Loading...

Table of Content

    15 April 1988, Volume 43 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF URBAN SYSTEM PLANNING
    Song Jiatai, Gu Chaolin
    1988, 43 (2):  97-107.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (680KB) ( )   Save
    In reviewing the theory and methodology of urban system planning (USP), the authors regard the modern system theory (including systematology, information theory, cybernetics, dissipative structure theory, synergetics and catastrophe theory) and the urban-region theory as the fundamental theories of USP, a new branch of the planning science.The paper discussed mainly the following problems:1.Basic concept and goals of the USP.Urban system study is one of main contents in urban geography and urban planning. USP deals with the socio-economic interrelations between town and town, town and the system, the system and its outer environment, which will be organized reasonably in a region.The whole efficiency of the urban system and the general goal of the regional socio-economic development with optimal social,economic,environmental efficiency could be obtained by means of principles of the general system theory and the urban-region theory.2. The mechanism of the urban system development.The natural characteristics of interrelation between city and region are aggregate effect and diffuse effect.These effects run through the whole process of forming and development of urban system.It is just the mechanism with which urban system is developed and perfected.3. Basic standpoints of the USP.The final goal of USP is optimal economic, social, and environmental efficiency in regional development.Thus, basic standpoints of USP are the unity of economic view and environmental view.By the economic view we mean planning urban system by means of regional economic development.By the environmental view we mean planning urban system by means of residential environment.4. Basic contents of the USP. They include: (1)study of cityes and towns as nodes of an urban system, and (2)study of relation among nodes in the system.Specifically, theyare: (1) the territorial spatial structure-concentration and decentralization;(2)urbanrank-size structure-urban hierarchy and urban rank-size distribution; (3) urban functioncombination structure-urban pattern organization and urban function coordination; and(4) urban networks structure-urban linkages and networks planning.5.The programme and flow chart of the USP.USP is a main content in territorial renovation and regional planning,but the programme of USP is different from that of urban planning or region planning.Generally speaking, these programme are: (1) historical analysis of urban system forming; (2) study of present condition of urban system; (3) analysis of regional development condition and restrictive factors; (4) urban system planning; (5) division of urban economic regions and their development; (6) specific policies and measures, to put urban system planning into practice.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SEASONAL SNOW RESOURCES IN CHINA
    Li Peiji
    1988, 43 (2):  108-119.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (692KB) ( )   Save
    Based on data on daily depth and density of snowcover and snowfall recorded at more than 2300 weather stations of China from 1951 up to 1980, the snow resources have been evaluated and their secular variations have been clarified.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    GENETIC MECHANISM OF THE ALLUVIAL TERRACES ALONG THE THREE-GORGES COURSE OF THE CHANGJIANG RIVER
    Yang Dayuan
    1988, 43 (2):  120-126.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (445KB) ( )   Save
    In the past, many investigators considered that the alluvial terraces in mountain areas are generally produced by the intermittent crustal uplift movement; or, it might result from a change to a more arid climate; or, from the greatly increased load derived from melting glaciers in the upstream region so that a valley floor is filled with alluvium by an aggrading stream.However, based on the field survey and the analyses of the chemical composition, mineral assemblage, pollen analysis and deposits on the alluvial iterraces distributed along the Three-Gorges course of the Changjiang River, the genetic mechanism is somewhat different from the above-mentioned sayings.(1)The three parts which constitute a terrace:the upper floodplain deposit, the middle alluvial gravel and the lower rock bench as base of terrace, were formed i n different periods.The rock bench of terrace as former river bed had been formed much earlier than the flood plain deposit.The middle gravel had been eroded before it Was covered by the floodplain deposit.(2)The upper floodplain deposit on terraces was formed under the condition of in-terglacial climate and high water level in Late Holocene.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION ON THE GRAIN SIZE OF THE QUATERNARY STRATA PROFILE IN YULIN AREA OF THE NORTHERN, SHAANXI
    Li Baosheng, Dong Guangrong, Gao Shangyu, Din Tonghu, Shao Yajin
    1988, 43 (2):  127-133.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (416KB) ( )   Save
    The Quaternary Strata profile and its variations of grain size in Yulin area reveal that: the layers of sand, loess, and palaeosol in the profile were respectively formed by wind for-ce and the action of soil formation on the parent materials of aeolian sand and loess.Since the early Quaternary, the Ordos Plateau has alternately undergone 11 stages of the depositions of shifting sands under extreme cold-dry climatic conditions, 7 times of fixed-semifixed dunes and 8 times of dust (loesses) under cold-dry climatic conditions; and that of the action of soil formation under 15 times of warm-wet climate and 3 times of temperate-wet climate (drab soils and black loams formed respectively).
