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    15 July 1988, Volume 43 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF PASSENGER TRAFFIC AND ITS DETERMINING FACTORS IN CHINA
    Zhang Wenchang
    1988, 43 (3):  191-200.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (624KB) ( )   Save
    Geographical study on passenger traffic focuses mainly on its generation, growth and distribution. This paper discusses the spatial aspect of China’s passenger traffic through its detemining factors and regional differentiations.1. Factors determining China’s passenger traffic Four factors are essential: (1) Growth of population. China’s population (excluding Taiwan) doubled during 1949-1985 while the total volume of passenger traffic increased 40.4 times. The high correlation between the two is shown by Formula 1. Meanwhile, the demand for journey varied from urban area to countryside. The average journey frequency in urban, suburb and rural areas were 17.02, 5.6 and 0.3 per capita/year respectively in 1985. (2) Emigration. Emigration forms various relationships between emigrant areas and immigrant areas and these relationships generate passenger traffic. Before 1949, the major directions of emigration were toward new developing areas such as Northeast, large cities such as Shanghai and Tianjin, and abroad. Since the founding of the People’s Republic, emigration of large scale became a planned activity. The major spatial directions of such activity can be categorized into: (a) partly relocating the existing industry to inner provinces accompanied with the relevant people, (b) sending technicians and skilled workers from coastal areas to inland areas to strengthen the development there, and (c) sending school-graduates and demobilized soldiers to remote or border areas for both political and economic reasons. (3) Urbanization. If China is divided into seven economic regions, the correlation between urbanization and passenger traffic is obvious. Northeast and East China, the urbanization level of which is higher than the national average, have more proportion of passenger traffic in national total than that of their population. Southwest China as the lowest urbanized region in the country has less proportion of passenger traffic than that of its population. (4) Economic growth. This factor has the closest correlation with the growth of passenger traffic. During 1949-1985, the GNP in China increased 16 times while the total volume of passenger traffic and the total turnover of passenger traffic increased 17 and 27 times respectively. The correlation coefficient tbetween the total passenger traffic (as dependent variable) and GNP, national population and the total length of national transportation networks (as independent variables) is very high (0.99). It is noticed in this paper that since the growth rate of passenger traffic matched that rate of the domestic consumption which decreased gradually, synchronal growth of passenger traffic with thegrowth of domestic consumption occurred in Japan and other developed countries appeared also in China. Such synchronal growth continues after 1978 when the economic reform began and the economy boomed although the growth rate of freight traffic has decreased since then. 2. Spatial differentiation of passenger traffic The modal split of transport for passenger traffic and the journey frequency per capita are analyzed. Based on the contribution of each mode of transport in passenger traffic in each of the seven economic regions, these regions are categorized into three types: (A) Land-dominating type of Northeast, North China and Northwest, (B) Land-water combination type of East China, and (C) Land-major water-minor type of South China, Southwest and Central China. As for journey frequency, 29 provincial units are regionalized into four types according to their relative distance to the national average of journey frequency per capita and average GNP per capita: (A) High-income with high mobility, (B) High income with low mobility, (C) low income with High mobility, and (D) low income with low mobility (see Map. 1). At the end of this paper, the-factors causing such a pattern is discussed.
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    THE GROWTH OF CITY-TOWNS IN THE PEARL RIVER DELTA BY ADOPTING THE OPEN-DOOR POLICY
    Xu Xueqiang, Hu Huaying
    1988, 43 (3):  201-212.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (712KB) ( )   Save
    Since 1985, the Pearl River Delta has become one of the three coastal delta economic opening regions is China as our country began to carry out the open-door policy- This region includes two famous spetial economic zones (Shenzhen and Zhuhai) and one big opening city (Guangzhou) that is one of the fourteen coastal opening cities in China.With the open-door policy, the urbanizing process and the city-town growth in the region of the Pearl River Delta is speeding up. The aim of this paper is to present the effects of the open-door policy on the growth of city-towns in the region by analyzing the developing process of city-towns and non-agriculture populations at first, and then by measuring the transformation of function and the construction of city-towns as well as the changes of the spatial pattern of city-town system in the region.
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    A METHOD OF CALCULATING THE MONTHLY AND ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURES IN MOUNTAINOUS AREA
    Lu Qiyao
    1988, 43 (3):  213-223.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803003
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    In this paper, a method of calculating the monthly and annual mean temperatures in mountainous area and its application in Shaxi River valley in Fujian Province China are presented.
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    DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF MICROTOPOGRAPHY ON TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS
    Yu Jingming, Zhan Xingpan, Zhang Yiping
    1988, 43 (3):  224-232.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803004
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    A method for calculating the effects of microtopography on temperature and humidity in mountain regions is presented. The results of its application to the mountain regions in Fujian Province and in the eastern part of Yunnan Province are very satisfactory.The temperature or humidity field at any place in mountain regions can be attributed to the macro-geographical factors and the microtopographical factors.
