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Table of Content

    15 April 1989, Volume 44 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    ON THE HISTORICAL CHANGE OF MARKETS AND THEIRLOCATION IN BEIJING
    Gao Songfan
    1989, 44 (2):  129-139.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (536KB) ( )   Save
    Studying the change and distribution of urban markets over various periods and revealingthe inherent laws in the development process, from the point of view of historical geography,is of certain significance to allocating rationally the present networks and sites of commerce andto strengthening urban commercial functions, thus promoting the overall develOPment of city.Beijing City, the capital of China, developing on the base of Dadu City ’of the YuanDynasty, was the national capital during three dynasties of the Yuan, Ming and Qing, andalso the catital of whole China in the early period of the Republic of China. Depending on itscapital status and advanced transportation conditions, Beijing City had ever developed into thebiggest consumptive city and commercial centre in old China. Accordingly, through a sequentdevelopment and evolution of the markets, the basic framework of urban market distribution atpresent in Beijing City was established.The Central place theory is a macroscopic locational theory focusing on markets. Thispaper atternpts to apply this theory in the study of historical geography. It analyses the originand evolution of the central place structure of the markets space distribution in Beijing City,and argues that the central place structure of the market in Beijing City appeared in an em-bryonic form in as early as the age of the Yuan Dynasty, and then was established and streng-thened in the periods of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Finally, it further became the centralplace structure systems with double centres in the period of the Republic of China. Meanwhi-le, the paper also investigates geographically the elements influencing the market central placelocation over various periods, such as the cilfy pattern, political and historical tradition, tran-sportation, population and income allocation etc.The development of markets and the forrnation of the central place structure in BeijingCity, indicates vitally that the central place theory reflects the objective geocconomical law.The theory, therefore, can become on one of thd main theoretical foundations in the future plan-ning the distribution of urban commercial and service on rprises in Beijing City.
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    ON THE RADIATION FUNCTIONS AND DEVELOPING TENDENCY OF XIAMEN SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE
    Yao Shimou, Wang De, Ye Feng
    1989, 44 (2):  140-146.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (417KB) ( )   Save
    City is a center of regional economic development. City and the region around it aremutually attracted: city needs the support of the region and regional development depends onradiation of urban functions, particularly economic function. This paper reviews the advantagesof economic radiation in Xiamen special economic zone and the evaluation of inward and out-ward radiation in the development of the city. The energyl levels, hinterland and the basic fea-tures of radiation flow are studied. Four aspects of the development of Xiamen are give out:(1) strenghening the comprehensive function of Xiamen to develop a modern city; (2) speed-ing the construction of Xiamen harbour to improve the comprehensive transportation; (3) im-proving the urban infrastruction and investment environment; (4) developing a city agglomera-tion and taking Xiamen, Zhangzhou and Quanzhou as core area.
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    A STUDY ON FLUVIAL DYNAMIC GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ITS EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION
    Jin Desheng
    1989, 44 (2):  147-156.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (727KB) ( )   Save
    Fluvial dynamic geomorphology is producgion, which is formed by reaction between fluvialbehaviour and surface material on earth. It possesses significant response to environments. Asa branch of geomorphology, the fluvial dynamic geomorphology is charecterized by frontierscience among fluid dynamics, sediment mechanics and fluvial geomorphology. With physicalmodelling by similarity based on Newtonian mechanics, and principle of the same effect butdifferent structure based on systematic theory, it is available to study on features, formation andprocesses in fluvial dynamic geomorphology. A new research method, which is a combinationof mathematical simulation by computer with physical modelling will be opened.
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    AN ANALYSIS ON THE EVOLUTION OF SCOURING CHANNELS IN NORTHERN HANGZHOU BAY
    Cao Peikui, Dong Yongfang, Zhou Yueqin
    1989, 44 (2):  157-166.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (650KB) ( )   Save
    There exist several scouring channels (Jin Shan, Qunagongting, Zhaou etc.) westward fromJin Shan in northern Hangzhou Bay. Their depth is about 20-50m, with a total lengtli morethan 50km. The scouring channels are developed at the top of Quaternary loose sedimentlayer, and they are formed gradually by the action of strong tidal current. The variation oftheir northern slope is small in recent 30 years.Their main channel and southern slope aremuch erosion, with seasonal variations.The sediments of northern Hangzhou Bay come mainly from the Changjiang estuary.The volume of annual sediments up stream Jin Shan amounts +10 -20 million tons. Thechange of erosion-deposition is small. The erosion is in equilibrium with the deposition. Butthe scouring channel evolution has still the possibilities to extend both in length and in width.
