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    15 January 1988, Volume 43 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE PROBLEMS OF CHINESE URBAN CLASSIFICATION AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
    Fang Leo, Liu Hong
    1988, 43 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (519KB) ( )   Save
    Urban development policy of China has been the important point at issue in the academic circles and urban planning and construction sectors in recent years. The question includes two aspects: one is how to define a standard to classify cities, the other is what kind of sytategy should be adopted in the urban development.
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    RATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF WATER AND LAND RESOURECES IN HEXI REGION
    Chen Longhen, Qu Yaoguan
    1988, 43 (1):  11-18.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (596KB) ( )   Save
    1. The Hexi region can be divided, from south to north, into three topographic regions: (1) Qilian-Altun mountain range, (2) Hexi corridor plain, (3) Bei shan and Alxa plateau. There are three inland water systems composed of 57 streams in the region. The total ground-water resource is 74.643 billion m3 in the mountainous areas.
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    NEW VIEWS ON GEOMORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HANJIANG RIVER DELTA
    Li Pingri, Huang Zhenguo, Zong Yongqiang
    1988, 43 (1):  19-34.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1103KB) ( )   Save
    It is considered that geomorphological develoment of the Hanjiang River Delta is deeply affected by fault-block tectonics based on the analysis of sedimentology and chronology including the analysis of diatom, foraminfera, ostracoda, spore-pollen, shell, grain-size, trace element and heavy mineral, and datings of 14C and TL, from 40 borehole sections of the delta.
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    GENETIC CLASSIFICATION OF TIDAL CREEK AND FACTORS AFFECTING ITS DEVELOPMENT
    Shao Xusheng
    1988, 43 (1):  35-43.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (575KB) ( )   Save
    On tidal flats, tidal creeks are the important microlandform which varies greatly. The sediments of tidal flats usually are altered or destroyed by lateral migration and sway of tida! creeks, which affects the stability of tidal flats. Therefore, studying tidal creeks and their sediments is very useful for exploiting tidal flats, carrying out coast engineering projects and analysing ancient tidal creeks and tidal sediments.At home and abroad there are a lot of papers and works dealt with tidal creeks and sediments therein, however, genetic classification of tidal creeks and factors affecting their development haven’t been yet studied comprehensively. This paper discusses these aspects based on data obtained from literature and field observation.According to the principles of genetic classification, the tidal creeks in the world can be classified as follows:1. Tidal creek scoured by the currents on tidal flatThis is the creek which develops on the surface of tidal flat and is similar to the gully developed on mountain slope in development mechanism.2. Tidal creek scoured by the converged tidal currents.This is the creek formed by tidal currents which were locally concentrated or focused.3. Tidal creek inheriting the runoff from landAn inheriting tidal creek it the creek which originally inherited the rill formed by the small-scale runoff from land to tidal flat and then became tidal creek under the erosion of ebb- and flood-tide currents.4. Tidal creek scoured by the tide currents between lagoon and open sea.This is a kind of creeks which is relatively large and connects the lagoon with the open sea.In different parts of the world tidal creeks develop very differently. The main factors affecting the development of tidal creeks are as follows:(1) Tidal range.(2) The width of tidal flat and its relief.(3) Vegetation.(4) Mud content of sediment of tidal flat.(5) The rate of sedimentation.(6) The process of ebb- and flood-tide currents.(7) Human effect.
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    HOLOCENE VEGETATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AT MT. LUOJI, SICHUAN
    Li Xu Liu, Jinling
    1988, 43 (1):  44-51.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (502KB) ( )   Save
    Many Quaternary palynologists are enchanted with alpine small lakes, primarily for the reason that the uniform environment around these lakes has been little influenced by human beings, so that a continuous history of the environmental changes, especially in the postglacial period, can be reconstructed by studying the sediments in the lake.
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    THE TIME-VARIATION OF ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPARENT COEFFICIENTS IN CHINA
    Fang Xianjin, Weng Duming
    1988, 43 (1):  52-59.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (482KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper the time-variation of the atmospheric transparent coefficient (P2) and the transparent coefficients for aerosol and water vapour (pd and Pw) have been calculated and discussed.
