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    15 November 1994, Volume 49 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    CHINA’ S AGENDA 21 AND GEOGRAPHY
    Zheng Du
    1994, 49 (6):  481-489.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (609KB) ( )   Save
    This century has seen remarkable advances in the development of science and technology, as well as in productive forces. However, aggravations caused by population expansion, excessive consumption of resources and global environmental issues have seriously hampered the development of economic and society and improvements in quality of people’ s life. It is now necessary to find a path for sustainalbe development, wherein considerations of population, resources, environments and development are coordinated as a whole, so that a path for non-threatening sustainable development can be found which will meet current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.The content of China’ s Agenda 21 may be divided into four parts, they are: overall strategy for sustainable development, sustainable social development,sustainable economic development and sustainable ecological development. Geography can play an important role in implementing the blueprint and planning of the China’ s Agenda 21.According to the object and nature of geography as well as its integrative and regional features,geographers may make efforts in the following aspects, such as the man-land relationship coordinating,regional sustainable development, global environmental issues and geographic information technique.To coordinate the man-land relationship is the core of China’ s Agenda 21. Either the strategy and countermeasures,or the theory and methodology of sustainable development are dealt with key issues of corrdinated development and optimized management of the man-land relationship. Geography has a long tradition for studying the man-land relationship. Sustainable development strategy of Agenda 21 opens up a train of thought to the research field.Sustainable development may be studied in time and space at different levels. Agenda 21 is a guiding principle for sustainable development on a global scale-while China’ s Agenda 21 is a strategic outline for sustainable development on a national scale. The earth surface is characterized by obvious regional differentiation, therefore. the study on sustainable development at regional level is the dominant field for geographers,such as to coordinate inter-regional connections,to draw up development planning at different terms,ect.In connection with global environmental issues,such as climate change. ozone depletion,maintenance of biodiversity. desertification and land degradation, etc, a series of conventions the framework convention on climate change, convention on biodiversity, convention for ozone layer protection and convention for combating desertification,were drawn up respectively. The implementation of the Agenda 21 will be a new opportunity for strenthening international cooperation,promoting economic and social development,and prot ecting global environments.Global environmental change and its regional response are dealt with paleogeographic environmental evolution, the impact of global change on critical and fragile zones, and the countermeasures of global change,etc. Social and economic countermeasures relates to land use.readjustment of energy structure,preventive measures in coastal zones,the shifting of natural zones,and rational utilization of natural resources, etc. All the above mentioned issues are needed further research.Developed from combination of computer and space techniques,geographic information system becomes the strong techniques for contemporary geographic sciences. Most program areas of China’s Agenda 21 are relevant to sustainable development information, improvement of monitor network for dynamic monitoring, establishment of information database, and to develop supporting system for management and decision-making.As concerns capacity building for sustainable development, in particularly importance is to develop the high-technologies for geographic information systems-remote sensing,satellite communications, computer networks and their application. Sustainable development relates to abundant information and data ,as well as the interrelationship and
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    DISRIBUTION AND EXCHANGE REGULARITIES OF SPATIAL TRANSPORT LINKAGE
    Zhang Wengchang, Jin Fengjun, Tang Xiufang
    1994, 49 (6):  490-499.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406002
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    In this paper, the distribution and exchange regularities of transport linkage are studied. The results are mainly obtained by means of studying systematically domestic and foreign data which cover nearly half century. Moreover, Several quantitative indexes are used, such as "distribution ratio","Unbalanced coefficient ","concentration degree ", " Primary linkage volume "As results of the experimental research, the spatial distribution of traffic shows followng features: 1. The spatial distribution of traffic is unbalanced,which is closely related to the distributions of population, GDP or GNP. But the distribtuion of passenger traffic is very different from that of freight traffic. ① The spatial concentration of passenger traffic is higher than that of population and GNP. In six coordinated economic regions, for example, the unbalanced coefficients of population (δP.),GNP(δGNP),and passenger traffic(δT) are 8. 69, 9. 98, 10. 56 respectively. Another example is that in Japan,the δPGNP and δT are 5. 54, 6. 68 and 8. 34 respectively. ② The spatial concentration of freight traffic is lower than that of population and GDP. The unbalanced coefficient of freight traffic(δF) of China is 7. 33,the δF of Japan is 3. 2. Both are lower than their δPGNP and δGNP 2. The historical development of traffic distribution has two stages, In the first stage which is characterized by the beginning of industrialization, the spatial distribution of traffic becomes more and more concentrated. However, in the second stage which is characterized by industrialization and postindustrialization .the spatial distribution of traffic becomes more and more balanced. In China. for example, the concentration index of distribution of passenger traffic(IT) changed from 0. 4017(1965) to 0. 4252(1980). Since then the IT decreased,and the value decreased to 0. 4087 in 1988. 3. The spatial distribution of traffic is closely related to the distribution of industries, regional economic scale and structures. The study results show that the correlative coefficient of the distributions between the passenger traffic and GNP is over 0. 80.The exchange regularities have following features. 1. There are three patterns in the interregional linkages of freight and passenger respectively. The patterns of freight transport linkages are interdependent linkage, competitive linkage, and transferred linkage. The patterns of passenger transport linkages are sloe-center linkage, tree linkage, and network linkage. 2. The interregional transport linkage has four major features. ① The intensities of linkage are sharply decreased with the increase of distance. In the interprovincial freight linkage of China,for instance, 90% of the total exchange volume is exchanged bteween those provinces within a distance less than 2000km. Only 1. 0% is exchanged between those provinces which have a distance over 4000km. ②There are central regions in interregional transport linkage Liaoning, Beijing-Taijin-Heibei, Jiangsu-Shanghai,Guangdong, for example, are four central regions of the transport linkage of China. ③Passenger transport linkage is very different from freight transport linkage. The most important differentiation is that passenger transport linkage is balanced in two opposite directions, but freight transport linkage is unbalanced. ④The linkage of a region are concentrated on several regions. The exchange volume with these regions may occupy over 70% of the total exchange volume.
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    THE GLACIER VARIATION,CLIMATIC CHANGE AND THE RIVER VALLEY DEVELOPMENT IN THE HOLOCENE ON THE GONGGA MOUNTAINS
    Zheng Brnxing, Ma Qiuhua
    1994, 49 (6):  500-508.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406003
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    On the Gongga Mountains, the relationship between the glacier variation and the development of the river terrace is very close.In the early Holocene, the climate became warm, and the glaciers gradually retreated. The fourth fluvial terrace was formed(T4) (the lower section) .In the Hypasithermal period of the middle Holocene(7 500-4 000aBP),the glaciers retreated strongly. The middle and upper sections of the fourth terrace were formed (T4)(<7 420 ± 90aBP).In the late Holocene,the climate turned to be cold and the Neoglaciation can be divided into three stages:the pre-Guanjingtai glacier(<3 080± 80aBP) , the Guanjingtai glacier(1 530± 80-2 350 ± 65aBP), and the Hailuogou glacier(840 ± 85-780 ± 90aBP). The three terraces were respectively : T3 : >3 000aBP, T2 : 1 200±70-2 170± 60aBP and T1: 930 ± 70aBP. The earliest Modern Little Ice Age appeared in 400aBP ,and there were three time of climate waving. They occurred in the periods of 1603-1650AD, 1751- 1800AD, 1851-1900AD──the three cold climate periods.
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    SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARLATIONS OF TIDAL FLAT IN THE OUJIANG ESTUARY IN CHINA
    Xie Qinchun, Li Bogen, Xia Xiaoming, Li Yan, Tj.C. E.Van Weering, G.W.Berger
    1994, 49 (6):  509-516.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406004
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    The tidal flat on the southern bank of the Oujing estuary can be divided into 3 morphological facies zones according to the bedforms and sediment distributions: (ⅰ) mixed sand-mud high tidal flat;(ⅱ) sandy middle tidal flat: (ⅲ)muddy low tidal flat. Due to variable behaviours in response to tidal processes ai different sites within the same facies zone, 8 subfacies belts can been distinguished.On the sandy middle tidal flat,surficial sediments are scoured and frequently reworked by rectilinear tidal currents and waves. It is the most active and sensitive facies zone in all of the 3 facies zones. The surface sediment activity is 2. 9-5. 5 cm thick on the daily basis under normal conditions.The bedforms on the surface are also more variable than the other two facies zones. Bumps and puddles, ridges and runnels as well as creeks are present over this facies zone. The disturbed(mixed) layer reaches more than 50cm measured by Pb210. However,the muddy low tidal flat is a steady accumulation zone with an advncing rate of 10m/a toward the sea. The deposition rate is 0. 31-2. 97cm/a which is the largest in all of the 3 facies zones.The morphological and sedimentary features in the facies zones change obviously with space and time. Freshwater and sediment discharges from the Oujiang River play important roles in the morphological evolution of the tidal flats at the southern bank of the Oujiang River. The river influence on tidal flat decreases with the increasing distance from the Oujiang River mouth ,and disappears in the area to the south of transect Ⅲ. The mixed sand-mud tidal flat changes into the muddy tidal flat going from the north part to the south part in the study area. By comparing the data sets taken during two investigations (Dec. 1990 and May 1991 ), the facies zones are shown to move landward and the surficial sediments in the middle tidal flat became coarser from December 1 990 to may, 1991. It means that the tidal current was enhanced on the tidal flat in winter. In addition, storm events and human impacts contribute significantly to the tidal flat development.