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    STUDY ON CENTRAL PLACE MODEL: CASE STUDIES OF URBAN AND TOWN NETWORK OPTIMAL DESIGNING IN GANYU AND GUANYUN COUNTIES,JIANGSU PROVINCE
    Niu Yafei
    1989, 44 (2):  167-173.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (449KB) ( )   Save
    This paper looks at the application of the central place theory to Chinese rural settlementplanning in Ganyu and Guanyun conuties. Jiangsu Province. The theory is one of the basictheories providing an accunt of the size and distribution of settlements within an urban system.The focus is made on significant role of county-town in setting rural settlement system andrural settlement planning. The aim of this paper is to relate natural condition and economicdevelopment to the spatial pattern of settlement system and to the forming process of settlementsystem in Ganyu and Guanyun counties. Finally, the cause of divergence and a preliminaryplan of improving rural settlement system, are discussed. The maps show the distribution ofboth counties’ settlement, which is identified with central place model.
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    THE ORGANIZATION OF CHANGZHI-JIAOZUO TERRITORIAL INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX
    Fan Jie
    1989, 44 (2):  174-184.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (692KB) ( )   Save
    In 1982 Prof. Li Wenyan, deputy-director of Institute of Geography, Chinese Academyof Sciences, pointed out that Changzhi-Jiaozuo Region is suitabale for the construction of ter-ritorial industry complex. It took us nearly three years to make investigation, research andplanning in this region. This thesis is the generalization and summation of this work.It is based on the foundation of systematic analysis and comprehensive balance of basicconditions, such as coal, water resources, geographical position, transportation. Territorial com-bination of natural resources etc. within Changzhi-Jiaozuo Region to regard coal (mining andwashing), power (thermal power), metallurgical (aluminium and ferroalloy). chemcal (coal-chemical) and building material (cement) industries as the strategic goal of Changzhi-JiaozuoTerritorial Industry Complex. Because of the importance of water and transportation, com-munication (railway, road and pipeline) and water conservancy project are also included in-the complex. The inner-structure of this complex is determined by the utilization of the in-out put control model-he model of quantitative relationship among projects of key enter-prises, specialized industry departments and comprehensive economic development. Also theoverall planning program of the complex in aspect of time arrangement and space organiza-tion is outlined.Among the complex, coal, water and transportation are three key factors. (1) In this regioncoal is not only in great reserves and high quality, but also very easily mining. Comprehensivetech-economical demonstration of conditions of construction and production within 82 coalmines has shown that coal industry in Changzhi has the best mining condition in China. There-fore it’s necessary to exploit coal reserves here in broad scale. The output of coal could reach100 million ton per year. Among it 2/3 is made up by anthracite which will take an importantpart in anthracite production and circulation of China. Coal industry is a Core department inthis region. (2) Water condition is a constraint for the complex to develop other industrial sec-tors focusing on coal processing and utilization. Because of the rich water resource and specialgeographical position, adjacent to the high-developed region in short of energy, constructionof power industry should be sped up. The total capacity of thermal power would be about ninemillion kilowatt. (3) Based on the rational allocation of production, conventional and specialmeans of transport, coal and electricity transmission should be coordinated to perfect trans-port network and flow of commodities of the complex. The freight volume of coal could berisen gradually to 52 million ton per year (railway: 37, road 5, pipeline: 10 million ton). More-than 6 million kilowatt of thermal power would be transmitted to other regions. In this waythe complex will undertake the function of energy base according to the regional division ofproduction in China.In addition, considering the characteristics of the territorial combination of natural resourceswithin the region and allocation of resources from other regions, metallurgical industry, coal-chemical industry and building materials industry can be developed properly so as to raise theeconomical, social and ecological benefit.Space-time organization of the complex refers to the characteristics and rule of the presentsituation and historical developing process. After the study of historical development andpresent types of economic structure in this region, the former is shown in the way of regressionanalysis and the latter are divided with the method of Eij——quantitative theory, the com-plex can be divided into four districts, i.e. "Changzhi City", "Jinyong Town", "Mouth of Qin-Dan River" and "Jiaozuo City".
