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    15 October 1988, Volume 43 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL FUNCTION OF CHINESE CITIES (INCLUDING ATTACHED COUNTIES)──THEORY, METHOD AND RESULTS
    Zhou Yixing, Roy Bradshaw
    1988, 43 (4):  287-298.  doi: 10.11821/xb198804001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (525KB) ( )   Save
    China is still at an early stage of industrialization and urbanization. At present industry is the main economic activity within most Chinese cities. This paper represents the first attempt to classify all of China’s 295 cities according to industrial functions, using 1984 data. Working within the framework of the economic base theory of urban development, the authors define city industry functions as consisting of the following three elements: (1) Specialized department of the city; (2) functional intensity (degree of specialization), and (3) functional scale (the size of industrial output of the city). The industrial function classification method used here is based on a combination of all three elements.In the present study a number of different techniques were originally applied including principal components analysis, several methods of hierarchical cluster analysis, the Nelson measure and a variety of more traditional methods. On the basis of these preliminary studies it was eventually decided to base the classification on a composite measure consisting of the ward’s Error Method of hierarchical cluster analysis and a supplementary application of the Nelson measure. In this manner the 295 Chinese cities have been grouped into 3 main categories with 19 sub-categories and 54 functional groups.
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    PRELIMINARY APPROACH TO THE DYNAMICAL GEOMORP-HICAL CONDITIONS OF HUANGHE SEAPORT
    Geng Xiushan, Wu Shiying
    1988, 43 (4):  299-310.  doi: 10.11821/xb198804002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (734KB) ( )   Save
    Huanghe Seaport is located at the mouth of the Diaokou River, the 1976-abandoned mouth of the Yellow River. The mouth of the Diaokou River is the most seaward protruding part of the coastine of modern Yellow River Delta As a result, the intense erosion of the NE-orient-ed waves nearly perpendicular to the shoreline and the scouring of the high-speed flood-ebb tidal currents parallel with the shoreline and the rotaing stationary tidal wave in the tidefree area have changed the depositional environment of the surrounding sea area of Huanghe Seaport (into erosional environment since the abandonment of the Diaokou River Mouth by the Yellow River, thus providing scientific theoretical premise for the setting up of Huanghe Seaport.However, building a seaport off the mouth of the Yellow River through which 10.6X10* tons sediment is emptied into the sea each year, the sediment silting is a very difficult problem to solve, especially in case that the surplus flow from the surrounding of the present Yellow River Mouth is directed toward the seaport area. As a results, in selecting seaport site and estimating its dynamical geomorphic conditions, we considered that the traditional hydrologic and supended sediment movement surveys couldn’t satisfy the requirements for exactly fixing the positions of the axis of the leading dyke and the piers. So we applied the topographic contrast research method in this study. Through quantitative calculation and large-scale diagram illustrations with serious mathematic control, we have obtained the sea-floor erosion-deposition thickness, erosion-deposition velocity, net sediment transportation amount and direction, made clear the relationship between the formation of the sand movement zones and the development of the coastal profiles and the influence of the evolution of the coastal profiles on the future dynamic geomorphologic conditions of coast and the sea area surrounding the seaport, and proposed appropriate prevention measures, thus providing a scientific basis for the site selection and the overall engineering arrangement oSeaport.
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    THE HISTORY AND CURRENT TRENDS OF RESEARCH ON RURAL SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY IN CHINA
    Jin Qiming
    1988, 43 (4):  311-317.  doi: 10.11821/xb198804003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (520KB) ( )   Save
    In ancient China, there was no systematic research on rural settlement. What we can see today on ancient rural settlement is the general description in local records, novels and travels. Xu Xiake──the great ancient geographer, born 400 years ago, was the first one whobegan the research and record of rural settlement in China.The systematic research on rural settlement was initiated in 1930’s when French scholar Jean Brunhes’ a Geographie Humaine?was translated into Chinese, which had a fundamental influence on the circle of geographical science in China. . Before the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, the Chinese ge ’graphers had carried out some geographical researches on rural settlement, including: (1) research on the theory of settlement geography; (2) the systematic research on rural settlement in a given region; (3) studies on towns; (4) rural settlement research as apart of regional geography. So far as contents concerned, all the recesarches made then put emphasis on the explanation of the cause-effect relationship between scitlement and its environments.Since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China, the research on rural settlement geography has experienced three main phases: (1) In the early 1950’s, because of the improper treatment of human geography in China, fewer and fewer geographers were engaged in the field; (2) During 1958-1959, a large number of geographers participated in the planning of People’s Commune, meanwhile, the rural settlement planning, as a part of the People’s Com-mune Planning, was emphasized; (3) Since the hate oof 1970’s, with the improvement of rural ceonomy and the new coming phase of town-village construction, the importance of research on rural settlement geography has been recognized. Meanwhile, the new research fields, such a. territorial management, have provided rural settlement geography with a wide range of research projects. Moreover, the focus of rural s-’ttleinent geography has been shifting from the explanation of relationship between settlement a .d its environments to predicting, planning and designing of rural settlement for future development.The current trends of research on rual set dement geography in China are as following:(1) to serve the reform, management, rational distribution and planning of rural settlement;(2) researches on the tran,formastion, migration of rural population and the trends, sizes and processes of rural urbanization; (3) the theoretical synthesis of rural settlement geography; ( 4) the quantitative approach: (5) the analysis of new types of man-land relationship, in or-dcr to harmonize the settlement with economic development and its environments: (6) enhan-cement of the research on rural settlement geography within regional geography.