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    MORPHOTECTONIC SETTING OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF DATONG VOLCANO GROUPS IN THE EASTERN PART OF CHINA
    Li Shude
    1988, 43 (3):  233-240.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803005
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    The Datong volcano groups are one of the important specific landform types in the eastern part of China. The development of volcano groups and the Datong Basin Where the volcano groups are located and controlled by the most striking morphotectonic pattern in the eastern part of China-NNE-trending en echelon right-lateral shear-extensional down-faulted zone, located on the upper-mantle upheaval zone. The volcano groups and lava flows are developed obviously along the NE-trending right-lateral shear-extensional fracture zones and their intersection with NW-trending shear-comprcssional faults, and also continuously affected ty re-activation of faults.
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    THE LIFE OF LI DAOYUAN
    Chen Qiaoyi
    1988, 43 (3):  241-249.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803006
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    From the early fourth century, there occurred in China a large-scale "geographic exchange", in which a multitude of geographers and geographic Works emerged. The most outstanding of all the geographer was Li Daoyuan, and the most outstanding of all geographic works was his "Notes on Book of Waterways". Li was not only a celebrated scholar, but also a patriot, and "Notes on Book of Waterways" not only a geographic masterpiece, but also a patriotic work.
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    ON THE LOGIC METHODS AND BASIC LAWS OF GEOGRAPHY
    Chu Yifang
    1988, 43 (3):  250-257.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803007
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    To develop a branch of science as quickly as possible, it’s not enouph to recall the past and discuss the present of the science, we must l-e from a point of philosophy to observe and deal with it, too. Then we can escape from the ivory tower made by itself.Logic and philosophy of science give us a good kind of instrument to approach the past, the present, and the future of geography, la this paper, the author advances some questions and some thoughts about them as follows: the study of methods of the past and the present of geography so called empirical science, and their developing tendency; the basic structure of geographical knowledge; geographical axioms; the possibility to infer geographical theories from geographical axioms.
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    PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY, EPIGEOSPHERE SCIENCE AND INTEGRATED GEOGRAPHY
    Chen Chuankang
    1988, 43 (3):  258-264.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803008
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    There are seven development tendencies in modern geography relating to physical geography.1. The field of territorial research in integrated physical geography has extended from regionalization at top level to the study of land types locality at low level.2. With the expanding in research field from the grassroot, the integrated physical geography research has reached the study of earth surface (epigeosphere science)-analogous to global geography.3. Aiming at regional exploitation, it urns into integrated geography.4. Bending toword application, the constructive geography-applied research of integrated geography has appeared.5. A. the research field extends from the study of interrelations of components of a region to interrelations of territorial structures, Hologeography was formed.6. Priority of regional study gives way to theoretical study and thus appears theoetical geography.7. The research field of geography has extended from the theory in geography itself to metatheory-metageogrtaphy.
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    SIMULATION RESEARCH OF SNOW DRIFT ON THE CUT AND TUNNEL IN WIND-TUNNEL
    Wang Zhonglong, Pan Xiahua, Liu Xiawan
    1988, 43 (3):  265-273.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803009
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    It is a quicker, better and more economial way to research snow drift and its control by modelling experiments in the wind-tunnel. The exact similitude is required for performing modelling test. This paper summarizes the similarity criteria and 10 parameters, as well as results got from the test in wind-tunnel of self-sumulation.Accumulation of snow drift occurs in boundary layer separation areas where the eddy resistance increases rapidly. In the case of roads, different fields of flow on different land-forms near the roadbed may give rise to different processes and quantities of drifting snow. Structure of flow fields and drift accumulation on cut and tunnel are rather complicated, so their snow control is more difficult than on other roadbeds. This paper reports the methods and problems in need of special attention, which is helpful in choosing courses, roadbed design and prevention of drifting snow in places with cut and tunnel.
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    TENDENCY OF STUDIES ON ESTUARINE HYDROLOGY IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES
    Shan Huanting
    1988, 43 (3):  274-280.  doi: 10.11821/xb198803010
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    During last decade, studies on estuarine hydrology have been advanced greatly with the development of physical and mathematical models and the modernization of monitoring techniques of estuarine hydrological elements. This paper intends to introduce the progress of studies in the foreign countries on estuarine circulation, estuarine fronts, and the turbidity maximum in the estuarine regions, and evaluate three methods, i.e., Field observation, physical model and mathematical model ,and use the experience for reference to promote the stu-dies on estuarine hydrology suitable for the natural conditions of our country.
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