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    15 March 1994, Volume 49 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    VULNERABILITY ASSESMENT OF COASTAL PLAIN WEST OF BOHAI SEA, NORTH CHINA,TO SEA LEVEL RISE
    Han Mukang, Noubo Mimura, Yasushi Hosokawa, Satoshi Machida, Kazuhito Yamada, Wu Lum, Li Jing
    1994, 49 (2):  107-116.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (383KB) ( )   Save
    This paper deals in a quantitative way with the vulnerability assesment of the coastal plain west of Bohai Sea to sea level rise. The study area is covered by the Tianjin imigery sheet (Plate I). It includes mainly the Tianjin coastal plain, which makes up the most part of the Tianjin municipality, and part of the coastal plain in Hebei and Shandong provinces.The assesement is carried out according to the common methodology and guidelines developed by IPCC Coastal Zone Management Subgroup and mainly by using landsat imagery and geographical information system (GIS) The emphasis of the present research is put on compilation of an environmental-topographic map (Plate I). This kind of map is most useful for a low-lying coastal plain like the study area, because most of its landform have been intensely modified for a long time by human economic activities and the area has been developed for different types of land uses for the agricultural, acquacultural and industrial purposes. The conventional geomorphological and Quaternary maps are not enough to meet the requirements for the vulnerability assesment. They can only remain as supple mentary maps.The environmental-topographic map contains various landuse types and the information on coastal dynamics (erosion and deposition)identified by processing the recent Landsat TM data and by necessary field checking. It also involves contour lines with an interval of lm and sometimes the main trafic arteries. The function of this kind of map includes : 1. It can show the land area and the area of different landuse types not only in general. but also for the zones between the contour lines with 1m interval which can be used to estimate the area that will be lost (inundated or flooded) if is not protected by dykes during future sea level rise (Table 1). For example. the total area to be lost during 1 meter sea levei rise in the study area will amount to 11 821 km2. In case where the elevation boundry of the presumed sea level rise is not a round number it can be delineated on the map by computer-aided interpolation (Fig. 2).2. It can show the economic impact of sea level rise at different elevation in the study area by compiling a special kind of diagram based on the data from the map in case this area is not protected (Fig. 3) 3. If the study area is protected by newly built dykes. this inap can help to predict the adverse environmental impact behind the dykes, for example, to delineate the area of those landuse types such as puddy. irragated land, fresh water reservoir on the plain, which will be easily affected by salt water inland intrusion along coastal rivers or acquifers. Besides. it is necessary to delineate the city/town area where the foundations of infrastructures, industrial facilities and buildings will be decayed by the intruded salt water as well. For this purpose, some kinds of additional map at the same or smaller scales can be compiled to compare with or to overlay the environmental-topographic map to avoid the overload of the later. For example, the map of land subsidence caused by tectonic movements and especially by groundwater overpumping (Fig. 4) is a very important supplementary one. This map, while overlaid with the environmental-topographic map. can demonstrate the areas where the abovementioned adverse environmental impact is most likely to occur (Plate Ⅱ. Photo 1 and 2) . Furthermore, this map also can show the rate of regional relative land subsidence,which is actually the relative sea level rise on the background of global sea level rise. This is more essential than knowing only the rate of global sea level rise in the vulnerability assesment of coastal low-lying plain and in prediction of environmental impact of sea level rise. For example. on the Tianjin coastal plain the land settlement caused by exceeded groundwater extraction since 1950s has produced three"subsidence bowls"in the Tianjin downtown area, the harbor town Tanggu and the coastal industrial town Hangu with an average subsidence rate more than 50mm/a in the period 1983-1988. As a res 
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    A RESEARCH ON URBAN RECREATIONIST’S TRAVELING BEHAVIOUR IN SHANGHAI
    Wu Bihu
    1994, 49 (2):  117-127.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (565KB) ( )   Save
    Recreationists consist of those who have used urban recreational facilities, no matter local residents or not.Traveling Models will bring impacts not only on the use of urban recreational facilities but also on the development and management of recreational resources. Taking Shanghai as a sample of destination and origin of urban recreationists, the author did his study based on a lot of data from comprehensive travel measurement and users’ survey, which includes field questinaire survey, mailing questionnaire survey, home survey, and cordon monitoring. To analyze the traveling models of urban recreationists in Shanghai,the author used techniques of the RAS (Recreational Activity Space)and the UC (Use Curve) Analysis. Regarding Shanghai as an origin, the author first discussed types and natures of the RASs which are presented by isotourist lines in the proper and outskirts of Shanghai, the Yangtze delta and the mainland China respectively. These RASs reflect the travel directional bias of Shanghainese. Then the author regarded Shanghai as a destination and analyzed the RASs of tourists from other provinces,which demonstractes the attractiveness of and distance decay to Shanghai.The UC technique describes number changes of recreational facility users (or recreational opportunities) with a spatial or chronical element.These curves may express spatial distance decays and chronical rhythms of urban recreationists. The author found that a U-shaped model existed in the distance decay under the influences of attractivenesses and distances.In a chronical use curve, the daily models are impacted mainly by life-rhythm and the monthly models by seasons. Finally.the auther suggested. distance, emissiveness, attractiveness and availability are the basic mechanisms which affect the urban recreationists’, traveling models in a city, such as Shanghai. 