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    A STUDY ON WATER POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM IN LUOYANG CITY
    GUO Huaicheng
    1988, 43 (4):  318-328.  doi: 10.11821/xb198804004
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    Based on overall analysis of water pollution control system in Luoyang city, this thesis, by means of the system analysis, tries to establish a multiple model including both System Dynamics (SD) model of discharge sewage control system in this city and dynamic water quality model of Luo River in an attempt to show comprehensively the dynamic change trend of urban water pollution control system. This method, applying System Dynamics to urban water pollution control system and combining it with river water quality model, is a new attempt. The prominent advantages are: first, a model of study of dynamic problem is provided for urban water pollution control system; second, SD model of discharge sewage control system has built a laboratory of strategy and policy for policy-makers.
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    THE QUANTITATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE YUQIAO RESERVOIR WATERSHED
    Liu Feng, Wang Huadong, Liu Peitong
    1988, 43 (4):  329-340.  doi: 10.11821/xb198804005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (819KB) ( )   Save
    A quantitative methodology is proposed to identify and prioritize potential NFS pollution areas and periods within a watershed in this paper. Its procedure includes collecting original data and maps, selecting interested factors, converting the study area into a grid system, quantifying the factors, and drawing/overlaying on the microcomputers. More specifically, a Geographic Information System is employed to integrate and map such factors as rainfall, topography, plant cover, soil, control practice and chemical content in the soil. Gridmaps of every factor and pollutant generation module are finally obtained. The spatial and temporal variation of NFS pollutant generation can be identified from the gridmaps and the distribution curve of the rainfall factor. Therefore, potential NFS areas and periods are selected for control emphasis. In addition, a NFS management plan can be designed by altering controllable factors.The methodology presented was applied to the Yuqiao reservoir watershed, about 90 kilometers east of Beijing. The conclusions are as follows: (1) nonpoint source pollution almost always occurs in July and August. (2) topography and plant cover are two key factors affecting the spatial variation of NFS pollutant generation. Therefore, adjusting the existing tillage systems and implementing afforestation practices will be significant ways to manage nonpoint sources in the area. (3) the narrow belt along the Great Wall and the central part in the western watershed are potential NFS areas for the contributions of total sediment and nitrogen respectively, and the southern plain is a direct threat to the reservoir as a source of phosphorus. These areas were proposed as a priority for nonpoint source management.
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    LONG-TERM COLD/WARM CHANGE OF CHANG JIANG (YANGTZE) LOWER REACH DURING OVERWINTE-RING SEASON AND LARGE-SCALE CIRCULATION FLUCTUATION
    Wang Duo, Zhang Tan
    1988, 43 (4):  341-351.  doi: 10.11821/xb198804006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (614KB) ( )   Save
    This paper analyzes, by means of records of monthly mean temperature in the last 112 years (1873-1984) and the monthly mean sea level pressure fields in the last 110 years (1871-1980), the long-term change in temperature from colder to warmer during overwintering season in Chang Jiang (Yangtze River) Lower Reach, represented by Shanghai data, and the low-frequency fluctuations of large-scale pressure circulation system, associated with the former. It is discovered that in the last 100 years or so, there are similar long-term variation trend in cold warm between early winter (November and December) and late winter (February). The general feature of it is that the temperature in the three months presents itself an increase in tendency: in early 50 years or so there is colder period, namely, the temperature in average of this period is lower than the average temperature of last 100 years, and in late 50 years or so there is warmer period, namely, the temperature in average of this period is higher than it. The transition from colder period to warmer occurred in year 1930 or so.The cold valley──a phase of extreme low temperature in colder period and the warm peak──a phase of extreme high temperature in warmer period are all counted up. The advantages and disadvantages of cold valley or warm peak are also analysed in agriculture production.The change of large-scale circulations in October, which is corresponding to the change from colder to warmer period as above, is presented that the strength and position of Asia Continental cold high show a low-frequency fluctuation, and so does the strength of Northern Pacific. It can be considered that the changes of the both large-scale circulations occur in October and it impacts on East Asian climate in overwintering season as that, a notable trend variation exists just in the starting of the winter monsoon moving forward during autumn-winter in East Asia. The feature of these trend variations can be described that it is prevailing in early 50 years or so, the colder period, that Asia Continental cold high is stronger and eastward; Northern Pacific high is weaker, namely, the early winter monsoon in East Asia is stronger. However, there is an inversely prevailing in late 50 years or so, the warmer period, namely, Asia Continental cold high is weaker and westward; Northern Pacific highis stronger; the early East Asian winter monsoon is weaker correspondingly.In addition, the long-term change of temperature in January is different from that in above three months, November, December and February. The large-scale circulation, associated with the temperature in January, is correcpondingly different too.The representation and application of Shanghai temperature for Chang Jiang Lower Reach are discussed. It is indicated that the extreme temperature in the west region of Shanghai is lower than that in Shanghai
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    THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EVAPORATION PROCESS OF THE BARE SOIL
    Yang Bangjie, Zeng Dechao, Tang Dengyin, Xie Xianqun
    1988, 43 (4):  352-362.  doi: 10.11821/xb198804007
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    A numerical simulation model is presented for the evaporation process of bare soil in this paper, and a personnal computer program written in FORTRAN is developed and verified with preliminary field tests.
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    A DISCUSSION ON THE FORMATION OF THE RED BOULDER CLAY IN THE RANGGIAOLING OF LUSHAN MOUNTAIN
    Peng Hanxing
    1988, 43 (4):  363-366.  doi: 10.11821/xb198804008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (290KB) ( )   Save
    The red boulder clay contents of Fe3+, Al3+and a little Ca2+,Mg2+ in the chemical composition.
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