is located in a structural basin controlled bv neofaults. The basement of it is consisted of Mesozoic granite, and Quarternary sediment which is 30- 60m thick. The NNW torsional and tensioned fault zone which extends throughout the middle part of the basin has rich of geothermal water. It is calculated according to heat balance that the thermal water discharged from the fault zone to the Quaternary system is 251. 6× 10 ̄4m ̄3/a (80- 85℃). At present, part of the thermal water is extracted from the fault zone of granite and the left is extracted from the overlying upper Quaternary aquifer.From early 1960s to early 1990s, in extraction well concentrated area in the Fuzhou geothermal water field, the piezometric level of granite fault zone water has a decline of 15 - 35m, and the piezometric level of Quaternary aquifer has a decline of 10- 20m.Before the geothermal water is extracted at a large scale," water hill" formed along the discharge zone of geothermal water controlled the movement of shallow groundwater in the middle part of Fuzhou basin. With the increase of exploitation intensity, the "water hill" became smaller and smaller. Till late 1980s, the "water hill" was replaced by a developing cone of depression. The change of hydrodynamic field not only indicates that the shallow groundwater is exhausting, but also makes shallow water temperature decline. The monitoring data has shonw that, during 1984- 1991, in the shallow part of the geothermal water field, the decline rate of water temperature is 1.14 - 1. 38℃ /a in the centre of depression cone, and is about 0. 42℃/a at edge of cone of depression.Another problem is the deterioration of water quality in Fuzhou. Because of the longterm exploitation, the geothermal water and the associated normal temperature groundwater have produced a water quality variation. It mainly appears to be the increase of total dissolved solid (TDS). Because different groundwater runoff systems have different geochemical backgrounds, the TDS increasing process is different also.In the northern runoff system, the yearly increase range of TDS is less than 5mg/1, and the increase rate of HCO3 ̄- ion is the same as of TDS, but the contents of Cl ̄- and SO4 ̄2- ions have a decreasing trend. These indicate that, after the cone formed , the intensity of runoff which is from the north to the south is increasing and the carbonate lixiviation is speeded up.In the southern runoff system, the hydrogeochemical characteristic is completely different from that of the northern runoff system. The Quaternary aquifer is semi-enclosed and has a genetic relationship with ocean water. Under the exploitation, the general water quality evolution trend in the southern runoff system is as follows. The contents of CI ̄-、SO4 ̄2-、 and Na ̄+ ion have a continue increase, but the content of HCO3 ̄- ion has an obvious decrease, and the variation of TDS is the same as that of Cl ̄-、SO4 ̄2-、and Na ̄+ ions.Cl ̄-and Na ̄+ ions are dominant in the southern runoff system.Their increase also reflects, under condition of exploitation, the strengthening of runoff-lixiviation process in the ingression influnced paleoalluvium. Except the expense of HCO3 ̄- by nitrity action of ammonia , the HCO3 ̄- ion content in ground water is controlled by partial pressure of CO2 In the semi-enclosed groundwater system, both the decrease of hydraulic pressure and the increase of runoff intensity caused by well exploitation are possible factors to make the partial pressure of CO2 declined and to produce decarbonation action.In the area with well group concentrated according to leveling surveys in 1967 and 1986, the area with ground subsidence values larger than 150mm was about 2. 6km ̄2, and in central area the ground subsidence value was 313-414mm. The ground subsidence volume is closely related to the range of piezometric level decline.The main compressed layers that caused the ground subsidence are marine sludge and muddy soils which are 20- 40m thick. In most part of the geothermal water field, they contact directly with
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    You Lianyuan, Yang Jiwu
    1995, 50 (1):  25-34.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501003