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    THE MAIN TECHNICAL CHRACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER MAPPING SYSTEM FOR THE NATIONAL ECONOMIC ATLAS OF CHINA(NEAC)
    Liang Qizhang, Liu Yue, Zhou Yingming
    1994, 49 (6):  517-525.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406005
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    The National Economic Atlas of China been published both in Chinese and English versions.It is chiefly compiled by the institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences,the National Economic Information Centre and the Institute of Statistic Science under the leadship of the National Planning Committee,the National Statistic Bureau and Chinese Academy of Sciences. During the compilation of the atlas,an Intergrated Cartographic System(ICS)for map design and plate making has been established.This paper introduced the main technical characteristics of ICS.1.Design Destination of ICS :The System can not only meet the need of compiling the National Economic Atlas of China,but also meet the needs of some other future tasks. It should be estalished to be a multi-function computer assisted mapping system under a limited financial support.(1).An intergrated graphic processing enviroment.It can meet the needs of input,edit and storage of maps and various data,output of excellent maps or screen films which can be used to produce printed maps of high quality.(2).Powerful software resouses. It can process both all spatial and non-spatial data and can store and manage data in a unified way.It can also design maps,analyze data and output screen films which meet the needs for printing.(3).Enough storage space for building up cartographic database of the whole country and data processing.2.The System’s Configuration and its functions:In the present IGS,the mini-computer and PC-computers are connected into a unified system,and it has many devices for input and output,including abundant software resouses such as :Operating System,Programming Languages,ARC/INFO,PC ARC/INFO,SECS(Statistic Cartography Expert System),EAS(Electronic Atlas System),MAPIS(Vecterization by scan)and MCAD(Map color automatically design).3. Cartographic Database Including following cartographic data:(1).Point data. For exmple,the data of large and middle size enterprises are point data because they are counted by single enterprise as basic statistic uint.They have definite location and administrative ownership.Their spatial distribution reflects the layout,scale,type,product and equipment of the key enterprises in our contry. (2).Linear data. For example,communication and transportation data,such as road segment and hubs of communication are taken as basic statistic uints. They form the communication network of our country.(3).Area data. For example,statistic data in county(city)uint.They include industry,agriculture,population,education,hygiene and etc. They occuppy a maximum propotion in the atlas.4.The Procedure of data processing and mapping The general procedure in compiling statistic maps at the country(city)level has shown that because the cartography units are over 2300,the internal difference among cartographic indexes is large,and the frequency distribution changes greatly.It is very difficult to select the representation method and the classification method,to determine classifications,to select map symbol and to determine symbol size. It is necessary to output paper map for checking and repeat work can not be avoidable in the whole process. A statistic mapping software system has been developed to accomplish the mapping procedure quickly and improve the map design effectively.the main function of this software system is brieflv listed as follows:(1).Application of statistic analysis method.It can not only caloulate the mean,absolute value,median,standard deviation,deviation,percentage,frequency and display the histogram. but also provide the function such as histogram edit on screen, changing the histogram at a different scale horizontally or vertically,automationlly determining the calssification and evaluating the accuracy of the calssification.(2).Overlay processing,displacement and zoom. It is widely used in compiling the statistic symbol maps. The overlay processing includes the overlay processing of circular symbols and rectangular symbols. Because of these functions,the map quality is improved largely.(3).Software for color design and plate making.