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    A LINEAR MODEL WITH ITS DUAL OF SPATIAL ALLOCATION FOR SOME SPECIFIED INDUSTRIES
    Liang Jinshe
    1994, 49 (2):  128-138.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (303KB) ( )   Save
    Locational researchers are interested in not only the principles of location choice for an individual firm, but also the spatial allocation of an industry. This paper attends to study the production allocation in space for such industries as iron and steel, nonferrous metal, and organic synthesis etc, in each of which firms are quite big in scale, but the total number of them is small, thereby locational choice for each of them has a quite great effect on the others. Otherwise, the demands of these industries distribute unequally in space. For this kind of industries the analytical methods used by Weber and Losch appear to be invalid because their presumptions do not exist here. Weber’s theory needs to be given the material and product sale sites for each one, therefore it does not consider the spatial competition in the same industry. Losch’s theory ignores the unequality of resource and product demand distribution in space. The author of this paper proposed a linear model with its dual for explaining the spatial allocation of this kind of industries.First, the author assumes that there are many production sites available for an industry which has given materials supply and markets. Also he makes capacity bhi and unit cost fhi of material h in its site i as well as demand amount qj; of the product in its sale place j presumptively. Simultaneously there are some exogenous variables such as unit product processing cost c1; of production site i, transport cost rate thij; of material h from its site i to production site j,transport cost rate tij of the product from production site i to its sale place j. Then the spatial allocation of the industry can be reduced to a linear programming problem as follow: Where rh =technique coefficient related to material h;xij=transport amounts of material h from its site i;to production site j;yi =output of the product in production site i;zij=transport amounts of the product from production site i to sale place j.The model is to minimize the total cost including the production and transport both for material and product under the capacity of every material site and the demand quantites of every market. Its solution is composed of the output from every material and product site, as well as transport amounts from material sites to product processing sites, and then to the markets. Based upon spatial price equilibrium the author sets up the dual model of the linear programming. Its objective function is to maximize the industrial economic income obtained from the production and transport of materials and products: Its constraints are as follows:<1> The difference between the product shadow prices in a market and production site is not in excess of the transport cost rate conneected the two places:pj-ωi≤tij <2> The difference between the product shadow prices and its material cost is not in excess of its production cost per unit at every producing site: <3> The difference between shadow price of a material at production site and the economic rent at its site is not in excess of the sum of its unit cost added transport cost rate connected the two places: where pj= shadow price of the product at sale place j wi=shadow price of the product at production place i vjh=shadow price of material h at product processing site j uih=shadow price or economic rent of material h at its site i From solving the dual model, what can be got are the shadow prices of the materials and product at respective places. Thus, the solutions of the primary and its dual model give out the industrial distribution in space with the minimum-total-cost and shadow prices of the materials and product at respective locations.Afterwards, the author seeks the relationships between solutions of the two models from spatial price equilibrium, and gets following results: <1> The product is transported to a sale place from a production site only when the difference of the shadow prices offsets the transport cost rate between the two places:(pj-ωi-tij)zij = 0<2> The product is produced only when the shadow price blances its per unit cos 
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    A PRELIMINARY APPROACH TO THE REGIONALIZATION OF THE MARINE COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC REGION (MCER) IN LIAONING
    Zhang Yaoguang
    1994, 49 (2):  139-148.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (566KB) ( )   Save