    Related Articles | Metrics
    THE OPEN ECONOMIC COASTAL ZONE IN EASTERN CHINA:ITS FORMATION CONDITIONS, REGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION AND DEVELOPMENT ORIENTATION
    Zhong Gongfu
    1988, 43 (2):  134-140.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (460KB) ( )   Save
    After the open policies were carried out in the Chinese mainland, open economic coastal areas emerged one after another──special economic zones, coastal open cities, open deltaareas, Hainan Island with special policies, etc., forming one zone with multi-layer and multi-function.This zone bears the favourable geographic condition: 18,000 km long coastal line, many harbours with good natural conditions, the vast hinterland of central economic region and western economic region which are connected by rivers and railway. This zone, with the strong economic foundation and concentrated talent personnel, in addition, Hong Kong, Macao and the hometowns of overseas Chinese being located in it, has the priority for foreign technology introduction and domestic interrectional and interdepartmental links. The development of the zone plays an important role in bringing about the economic development in the central part and the western part of China.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION INTERACTION AMONG THE MAJOR CITIES OF CHINA
    Yu Wei
    1988, 43 (2):  141-149.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (325KB) ( )   Save
    The aims of this paper are to identify information interaction patterns among the 30 major cities of China, and to extract centralization fields and decentralization fields which are defined as influenced regions of information centralization and decentralization flows.Data for this analysis are long distance telephone call data taken from the National Post Bureau. The data are expressed in the form of 30 ?30 origin-destination flow matrix. R-mode and Q-mode factor analyses were employed to reduce the matrix to its underlying fields. The results are as follows:1. There are a few centralization fields and decentralization fields in which both of the first fields are much stronger than others (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).2. The hierarchical structure of cores which make centralizing and decentralizing is in the form of 1:1:6.The first-order core is Beijing.The second-order is Shanghai. The third-order consists of Tianjin, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Xian, Shenyang, and Wuhan.3. There is no contract between the same order cores.All of the cities directly contract to Beijing, and a few of them also to Shanghai (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).4. The regional patterns of the fields show all of first-order and second-order cores, and most of third-order cores are located in the eastern coastal region.5. The pattern of information interaction is mainly caused by the central-power administration system, some by inter-city economic contracts.A planning of the information interaction pattern has been devised on the basis of the above analysis. The main points are as follows (Fig. 3):1. A strong economic information centralization and decentralization fields must be constructed whose core is located in Shanghai, and its order will rise to the same as Beijing.2. The six third-order cores should be developed, and be raised as second-order cores.3. The "three steps" regional pattern will be formed in which all of first-order cores and most of second-order cores will be located in the rich coastal region, other second-order cores in inland, and no core in the poor peripherical region.4. The contracts should be encouraged between the same-order cores and between the different-order cores.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE NOCTURNAL URBAN HEAT ISLAND OVER TIANJIN
    Bian Hai, Tie Xuexi
    1988, 43 (2):  150-158.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (516KB) ( )   Save
    Based on myrup’s Studied, an energy balance model is presented and tested against sur-face nocturnal temperature fields observed over Tianjin. Using this model, an acceptable prediction of the Tianjin surface nocturnal urban heat island is gived, and the spatial variation of the energy fluxes within the Tianjin urban heat island is discussed.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    TEMPORAL VARIATIONS 1N THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN URBAN TEMPERATURE AND THE STRUCTURE OF URBAN SURFACE IN BEIJING
    Zhang Jingzhe, Liu Qiming
    1988, 43 (2):  159-168.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (553KB) ( )   Save
    Multiple regression and stepwise regression methods have been used to study the relations beween Beijing urban temperature and the structure of urban surface during daytime and nighttime in different seasons. The data used in this study consisted of day and night temperatures observed on 30 observation sites during spring, summer, autumn and winter of 1982, and the coverage of green areas, building areas and water bodies in the 1000m?1000m area around each observation site. It was found out that Beijing urban temperature had significant positive correlation with the coverage of building areas and negative correlation with the coverage of green areas, but the degree of correlation varies from day to night and from season to season. It was shown that as the coverage of green areas increased, the decrease of temperature was most obvious in summer daytime, and as the coverage of building areas increased, the increase of temperature Was most obvious in winter nighttime. It was also shown that the correlation between temperature and water body was very poor mainly due to the lack of large water body near the observation sites, which means that small water body in urban areas has no significant influence on urban temperature.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    EVAPORATION MODEL IN RELATION WITH SOIL MOISTURE AND FIUX OF GROUNDWATER
    Chen Kexing
    1988, 43 (2):  169-175.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (406KB) ( )   Save
    Soil moisture and evaporation are important factors in process of hydrologic cycle and energy transformation. Considering the wet region with high groundwater table, the writer put forward an evaporation model in relation with soil moisture and flux of groundwater based on the fundamental principle of water movement in the unsaturated soil and water supply to the evaporation layer from groundwater. As there is a single function of soil suction in the model, the physical calculation is quite simple.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    ON THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY OF TROPICAL CLIMATE IN CHINA
    He Dazhang, He Dong
    1988, 43 (2):  176-183.  doi: 10.11821/xb198802010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (458KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, some viewpoints on the tropical climate in China have been given. So far as the boundary of climate is concerned, the low temperature level in winter is to be considered first. The northern boundary of tropical climate in China is determined according to the climatic indices, and referring to the local mountainous topography and the growth of tropical crops. The indices include: (1) The mean temperature of the coldest month 15℃; (2) the annual mean minimun temperature 3℃; (3) the absolute minimum temperature 0℃; (4) almost free of frost or the frost days not more than 2 days; (5) the annual accumulated temperature of the 10℃ period about 7500-8000℃, which is roughly equivalent to annual mean temperature of 22℃; (6) the percentage of the tropical weather type and transitional weather type about 80% of the annual total.On the basis of climatic data of more than 100 stations in South China, the northern boundary of tropical climate is drawn along Gaozhou, Western Guangdong, Southern slope of Yun-kaidashan and Dayunwushan mountains. It is the significant section of the northern boundary of tropical climate in China. There are many local sites suitable for growing rubber trees. Westward, the boundary in Guangxi is drawn on the southern coast and eastward, it is drawn from Yangjiang along the coast, to the mouth of Zhujiang and then along the coast of Eastern Guangdong. In Yunnan province, along Yuanjiang valley, Xishuangbanna, (except Meng-hai County) the boundary reaches westwerd to Menglian, Mengding and Ruili Counties. In southern Taiwan, it passes through the penghu slands first and then across Taizhong, Tainan, Hengchun, and turns northward up to Hualian.Obviously, the northern boundary of tropical climate in China is discontinuous. There are small pockets of tropical climate inserting in o some subtropical areas like separated "island".
    Related Articles | Metrics
Share: