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Table of Content

    15 April 1990, Volume 45 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    DEVELOPMENT OF GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCE IN THE LAST DECADE
    Ren Meie
    1990, 45 (2):  132-138.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (515KB) ( )   Save
    The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of geographical science iit China. In ad-dition to the traditional disciplines, many new and interdiscoplinary research fields have eme-rged and been established, such as population, resources, environment, regional planning and territorial management, and natural hazard. Mean-while, the rapid progress of many branches of human geography has facilitated a more balanced development of geographical science in China. Morever, the application of new techniques, such as remote sensing, information system, long-term geographical stations has also achieved encouraging results. These notable developments have added new dimensions to geography and enhanced its academic status and practical signi-ficance in the country. Other major achieoements include effect of uplifet of the Tibetan Plateau on the environ-ment, new evidences on the quarternary glaciation in East China, urban geography and urban planning and compilation and publication of Historical Atlas of China (in 8 volunes). This paper shoued not be regarded as exhaustive because a short review evidently can't co-ver all branches and disciplines in geography which have also made significant progress during the last decade.
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    THE DISTRIBUTION, REGIONALIZATION AND PROSPECT OF CHINA'S POPULATION
    Hu Huanyong
    1990, 45 (2):  139-145.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (467KB) ( )   Save
    The terrain of China is low in the east and high in the west, the First Platform in the east is humid low plains and hills, the Second Platform in the central and northwestern part of the cowntry is arid and semi-arid climate, and the Third Platform is highest Plateau of the Qinghai-Xizang, with frigid climate. A Dernarcation Line begins from Heihe of Heilongjiang Province in northeast to Tengchong of Yunnan Province in the southwest. In the northwesterw side of the line there is a population of only 4% of the country's total, while in the southeastern side of the line there is a population of 96% of the total. The author divides the country into eight major Demographic Regions. The general pattern of population distribution of the whole coutry would not change too much in the future years.
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    AGRICULTURAL GEOGRAPHY AND LAND UTILIZATION
    Zhaw Lisan, She Zhixiang
    1990, 45 (2):  146-153.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (602KB) ( )   Save
    For the past 10 years, besides having made public quite many works dealing with regional agricultural geography and going on with agricultural resources survey and agricultwral region-alization, much has been done in an even more extensive scope including researches on land re-sources and land utilization and crop distribution. Among furthermore studies are the strategy of agricultural development and other relevant topics. 1. Compilation of the regional geographical series, a total of 22 monographs including the general volume and the separate volwme were published one after another. This series of works reflects systematically what has been achieved in the studies of agro-geography in this country. 2. Agricultural regionalization is one of research topics in the geographical sciences, more personnel have been sent successively into the giant task from nearly all of the geographical in-stitutions and the geographical departments in to the universities across the country and more pro-fessional papers and reports. More related professional papers pertinent to theories and methods in regionalization have come out in the geographical periodicals under the sponsorship of va-rious institutions. 3. Studies on the strategy of agricultural development. Quite a number of papers on agri-cultural development strategy have come out in the geographical journals. 4. Studies on the allocation of agricultural production. Geographers have played outstand-ing role for the government department in formulating long range planning and regulating argricultural production infrastructure. 5. Studies on land utilization. Summarized into the following three aspects: the drawing of 1:1 000 000 land utilization map; studies 0n the development, utilization and protection of land resources; studies on land resources and utilization in mountainous area.
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    LAND RESOURCES OF CHINA
    Zhao Qiguo
    1990, 45 (2):  154-162.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (616KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the quantity, quality and the utilization of land resources are discussed in detail through the comparison between those of China and the world. China has a land area con-stituting 6.5% of the total land area of the world, of which the land used for agriculture, forestry and pasture is 10.4%, 12% and 33% respectively; the waste land that can be reclaimed for farm-ing is only 13.33 million hectares. With the increasing population, the pressure on the land resou-rces for food increase is increased. At present, China is the country of which the land area per capita is the smallest and the population supporting capacity of land is the largest; in addition, there are the problems of land degradation, erosion, desertification, salinization, alkalization, sw-amping and gleization pf soils and occupation of arable land for nonagricultural use. Therefore, in order to reasonably exploit and use the land resources in China, it is necessary to comprehensi-vely ccnsider land, biological and environmental conditions and adopt intensive management of land, raise crop yield per unit area, protect arable land as well as adopt proper measures in ac-cordance with local conditions. Finally, for further indicating the characteristics of land resou- rces in China, 8 land use regions have been divided and the general aspects of each region are illustrated.