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    This paper deals with the problem on coming water and sediments at the lower reaches of Huang He (Yellow River) by the year of 2050 resulted from environmental change. 3 main aspects of environmental changes are considered in this paper. They are (1)global change (global warming); (2) long-term change of temperature and precipitation and (3) human activities. To study this problem, a set of empirical formulas between precipitation and runoff, and between runoff and sediment discharge are established for calculation after these factors are changed during 70 years. Almost all of coming water and sediments at the lower reaches of Huang He come from the upper and middle reaches of Huang He which have a large area (730 000 km ̄2) and obvious differences in geographical environment, and have different relationships among preciprtation, runoff and sediment discharge. The whole Upper and Middle Huang He region may be distinguished into 9 different semi-regions, for each of them a set of empirical formulas are established. There are 54 empirical formulas in total. The sum of values calculated from 9 semi-regions represents the total coming water and sediments entered into the lower Huang He. These formulas have very good relationships with a correlative efficient of 0. 70-0. 8 or even better.1. Impact of global warming on coming water and sediment Based on the report from IPCC, if green gases concentration in the atmosphere increases with present rate continuously. its content would be twice of the present one by the year of 2050. Consequences would be as follows:(1)Annual temperature rises 1.5-4. 5℃ over that of the present one.The temperature increment of the high latitude zone is more than that of the low latitude one and the increment in winter is higher that in summer. (2) Annual precipitation goes up about 7%-11%compared with the present, but this will happened mainly in the high latitude and the tropical zone.Recent study on the information from China, which is obtained by the model NCAR of US.shows that the temperature of the Huang He basin would rise 4. 6℃ (annual) . and the increment in winter is higher than that of summer. These values correspond with the result of IPCC and are the basis for calculating and predicting conditions of coming water and sediments at the lower reaches of Huang He.Using the mentioned empirical formulas and values, it is easy to get the result of the coming water and sediment at the lower reaches of Huang He. Comparing with the present, they would increase by about 2. 96% and 8. 0% (annual) . and 4. 28% and 3. 14% (flood season) respectively.2. Impact of long-term change on coming water and sediment It is well known that there is periodical change in temperature, precipitation, runoff, drought and waterlogging etc. Doubtless. long-term change is important for predicting information by years of 2050. In the Huang He Basin there is an 130- 150 year changing cycle of drought and waterlogging. At present, it is at the early stage of the next moist period and would go to the flourishing stage by the years of 2050. According to the calculation using the conversion formula. the precipitation of the flood season would increase by 15. 2mm at that time. Similarly, using the mentioned formulas about precipitation-runoff-sediment discharge. it may be calculated that the runoff and sediment discharge of the flood season would increase by 10. 95 ×10 ̄8m ̄3 and 0. 195×X 10 ̄8t respectively.Summing these values and the values in the Tab. 1, it is estimated that the coming water and sediment discharge of the lower reaches of Huang He in the flood season by the years of 2050 would be about 287. 6 ×10 ̄8m ̄3 and 11. 95 ×10 ̄8t respectively. The annual runoff and sediment discharge would be 407 × 10 ̄8m ̄3 and 13. 29 × 10 ̄8t respectively.3. Effects of human activities Effects of human activities include 2 aspects positive one, such as methods of hydraulic and water conservation, negative one. such as unreasonable landuse,destruction of forest. It is very difficult to make a real estimation of runoff and
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    Zhao Jingbo
    1995, 50 (1):  35-40.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501004
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    On the basis of investigation, double layer illuvial horizon under 1st and 4th paleosol layers and multi-layer illuvial horizons under 5th and 8th paleosol layers, which were not previously discovered, have been discovered. The materials obtained show that double layer illuvial horizons and multi-layer illuvial horizons as well as much thick illuvial horizons of CaCO3 were formed in the repeated soil-forming processes or by the leaching after the formation of soils. There is a difference in the shape, distribution, texture and composition between contemporaneous concretions and deuterogenic concretions. The double illuvial horizons of CaCO3 under 1st paleosol do not belong to constitution part, the paleosol was neutral or acid forest soil not having illuvial horizon of CaCO3 in the soil profile. The thick illuvial horizon in the 8th paleosol layer indicates the repeated soil-forming processes and climate changes. In the illuvial horizons of discontinuous CaCO3 concretion, Al2O3 and Fe2O3ocour under the 4th and 5th paleosol layers, and the two paleosols are the acid soils developed under the forests.