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    ANALYTIC MODELS FOR WARMEST SLOPE CALCULATED ACCORDING TO THE DAILY SOLAR RADIATION AND ITS GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION
    Yu Qiang, Fu Baopu, Peng Naizhi, Chen Ming
    1994, 49 (6):  526-532.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406006
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    The analytic models of warmest slope(WS) facing south or north calculated according to the solar radiation received during any given day are proposed in this study. North hemisphere is taken as an example.1. In the half year of winter,WS exists for south slope,and increases with latitude.2. In the half year of summer, there are two threshold latitudes: ψ01(≤43. 3°N)and ψ02(≥63. 5°N): when ψ>ψ01, WS exists for south slope,when ψ<ψ01orψ>ψ02,WS exists for north slope.3. The daily solar radiation on the slope with WS decreases with the latitude in the half year of winter. In the half year of summer ,it increases with latitude on the north slope when ψ<ψ01. It is equal to the value of horizontal surface at ψ01 on south slope when ψ>ψ01.
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    NEW PROGRESS IN CHINA’S URBAN GEOGRAPHY
    Yan Xiaopei
    1994, 49 (6):  533-542.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406007
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    This paper focuses on the systematic and overall literature review on China’s urban geography in rrecent years,especially paying attetion to the progress in new themes and the generalization of the major arguments.The main themes involved in the paper are:1.Urbanization─its process and dynamics,occupation transfer of surplus rural labour force,and migration.The five periods of Chinese urbanization were generally identified:early industrialization in 1949-1957,rapid urbanization resulted from the industrialization in 1959-60,the first anti- urbanization accompanying with the industrial restructuring in 1961-1965,the second anti-urbanization following a stand still of economic system in 1978.The main forces stimulating Chinese urbanization or population concentration are concluded as:(1)construction of new cities and renewl of old ones invested by the state;(2)development of rural industries invested by the collectives and individuals in rural areas. thus Chinese urbanization could be considered to be a dual urbanization. The occupation transfer of surplus rural labour force is one of the interesting research topics in the academic circles.The dominant channel of occupation transfer has been identifed as the surplus rural labour force being engaged in non-agricultural activities on the spot,so that the development of Chinese urbanization has a model of rural industrial towns’ which has been called’ rural urbanization’.Since the late 1970s, rural people have migrated to urban places at a much higher rate than before and have showed a tendency of increasingly moving into cities。 The general direction of population movement has changed from the relatively sparsely-populated areas in the west and north to the densely-populated southeastern provinces. And the previous planning-dominated migration has been gradually replaced by the spontaneous movement,which has resulted in an increasing floating population in cities. 2. the debate on urban development policy. For a long time,China has adopted a policy of controlling big cities and developing small cities and towns’But the policy has had increasingly severe conflict with the economic growth during the introdcucution of market- oriented economy.Therefore a debate about the roads for Chinese urbanization occurred.Three roads,which are developing small sities and towns,developing big cities,and developing medium-sized cities,have been argued.The ar guments led to the studies on small cities and towns,and big cities。 Although the national policy put the emphasis on controlling big cities,Chinese big cities have still been expanded and increased at an irresistible rate.In 1990 the government put forward a more strict policy of controlling big cities. Some scholars doubted if the new policy can guide urban construction effectively. 3. Type of urban system and change of city- size distribution,spatial distribution,function structure,regional urban systems and urban clusters.Many studies indicated that the city-size distribution of Chinese cities were characterized by rank-size.Urban primacy showed a tendency of decline and the rank-size curve was levelling and smoothing. Generally speaking,Chinese cities are mainly located in the east,clustering in the major plain deltaes and along the transport arteries.The city density gradually declines from the east to the west.The study on the function structure is in its infancy,concentrating on the classification of basic function types of cities,the system of function alignment,and the spatial alignment types of urban functions. Following the studies of the national system,the regional and provincial urban systems have been paid more attention to and have been closely combined with the regional and territorial plannings.Furthermore,urban geographers have turned their attention to the urban clusters or megalopolises in chian, analysing their formation and evolution stages,types,characteristics,devlopment models,etc.4.Urban internal spatial structure- morphology evolution,function zoning,commercial location,CBD,social spatial stru
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    THE PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE ANCIENT YELLOW RIVER DELTA OF XIHAN DYNASTY
    Li Yuanfang
    1994, 49 (6):  543-550.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406008
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    According to the analysis of historical documents, geomorphologic and quaternary investigation,satellite photograph,this paper studies the location,extent and sedimentary characteristics of the estuary of the Yellow River delta during the Xihan Dynasty。The track of the Yellow River along the "Hanzhi" river appeared during the 40’s of the 4th century Before Christ.It flowed through Mengcun,Gaozhai,Jiucheng,then entered the Bohai Bay at the east of Yangerzhuang.As a result of silts deposition and canal swinging,the region of the Yellow River estuary was extended,and a delta with a summit at Mengcun was formed,The boundary of the Ancient Yellow River delta of Xihan Dynasty are from the vicinity of Nandagang at the north,to Fujiazhuang and Liuhongbo at the east,and to Xuanhuihe and Mingbawa at the south.The sedimentary characteristics of the Ancient Yellow River delta of Xihan Dynasty are similar to those of the modern one. There were about 2.7 million tons of silts transported annually into the region during Xihan Dynasty.