    China is a country with vast seas. Along with the exploiting of marine resources and the developing of marine economy, marine economic regions are being formed in China. According to the main ideas, the regionalization principles and the index systems of the division of MCER in Liaoning, one of the coastal provinces in China, for the following two MCER at the first level and four MCER at the second level can be defined: Ⅰ Marine comperhensive economic region of the northern YellowSea.Ⅰ-1 Dalian marine economic region of the southern Liaoning peninsula.Ⅰ-2 Dandong marine economic region of the northeast of Yellow Sea.Ⅱ Marine comprehension economic region of the Bohai Sea Liaodong Gulf.Ⅱ-1 Yinkou Panjin marine economic region of the northeast of the northeast of the Liaodong Gulf.Ⅱ-2 Jinzhou jinxi marine economic region of the southwest of the Liaodong Gulf. 
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    THE EROSION PROCESS OF OPEN MUD BEACH AND ITS PROTECTION ALONG THE COAST OF NORTHERN JIANGSU
    Yu Zhiying, Zhang Yong, Jin Liu
    1994, 49 (2):  149-157.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (362KB) ( )   Save
    A quantitative understanding of the pattern of coastal change is an essential prerequistite for the reasonable design of coastal engineering projects. Such an understanding is of course based on the correct recognition of physical background of the coast. Mud beach has its unique morphological feature and changing pattern, which differs from sandy coast. This paper, taking the mud beach as a studying object and putting emphasis on the dynamical background and changing pattern of the present coastal process, establishes a development model of coast erosion under natural conditions and engineering conditions and shows the theoretical maximum erosion profile. This model is proved by practical erosion profile in the Northern Jiangsu coast. The achievement of this study provides a scientific basis for the engineering protection of erosive mud beach and gives an example for establishing the theory of equilibrium profile in mud beach. 
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    EFFECTS OF THE WATER CONSERVANCY PROJECTS IN THE LUANHE RIVER BASIN ON LUANHE RIVER DELTA,HEBEI PROVINCE
    Qian Chunlin
    1994, 49 (2):  158-166.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (353KB) ( )   Save
    According to field investigation and various collected information and data. I systematically analysed a series of delta environmental variations in the Luanhe River Delta after the water conservancy projects were built in the Luanhe River Basin. Since 1980, great changes of the river hydrology have taken place at the lower reaches of the Luanhe River. The runoff, sediment yield and water discharge decreased obviousiy. They caused delta environmental variations, such as coastal erosion, decline of ground water table, salty water intrusion, soil salinization, river bed erosion, deposition in the river courses in the estuary, and so on. I also tried to predict the evolution of the delta environment and put forward some proposals to control the environmental variations in the Luanhe River Delta. 
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    CHARACTERISTICS OF ON THE DISTRIBUTIVE PATTERN OF PROFILES AND TURBULENT FLUX TRANSFER IN THE WINDBREAK NETWORK AREA
    Liu Shuhua, Zhang Aichen, Zhu Tingyao, Kong Fanzhi
    1994, 49 (2):  167-173.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (394KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, using the data of the profiles and atmospheric turbulence and analyzed characteristics of on the distributive pattern of wind speed,temperautre,vapor pressureprofiles and turbulent flux transfer. The data are collected below and above the canopy of the forest in the windbreak network area. The average height of the trees is 9m A 20m gradient observation tower and a tethersonder are used for measuring the profiles,and two set of the atmospheric turbulence instrument are installed at the heights of 4m and 20m in the windbreak network. As the contrast,a same set of the instruments in also installed in the grassland. A 11m gradient observation tower and a tethersonder are used for measuring the profiles,and a set of the atmospheric turbulence instruments is installed at the height of 11m in the grassland. The results show that(1) The thickness of the internal boundary layer is about 8 10 times as much as the tree height.(2)The effects of windbreak network on decreasing wind speed and increasing temperature and humidity are obvious in the windbreak network area.(3)The result is 6 8 per cent less than the values of σ_u/u, σ_v/u and σ_ω/u Given by Panofsky and Dutton(1984) for flat terrain area. (4)The flux profile relationship coule not be applied to the windbreak area,because the assumption of constant flux in the surface layer is not suitalbe for this area. (5)The influenced layer could be divided into two layer: the layer which in about the tree’s top and has with dense leaver; and the layer of the internal boundary layer with its thickness about 100m. (6)The sensible heat flux is obvious greater in the windbreak network region than in the grassland under the same conditions stability. 