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    Zhu Cheng
    1995, 50 (1):  41-50.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501005
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    Since 1930′s, the genesis of the Quaternary sediments in the east piedmont of the Lushan has been argued. J. S. Lee had ever taken the Quaternary sediments from Gutang (poyang Lake shore) at the moraine of the first glaciation──"Poyang Glaciation" . Lithology investigation and the source analysis for the hilltop and the piedmont is an important aspect for revealing Quaternary depositional environment on the Lushan Mountain. According to the lithology identification of 24 thin-sections (the sample selected from the hilltop and piedmont). the author finds that there is not an obvious relationship of erosion, transportation, sedimentation. For instance. on the hilhop and the a slope, there are not red quartzite. yellow metamorphic quarzose sandstone in Gutang, white quartzite, gray gneissoid quartzite in Jiangpochang. gray-yellow quartzite in Dapailin. and lessmetamorphic muscovite quartzose-sandstone. gray-yellow quartz-schist. red quartzite in Jindingshan. Besides, the piedmont sediments have a feature of binary sediment, their gravel has a very well psephicity and weathering ratio. In lithology and sedimentary facies, their features are very similar to the Bashajing Formation of the Poyang Lake. According to his own and other colleagues′testing results of paleomagnetic, the author finds that the reticulate pattern ground of the east piedmont are mainly located in plus polarity zone of Brunhes normal epoch. Combining the analysis of the stratigraphic sequence, he considers that the sediments were formed in the Middle Pleistocene and were mainly transported from the former Gan River.More and more facts have proved that the reticulate pattern ground were formed in the early period of the Middle Pleistocene. At that time. the climate was humid-hot and pluvial. its annual mean air-temperature war 18-28℃. and its precipitation was about 1000-3000 mm.At present, the upper limit of reticulate pattern ground is about 400 m a. s. l. on the piedmont of the Lushan Mountain, but we can see the shift reticulate pattern ground in Dajiaochang, the west valley and the central valley between 1000-1200 m a. s. 1. At this elevation, its present annual mean air-temperature is only 11. 4℃or so.So we can deduce that the shift ground should be formed during the uplifting neotectonic period.The maximum uplift period for the Lushan block shold be in the middle period of the Middle Pleistocene after the formation of the ground, and it shouldn′t be in the early period of the Middle Pleistocene as the former researcher said. The Lushan block has been uplisted about 600- 800 m since the middle period of the Middle Pleistocene.
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    Qian Jinkai
    1995, 50 (1):  51-58.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501006
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    In this paper. many tourist maps which are available presently in the market has been compared. According to the problems found in such comparison. the approaches to improve the quality of tourist mapping in China have been discussed.(1) The concept should be up dated to satisfy new requirements.(2) Following the developing trend of modern sciences, the combination of specialization and integration should be adopted. Tourist mapping studies combine the knowledges from tourism, geography and cartography, and such studies are newly developed.(3) The designer of tourist maps not only should have aesthetic understandings and the ability to express them, but also should combine sciences and arts. The design should be improved according to the knowledges from different disciplines.Based on the experience from the exercises of compiling the ″ Tourist Atlas of Beijing″ and the ″ Tourist map of Beidaihe″, specific methods to improve the quality of tourist mapping were proposed:(1) The contents of the maps should be determined according to the tourist requirements.(2) The Landscapes should be reflected by using geographical methods.(3) Cartographic information communication theory should be used in the designing of the maps.(4) New techniques should be adopted in the compiling and printing of the maps.The above discussed methods will be helpful to the improvement of the quality of tourist mapping.