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    RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF URBAN GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA
    Shen Daoqi
    1990, 45 (2):  163-171.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (638KB) ( )   Save
    In modern history, the proud period in the study of urban geography in China began at the mid-seventies, and reached its peak at the eightieth. In China, there are over 380 cities, and over 9000 towns under the jurisdiction of country (excluding Taiwan Province) which have provided a vast domain for the study of urban gea-gnaphy. The study of urban geography has gained vitality by integrating itself closely with rational construction and with administrative departments and other disciplines. Now, the to-pic of urban geography has been known as the most active sphere in the human and economic geographical circles. Since mid-seventies the research projects of Urban Geography contains: 1) Urban System, 2) Urbanization, 3) Researches an the Structures of Urban Area, 4) Lange and Small Cities (Towns), 5) Quntitative Method etc. Urban planning its providing a broad and practical basis for the further advances in the study of urban geography, Geographers have to not only draw up the Master planning in coope-ration with urban planners, but also provide theoretical method. and scientific basis for this purpose in accordance with the following as pect in order to make the traditional planning have additionally new methods and contents: 1) Urban region researches, 2) Analysis of Ur-ban land use, 3) Researches on urban function, 4) Researches on urban size etc. In recent years, much has been done in China in the-repidly advanced studies of urban geography in combination with urban planning and urban construction. According to human geographers in China, from them on the development trends in the study of urban geography will forge ahead possibly towards to new directions, ie. the Macroscopic and microscopic as-pects.
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    RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA
    Tan Qixiang, Ge Jianxiong
    1990, 45 (2):  172-177.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (320KB) ( )   Save
    The past five years saw a steady progress in almost all fields of researches of Chinese his-torical geography. The completion of the Historical Atlas of China shows the achievement in the compilation of historical maps. Researches on administrative regionalization geography and works on examination of place names came into being in hundreds while their significan-ce is not yet fully realized. Researches on human geography were: in their early stage but will surely be the most promising and prosperous ones. Researches on physical geography con-centralized on climate, geomorphology and changes of rivers and lakes. Combination of comp-lete collection and thorough examination on historical data and the utilization of modern techni-cal means will surely be a necessary development.
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    VARIATIONAL REGULATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND CONTROL MEASURES IN CHINA
    Zhang Shen, Tang Yijing
    1990, 45 (2):  178-186.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (455KB) ( )   Save
    Comprehensive analysis on the present status of pollution of air, water body, soil and its variational regulation in different physicogeographical condition as climate, geology, topography and vegetation, and unven of economic development in China, shows that there, are significant difference in transportation, accumulation and degradation of pollutants, among different geo-graphic regions. Further more different environmental capacity as well as the environmental load and the ability to remove pollutants from the environment are found in different regions. Consequently, policy for control of environmental pollution, should be determined based upon the regulation of physical and economic variation. So the environmental self-purification function could be used effectively by overall planning and rational allocation of industrial-ag-ricultural production, and reducing discharge of pollutants as much as possible by reforming production process and adopt advanced techniques. Simultaneously, environmental management could be strengthening by administrative means, economic measures and the legal system.