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    STUDY ON THE LAW OF ABUNDANT GROUNDWATER CATCHMENT AND THE LOCALITY OF GROUNDWATER ABUNDANCE IN THE QUARTZITE AND SLATE REGION OF SOUTHERN LIAONING PROVINCE
    Liu Qingshu
    1989, 44 (2):  185-194.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (664KB) ( )   Save
    This paper mainly discusses the law of abundant groundwater catchment and studies thedetermination of the locality of water abundance in the Quartzite and Slate region of SounthernLiaoning Province.The Localities of groundwater abundance in this region is unevenly distributed. Groun-dwater is stored in water-collectiong structure, aggregated in catchment network and abundantlvcollected in water-filled veins. Water-filled wins mainly form a pattern of double cross trel-dis-work. The best abundance positions of water are found at the joints of several water-filledveins.From the viewpoint of hydrography, wlth reference to many years’ achievement of surveyby means of composite profiling, electrode 5, audio-frequency and electrical sounding in theQuartzite and Slate region the groundwater abundance curve of water-filled veins can be clas-sified into many types. By making analyses of the characteristics of every such type, and byindicating the marks of the water aggregation localoty, We can effectively prove the deman-ded outcome.
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    THE IMPROVEMENT AND VERIFICATION OF THE FORMULAS OF BED LOAD RATE FOR SAND WAVE AND THEIR APPLICATION
    Huang Jin
    1989, 44 (2):  195-204.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (636KB) ( )   Save
    The formula currently used for calculating the bed load rate of sand wave is gs=αγ'hsws. The average volume factor we have measured in the natural river courses appr-oximates to 0.56.
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    A STUDY ON FOREST SOIL INVERTEBRATES OF THE NATURAL PROTECTION AREA IN HENGSHAN MOUNTAINS (NANYUE)
    Wang Zhenzhong, Zhang Youmei
    1989, 44 (2):  205-213.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (545KB) ( )   Save
    The Hengshan Mountain is located in the central subtropical zone with a monsoon climate.Here it is warm and humid, with dense forests. In the forest soil profile, there are many sortsof invertebrates, including 30 genera,:10 classes and 4 phyla. In evergreen broadleaf woods,the density (ten thousand/m3) of soil invertebrates is the greatest, followed by that of coniferwoods and that of bushgrass. Among soil invertebrates found in the area, acarina, collembolaand nematoda are dominant, these three account For 92.88% of the total soil invertebrates col-lected.
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    ON THE SOIL EROSION AND ITS CONTROL IN AREAS OF LOW MOUNTAINS AND HILLS IN THE UPPER CAO’E RIVER
    He Xiaoping, Mao Faxin
    1989, 44 (2):  214-220.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (462KB) ( )   Save
    The areas of low mountains and hills in the upperreaches of the Cao’e River, the largestfributary of the Qiantang in its lower reaches, are those where soil erosion has become the mostserious problem in Zhejiang Province. The average silt content of the Chengtan River, itsmain stream, has amounted to 0.2-0.5kg/m3 for years, and the average erosion modulus to405 t/km2. The worsened soil erosion, in accelerating the barrenness of the soil, the continualsilting of reservoirs and the river course, and the disastrous aggravation of floods and wa-terlogging, lead to the over-all deterioration of the naturaI environment.The soil erosion is mainly effected by such physiographical factors as rock character. soil,geomorphology, and rainfall, combined with such artificial factors as deforestation, land recla-mation on steep slopes, etc.To bring the soil erosion under permanent control, biological measures should be takenin combination with engineering ones, namely, to put stress on free-planting and afforestation,fanse gullies and ravines by means of such a method as applicable to the whole valley, put anend to land reclamation on the slopes, and reform the cultivated slope land.The soil erosion in the upper Cao’e has been a deep concern of the people, and a seriesof measures, taken in recent years in particular. have achieved certain positive results. soil ero-sion, owing to various reasons, however, is still one of the serious problems that demands aprompt solution.