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    Zhang Weiran
    1995, 50 (1):  59-66.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501007
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    In order to regionalize Chinese historical culture. the rules and methods of comprehensive phisical regionalization can be used as reference, but the dominant indications should be changed. In some countries, the dominant indications of cultural regionazation emphasised language and religion.However, religion affected very little to Chinese people, so it is better to use language (dialect) and Fengsu. In the past, the traditional concept of Fengsu was too large and vague:according to the idea of medern science, it can be divided into several parts. At least there are folk conviction, regional social character, folk customs.On the basis of the distribution of each dominant cultural elements, which are dialect and folk songs, Buddism and folk conviction. folk custom (of getting married, death, festivals,settlement), we could show an integrated cultural regional system in Hunan Province. It consists of 2 cultural regions. R-XZ ( Ⅰ) is in the Xiang and Zi rivers basin R-YL (Ⅱ) is in the Yuan and Li river basin. And R-XZ consists of 3 sub-regions Ⅰ1 is at the mid-lower reaches of Xiang and Zi river, Ⅰ2 is at the upper reaches of Xiangjiang, Ⅰ3 is at the upper reaches of Zijiang. R-YL consists of 2 sub-regions, Ⅱ1 is at the lower reaches of Yuan and Li rivers. Ⅱ2 is at their upper reaches.The elements which formed the regional system were both physical and humanic. The physical background expressed primarily topography. Hunan Province is composed of 4 rivers basins, which are Xiang, Zi, Yuan, Li. The later 2 river basins belong to Yun-gui plateau, while the former 2river basins are a part of the south hill of Changjiang. The contact between regions was very difficult, but the inside communication was convenient.Such a physical foundation affected the humanic elements. which chiefly acted as administrative regions and native groups. Region Ⅰhad been differing from region Ⅱ. since Qin Dynasty on highlevel administrative regions. Also the upper-county administrative regions had been differed among the sub-regions. Secondly, the native groups in the 2 regions had been differing since Shang and Zhou Dynasties. The eastern was similar to that in Jiangxi province. while the western was similar to in Guizhou province. Because of the favourable conditions of lower reaches, the northern sub-regions ( Ⅰ1 and Ⅱ1 ) developed more quickly than the southern sub-regions. Their native became Han nationality earlier; their educational level was higher; and their cultural patterns were more advanced.
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    Zhao Rui
    1995, 50 (1):  67-72.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501008
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    Map, Remote Sensing and GIS are three independent sciences. But there is a close relationship among them. Not only from the view of the development of diciplines, but also from the view of application, people recognize that they must be combined and become an integrated one.The works of the dynamic mapping of the delta area of Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) include the flood damage assessment of the central Tai Hu Lake watershed in 1991 and the investigation on the urbanization and Eco and Tech Development zone of the area in 1992. All the works require expedient and accurate mapping products. The paper begins with the technique flowing charts of two examples, illustrates its key technology, and makes their contents and relationship clear. The deeply understanding of the technology system of the combination of map. RS and GIS can meet the users′ requirements.If you want to design a good integrated system of Map. RS and GIS. you must deal better with their port, use general microcomputer or littlecomputer and their outside supply as hardward base,design a set of relative softwares, implement the input and output of the maps. construct the map base of remote sensing image and the geographic coordinate of GIS. and make the information flow fluent in the integration of them.
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    Zhang Chao
    1995, 50 (1):  83-89.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501009
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    Geography Science is a complicated scientisic system. and the importance of theoretical research of geography science is pointed out in this paper. With the rapid development of the branches of geography, it becomes important to strengthen the comprehensive research, to seek the optimization and sustainable development of the social ecnomy. and to set up a new scientific system──the Science of the Earth Surface. In the theoretical research, the relationship between man and environment should be firstly emphasized. And the regional system of the relationship between man and the earth is the core of the geographical research. and also a long-term task. During the research work.systematic thoughts are needed. As an open. complicated and large-scaled system, the establishment of geographical system is crucial for the theoretical construction of geography. This paper also emphasizes the application of morden methods and new techniques in geography. To solve the problem of the geographical system,″ the metasynthesis from the qualitative to quantitative analysis″,which is presented by Prof. Qian Xue-sen can be adopted. GIS. a key breakthrough in the research method of geography, has also become the powerful technical method for morden geography science. At last, this paper points out that nowadays the population, natural resources, the environment and development are the great global and local problems. Geography and geographers should serve the social practice. satisfy the continuous social demands. develop the geography science itselfsimultaneously.
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    Wu ZhongXing
    1995, 50 (1):  90-93.  doi: 10.11821/xb199501010
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    he changes in the connofation of the modern cartography are discussed in four aspects in this paper: (1) the changes in the conception of cartography, (2) the changes in the research contents of cartography, (3) changes in the relationship between cartography and other disciplines. (4) The development of cartography itself.
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