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    THE PROGRESS IN MEDICAL GEOGRAPHY OF CHINA AND ITS PROSPECT
    Tan Jianan, Li Ribang, Zhu Wenyu
    1990, 45 (2):  187-201.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1130KB) ( )   Save
    The present paper related first, briefly the historical development of medical geography in China. During the period since 1960's, medical geography has got the greatest development. Es-pecially in the aspects of endemic diseases and cancers, the significant progresses have been made in studing geographical distribution law, geographical epidemic features, ecological charac-teristics, environmental pathogeny, environmental improvement and medical mapping. Based on the development of the discipline at home and abroad this paper briefly related the nature and task of medical geography. As a branch of geography or a marginal discipline, medical geog-raphy deals mainly with the laws of geographical distribution of diseases and health status in population, the occurrence, pathogenicity and endemic of diseases and variance of health status in relation to geographical environment, as well as the geographically rational disposition of health care system. According to the major research fields on medical geography (geography of diseases, geography of health, geography of health care, mapping of medical geography) their main achievements obtained in China have been expounded respectively. In geography of disease, following diseases are involved:1. The diseases related with biological factors in environment, plague, schistosomiasis, bru-cellosis and malaria;2. Those related with chemical factors in environment:(1) Se-abnormality disorders including Keshan disease, Kaschin-beck disease and end-emic selenosis;(2) Iodine abnormality disorders including endemic goitre and endemic cretinism;(3) Fluoride abnormality disorders including dental caries and fluorosis; 3. The mountain sickness related with environmental physical factors; and 4. Those with complicated pathogeniciity, such as cancers and cardiovascular diseases. As regards the health geography, some geographical features of life span, longevity region, st-ature and abnormal hemoglobin in China, are expressed in brief. With regard to snapping of medical geography, the major results obtained were the atlases of cancers, endemic diseases, schistisomiasis and aged population. Finally, this paper looked forward to the future of medic geography.
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    MOUNTAIN NATURAL HAZARDS DOMINATED (MAINLY DEBRIS FLOW) AND THEIR PREVENTION
    Tang Bangxing, Wu jishan
    1990, 45 (2):  202-209.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (627KB) ( )   Save
    China is a country with serious mountain natural hazards, especially debris flow and land-slide. Since 1980's, the frequent occurrences of mountain hazards such as debris and iand-slide have made an economic loss of more than 3 billion yuan. This paper analyzes the cause, characteristics of distribution as well as forecast zards. and prevention of the mountain natural ha-zards.
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    WATER RESOURCES IN CHINA
    Xie Jiaze, Chen Zhikai
    1990, 45 (2):  210-219.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (612KB) ( )   Save
    According to recent estimation, the totalL amount of water resources in China is abourt 2816km3, corresponding to 2730m3 per capita and 28000m3 per ha, which are both lower than those of the world average. The water problems of china are due to the uneven distribution of water resources in time and space, and the inconsistent combination of the water and land resources. In recent years, the rapid increase of water demand have brought some serious contradiction between water supply and demand. In this paper, the characteristics of water resources and the present status of water resources development and utilization are discussed, and some suggestions are presented.
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    RECENT DEVELOPMENT OF GEOCRYOLOGICAL STUDY IN CHINA
    Cheng Guodong
    1990, 45 (2):  220-224.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (381KB) ( )   Save
    Recently, the investigative territory in Regional Geocryology have been further expanded to Antarctica, the arid northwest and the humid southeast parts of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. Some kinds of massive ice with different origins have been found. In physics of Frozen Soils, studies on water migration, frost heave, mechani.m of ice formation, strength and creep have been develaped in depth. In the last few years, the studies on amelioration and utilization of fro-zen soils are on the upgrade. There is a good begonning in the studies on placer gold mining and utilization of thermal pile in cold regions.
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    FIELD EXPERIMENTATION OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA
    Huang Bingwei, Zuo Dakang, Chen Fazu
    1990, 45 (2):  225-234.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (763KB) ( )   Save
    Since 1950's, a few physical geographers in China have pointed out that integrated studies should be implemented by investigations on physical, chemical and biological processes, and those studies should also be further linked into a whole. Meanwhile, significance of field ex-perimentation in the studies mentioned above, hay heen recognized as well. In this paper, progress in this direction was reviewed, and brief introductions were given to the following fields, re-spectively: heat and water balance, agro-ecology, desert, glaciology, snow-cover and avalanche, debrisflow, landslide, soil erosion, limnology, and swamp, which involve 18 field stations.