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    CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT AND COMPREHESIVE REGIONALIZATION IN THE COASTAL ZONE IN ZHEIJIANG PROVINCE
    Li Jiafan
    1994, 49 (6):  551-560.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406009
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    The coastline in Zhejiang Province is 1840km long. The area of its costal zone amounts to 3. 97×104km2, with a favourable environment,abundant natural resources. Theis provides important conditione for economic development of Zheijiang coastal areas.In this papre ,the formation of the natural environment in the Zhejiang coastal zone is systematically studied according to the information from many year’ s investigation. The resuts show that the formation of the natural environment in the Zhejiang coastal zone depends on the conditions of continent, sea domain and climatic systems. The continental structure is a primary factor, which determines the basic morphological outline in the Zhejiang coastal zone and forms rocky bays and coasts.As a resutl ,the evolution in present coastal morphology has a distinctly historical heritability. Nowadays the sealevel is relatively stable and muds and sands are abundant ,so estuaries and bays are continuously filled. This results in the development of coastal aggradation and beach plains. Because the estuaries and coastline move towards the sea ,a lot of land and prot resources are formed. The offshore areas occurred in not only the interflows between cold and warm watermasses but also the influxes of fresh waters from large rivers. This kind of water favours the growth of plankton on which fish feed , therefore some fisheries exist in the coastal areas (i. e. Zhou-shan fishery). This paperpoints out that the upwelling plays and important "transportion" and "driving" function. Zhejiang Province is located in the subtropical zone and lies to the west of the Pacific Ocean and East of Eurasia. Thermodvnamic differences between sea and continent can constitute obvious monsoon circulation. The warm and wet climatic systems were formed in coastal zone. This condition is favourable to the development on cropping and grazing land. The advantageous factors mentioned above also constitute the excellent natural environment in the Zhejiang coastal zone.The author combines the environmental factors of geology, morphology geography, meteorology, biology, vegetation and soil and divides Zhejiang coastal zone into three natural regions which can be subdivided into ten coastal sections. The incorporation between physical geography and social ecnomics is also studied in this paper.
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    ASSESSMENT OF THE CONCEPTUAL MATRIX MODEL:A SYSTEMATIC MODEL FOR RESEARCH ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF TOURISM
    Wang Jiajun
    1994, 49 (6):  561-566.  doi: 10.11821/xb199406010
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    Based on the six concepts which are demand, Supply, linkage, purpose. structure and location.L. Mitchell established a three-by-three conceptual matrix to serve as a systematic model for the research on the geography of tourism.The author explained the model in details, and pointed out that the model reveals the fundamental characteristics of the tourism industry. A sector of the economy(demand, supply. linkage), covers the main research aspects (purpose, structure, location) and indicates their interrelated ideas and interactional relationships. So the framework is logical and flexible enough to be used as a device for the formulation of research considerations and the focusing of research efforts.Based on the model the author developed a concrete research system in the geography of tourism by filling the primary relevant concerns in each cell and indicated the research directions and emphases by rows and columns. Meanwhile. the author emphasized that geographers of tourism should broaden their scope and be familiar with more fields related to tourism since the tourism science is a complex embracing various integrated disciplines. But the research efforts should lay on the aspects which are different from others.Finally, an example of practical use was given. It is assumed that managers who are responsible for the successful operation of a tourism complex must firstly consider the supply of tourism goods and the place of supply, and them the demand, the place of demand and the linkages. A series of considerations about supply. demand and linkage were stated with regard to purpose, structure and location in order to confirm that the model can provide a valuable mode of thinking to solve problems which are encountered during the tourist development.
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