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    MAN’S IMPACT ON THE COASTAL ZONE OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER DELTA
    Ren Meie
    1989, 44 (2):  221-229.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (704KB) ( )   Save
    The severe and accelerating land loss in the Mississippi River deltaic plain is chiefly re-sulted from man’s activity.
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    A DISCUSSION ON SOME TRENDS OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    Huang Xingyuan, Chen Bingxian
    1989, 44 (2):  230-236.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (465KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the progress of geographic information systems (GIS) in different countries, thedefinition and basic components of a GIS were involved, and five trends relating to the deve-lopment of GIS were discussed. These trends are as follows:1. The GIS has become an important component of a being perfected technical systemapplied to geography;2. To perform various types of spatial analysis represents a major aim in applicationsand research of GIS;3. The most important technical topic within the field of GIS concerns the spatial datastructures;4. The integration of approaches and procedures within a single system is becoming in-creasingly evident;5. A great attention has been paid to the research on the standardization and artificiai in-telligence techniques.
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    THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS ON A COUNTY’S TEVEL——TAKING PUCHEN XIAN, FUJIAN SHENG AS AN EXAMPLE
    Song Xiaohong, Yan Luming, Cheng Zeming
    1989, 44 (2):  237-245.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (535KB) ( )   Save
    In this article, the author applies the system theory and system methods in the establishmentof Puchen Geographic Information System (GIS) and further analyses the GIS’ structure, func-tion and the process of information management. Under the support of the GIS, an agriculturesystem development strategy decision is made and a series of suggestions are put forwards forthe development of the agriculture. The author suggests a new field of application for theregional GIS.
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    LOOK BACK ON AND LOOK AHEAD TO THE STUDY OF XU XIAKE THE MODERN FORERUNNER GEOGRAPHER OF CHINA
    Yu Xixian
    1989, 44 (2):  246-252.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (575KB) ( )   Save
    Xu Xiake (1587-1641) whose original name was Hong Zu is both a famous, expedi-tionary traveller and a geographer. Based on practical measurement, he described the fea-tures of the geographical environment in a comprehensive way, showed the relationship of theelements in the geographical environment and compared the regional characteristics with eachother. In this way he broke away from the blocade of the classical geography and promotedthe geography of China once to enter the primitive stage of the modern geography. He is thegeographer making the greatest contributions to the independent. cultural development of Chinabefore the western science and technology were introduced to the east.When we look back on the study of Xu Xiake, it can be divided into tive stages.First, the exploring stage of the initiaI modern geography.Second, the stage of collecting proofreading, correcting and evaluating the scattered andlost part of The Travels of Xu Xiake.Third, the stage of study in the view point of and in the way of modern geography.Fourth, the stage of comprehensive study against a background of the beginning of the ca-pitalist economy at the end of Ming Dynasty.Fifth, the stage of complete and comprehensive study for recent several yearsWhen we look ahead, we study the following:First, taking geography as a center, continuously open up a new field of study.Second, with the help of The Travels of Xu Xiake to restore the geographical environmentat that time, compare it with that of today and find out the trend and direction of changes ofthe geographical environment.Third, go on exploring the original information concerned.Fourth, taking Xu Xiake as an example. study the spirits of the traditional intellectuals of China.
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    THE EXACTITUDE OF THE THEORY OF MIGRATION OF DIVIDE AND RIVER CAPTURE MUST BE DISCUSSED FURTHER
    Lin Zhougqiu
    1989, 44 (2):  253-256.  doi: 10.11821/xb198902015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (308KB) ( )   Save
    The theory of migration of divide and river capture has many mistakes. The develop-mental direction of the watershed is multiform and its migratory direction is decided by thecontrast of all action degree of internal and external agents on both sides of the watershed.Only headward erosion cannot cut through the watershed. Annexation between rivers may bemade when a high river changes its course by going downwards and across the valleys.
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