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    RECENT PROGRESS OF GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES ON THE QINGHAI-XIZANG PLATEAU
    Zheng Du, Li Bingyuan
    1990, 45 (2):  235-244.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (788KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the research results of geographical studies of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in the last two decades, the main progress of studies on the paleogeographical evolution, natural envi-ronment and its regional differentiation, as well as environmental problems are dealt with in the present paper. The altitude of the Plateau surface remained generally at a mean elevation of 1000 m asl until the occurence of intense uplifting between the end of Pliocene and beginning of Early Pleistocene. A total uplifting magnitude of 3500 m, with differentiations in space and stages, has been attained over most parts of the Plateau since Quaternary. The intense uplifting of the Pla-teau has given rise to enormous changes of the natural environment since Late Cenozoic, such as the evolution of lakes and drainage systems, the Quaternary glaciation, the paleogeographical evo-lution in the Holocene and the influence of uplifting of the plateau on natural environments and processes. Characterized by the most outstanding features of natural environment the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau differs to a great extent from the Eastern Monsoon Realm and the Northwest Arid Re-alm in China. According to comparative studies of the attitudinal belt, two systems of the stru-cture-type of the attitudinal belt may be identified: the monsoonal and the continental. From a point of view of three dimensional zonation, the spatial differentiations of the Plateau are exp-lained and a tentative scheme of physico-geographical regionalization has been proposed. A number of geo-ecological phenomena, such as the vapour channel, dry valley and the cold-arid core area are discussed in the present paper.
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    CHARACTERISTICS AND REGIONAL DIVERSITY OF TROPICAL CHINA
    Zhong Gongfu, Huang Yuanlue, Liang Guozhao
    1990, 45 (2):  245-252.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (633KB) ( )   Save
    Tropical regions are discontinuously distributed in South and Southwest China, spanning a range of some 2 500 km from South Taiwan to South Yunnan, and covering an area of about 80 thousand km2. Owing to the influences of monsoon climate, landform and distribution of land and sea, the north limits of tropical China are winding, convex to the north or concave to the south in different places. Consisting of islands, peninsulas and coastal and sea areas, the eastern part of tropical China is characterized by its extensively distributed platforms and hills, and its maritime features, while the western part, situated at the south edge of Yunnan Plateau, is chara-cterized by its high mountains, deep valleys and basins, and its more continental climate. Acco-rding to different natural and social conditions, tropical China can be divided into four regions:(L) South Taiwan; (2) Hainan Island and Leizhou Peninsula; (3) South Yunnan; (4) Nan-hai (South China Sea) Islands.
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    THE DISCOVERY OF SHOCK METAMORPHIC ROCKS AT SANSHAN ISLAND OF TAIHU LAKE AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE
    Fu Chengyi, Yu Jinbiao, Wang Ciyin, Yen Zhenfu, Yin Lin, Hu Zhihong, Li Xiupin, Fu Guofei
    1990, 45 (2):  253-256.  doi: 10.11821/xb199002015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (828KB) ( )   Save
    In Sanshan islet of Taihu lake, several peculiar stones, identified to be well-developed shock metamorphic rocks, were first found by the authors. It is suggested that they were formed by the impact of an ancient giant meteorite on the Devonian quartzitic sandstones of the Wutong Lorma-tion. Macroscopically, they do show some distinct disintegration partings. And microscopically, they are characterized by the development of bending of quartz grains, the presence of multiple sees of planur features, mechanical twining quartz crystals, the existence of diaplectic glasses, 1e-chatelerites and the radiating fractures in quartz grains which were thought to be caused by the process of phase transformation from the precursor mineral coesite to ordinary quartz. All these phenomena might attribute to a peculiar geologic event caused a sudden impact of a rne-teorite onto the ground surface. This discovery might cast a new light on the origin of Taihu lake, and it might be regarded as an important breakthrough in such a research field.
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