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    TREE-RING CHRONOLOGIES FOR PINUS ARMANDI FRANCH FROM HUASHAN, CHINA
    Shao Xuemei, Wu Xiangding
    1994, 49 (2):  174-181.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (482KB) ( )   Save
    The Huashan peaks at the eastern extreme of the Qinling Mountains are located in semi-humid area in China. Well replicated tree-ring increment cores were sampled for Pinus armandi Fanch from the Huashan peaks in 1990. Since most of trees sampled grow in stands where there is competition for sunlight, water,and mutrients and Huashan peaks have been a scenic spot, effects of competitation and release from competition with neighboring trees and human disturbances may exist in ring width variations.In order to minimize these non-climatic disturbances from treering data,other two ring-width chronologies called autoregressive standard chronology (ARS)and redisual chronology (RES) have been developed besides the general standard chronology (STD) .Comparison of chronology statistics among these three chronologies indicats that their phasesand amplitudes of high-frequency variation are quite similar, while the amplitudes of low-frequency variation are different. With the highest first-order autocorrelation coefficient and the lowest mean sensitivity among these three chronologies, STD containsmore low-frequency fluctuations.By contrast with STD,RES reflects the high-frequency variations. Common inteval analysis on de-trended series and residual series for AD 1676-1989 (l7 trees 25 radii) implies RES contains more climatic signal than STD does. Correlation analysis between chronologies and May and June precipitaion observed on Huashan Meteorological station also indicates that RES can represent the climatic variations better than STD does.In conclusion,the residual chronology contaions more information on climte change thah the original standard chronology. Thus, for semi-humid area where there is competition developing new chronologies would benefit dendroclimatic study in China. 
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    THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE WARMING AND HUMAN TURBULENCE ON THE PERMAFROST IN THE NORTHWARD SLOPE OF MT. DA HINGGAN LING TAKE A SAMPLE FROM AMUR AREA
    Gu Zhongwei
    1994, 49 (2):  182-187.  doi: 10.11821/xb199402010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (328KB) ( )   Save
    The Mt. Dahinggan Ling is the high-latitude large permafrost distribution area in China. The permafrost in the region shows an apparent tendency of degeneration. In Amur area, the permafrost also presents an obvious degeneration trend during 1978-1991. (1)The seasonally thawing depth has deepened more than 30cm. The ground temperature at the depth of 20cm has gone up 0. 8℃. (2)The mean annual ground temperature has increased 2. 1-0. 7℃. The thickness of permafrost has reduced 17-52m.(3)The area of talik is expanding. In the I and Ⅱ level terraces and the sunny slope terrains, the high temperature makes the thin permafrost get into ablation gradually and finally leads to talik. The permafrost boundary in Amur North Gully declined about 80m towards the bottom of Gully.The reasons for the change of permafrost are summed up as follows:(l)Climate warming.The mean annual air temperature of the last 30 years has increased about l.6℃. It is a major contributor to regional degeneration of permafrost in the Mt. Dahinggan Ling region. Climate warming can also lead to a rise in the amount of snowfall in winter and a ground surface temperature increase. The increase of the thickness of snowcover would also contribute to the degeneration of permafrost. (2)Influence of the increasingly intense human activity. The increasingly intense human activity has led to severe damages to the vegetation and increase of permafrost ground temperature. It is a major contributor to the local dengeneration of permafrost. 
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