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    RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHANGES OF LONG-RANGEWEATHER AND FLUCTUATIONS OF THE EARTH ROTATIONAL RATH
    Qian Weihong
    1988, 43 (1):  60-66.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (408KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the fluctuations of quasi-44-month, quasi-11-year, quasi-24-year and quasi-49-year periods of the earth rotational rate are found from the analysis of its data of the years 1820-1983. The anomalies of Southern Oscillation (SO) index, the motions of the atmospheric centres of action, the variations of sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial pacific and the changes of long-range weather can be related with the periodic fluctuations of the earth rotational rate. It has been found that SO index becomes weaker (stronger), active centres of atmosphere move northwest-ward (southeast-ward) and annual precipitations increase (decrease) in Africa arid region, while the long-range earth rotational rate (fluctuations of quasi-24-year and quasi-49-year) speeds up (slows down). It has been also found that sea surface temperature is lower (higher) in the eastern equatorial Pacific, while the short-range earth rotational rate (quasi-44-mouth)speeds up (slows down).Microcomputer is having great impact on geographical teaching and research. Paucity of software has limited the use of microcomputers when they were first developed, but a large number of software have now been developed, ranging from word processing, spread sheet, data base, statistical analysis, simulation, computer assisted learning, digital image processing, computer assisted cartography, to geographic information system. Microcomputer has provided a relatively inexpensive but powerful tool for geographical teaching and research. Although there are some limitations in the existing microcomputer hardware and software, they are adequate to meet most of the needs of geographical teching and research. It is unnecessary to wait for faster and more powerful microcomputers to be developed before entering the field of microcomputing. Further reduc.ion in price and size, and increase in speed, memory, portability, and data storage with undoubtdly increase the practical use of microcomputers. Microcomputers is playing an important role in geographical teaching and research, especially for education and research institute which have little resources. This paper discusses the use of microcomputers in geography, outlines the availability of geography software, and examines some constraints in using microcomputers in geographical teaching and research in Britain and America. These experience may help to increase the use of microcomputer’; among geographers in China.Many functions are offered by microcomputers. However, their applications and relevance in secondary and higher geographical teaching and research differ. Most of these functions are used in varying degrees in geographyical teaching and research in universities and research institutes, but not all of them are needed in secondary schools. In secondary schools, it is desirable to expose students to computer assisted learning at lower forms, and gradually introduce them to some simple computer packages at upper forms. The use of microcomputers also varies according to different subfields of geography. Subjects related to physical geography, photogrammetry, remote sensing and cartography may use microcomputers more than those in human geography. The main constraints that limit the present use of microcomputers in geographical teaching and research are hardware, software, "liveware", space, integration into curriculum, and teaching skills.Microcomputers are already being used in some key universities and research institutes in-China and some good software have been developed. When microcomputers are becoming more popular in China, geographers in China may face similar constraints that were experienced in the current applications of microcomputers in Britain and America. Much in-vestments in money, manpower, and time should be prepared to spend in overcoming these constraints. The use of microcomputers in China is further constrained by the lack of Chinese software and standardization of Chinese input and data storage system. The organization of microcomputer workshops and the establishment of a netwo
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    MICROCOMPUTERS IN GEOGRAPHICAL TEACHING AND RESEARCH: APPLICATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS
    Ye Jiaan
    1988, 43 (1):  67-78.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (847KB) ( )   Save
    Microcomputer is having great impact on geographical teaching and research. Paucity of software has limited the use of microcomputers when they were first developed, but a large number of software have now been developed, ranging from word processing, spread sheet, data base, statistical analysis, simulation, computer assisted learning, digital image processing, computer assisted cartography, to geographic information system. Microcomputer has provided a relatively inexpensive but powerful tool for geographical teaching and research. Although there are some limitations in the existing microcomputer hardware and software, they are adequate to meet most of the needs of geographical teching and research. It is unnecessary to wait for faster and more powerful microcomputers to be developed before entering the field of microcomputing. Further reduclion in price and size, and increase in speed, memory, portability, and data storage with undoubtdly increase the practical use of microcomputers. Microcomputers is playing an important role in geographical teaching and research, especially for education and research institute which have little resources. This paper discusses the use of microcomputers in geography, outlines the availability of geography software, and examines some constraints in using microcomputers in geographical teaching and research in Britain and America. These experience may help to increase the use of microcomputer1; among geographers in China.Many functions are offered by microcomputers. However, their applications and relevance in secondary and higher geographical teaching and research differ. Most of these functions are used in varying degrees in geographyical teaching and research in universities and research institutes, but not all of them are needed in secondary schools. In secondary schools, it is desirable to expose students to computer assisted learning at lower forms, and gradually introduce them to some simple computer packages at upper forms. The use of microcomputers also varies according to different subfields of geography. Subjects related to physical geography, photogrammetry, remote sensing and cartography may use microcomputers more than those in human geography. The main constraints that limit the present use of microcomputers in geographical teaching and research are hardware, software, "liveware", space, integration into curriculum, and teaching skills.Microcomputers are already being used in some key universities and research institutes in-China and some good software have been developed. When microcomputers are becoming more popular in China, geographers in China may face similar constraints that were experienced in the current applications of microcomputers in Britain and America. Much in-vestments in money, manpower, and time should be prepared to spend in overcoming these constraints. The use of microcomputers in China is further constrained by the lack of Chinese software and standardization of Chinese input and data storage system. The organization of microcomputer workshops and the establishment of a network for the exchange and distribution of software information, similar to the Geographical Association Package Exchange Program (GAPE) in Britain will help in promoting the use of microcomputers in China. Microcomputing should be a standard course and microcomputers should be standard equipment for geographical departments in universities and research institutes.
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    CONTENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOILS OF HENAN PROVINCE
    Sun Dexiang
    1988, 43 (1):  79-87.  doi: 10.11821/xb198801009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (529KB) ( )   Save
    Soil samples analyzed in this article were collected from over 1160 sites in 108 countie in-Henan Province.The average total contents of Zn, B, Mo, Cu and Mn are 94.95, 43.0, 0.68, 18.5, and 510.0-ppm respectively. The average available contents of Zn, B, Mo, Cu, Mn, and Fe are 0.5, 0.25r 0.05, 1.29, 17.8, and 20.78 ppm respectively. The available contents of Fe, Mn, and Cu of the surface soils in the north sub-tropical zone are usually higher than those of the surface soil in warm-temperate zone soil which have been found out for the first time in Henan Province.The available Zn content of the soil in Henan is low. Zn in the wind drift soil, solont-shok, saliniza soil and soloniz soil etc. is lower than critical index of the Zn content in soils, which are considered to be Zn deficient soils. It is necessary to apply Zn fertilizex to these soils.The available Mo contents of the soil in Henana are relatively low. The amounts of available Mo in the soil are usually different. The amount of available B in solontshok and saliniza soil is usually relatively rich. The amount of average available B in most of the soil is generally below 0.5 ppm which isc considered to be B deficient soils in Henan Province.It is necessary to apply B fertilizer to these soils.The amounts of available Fe, Mn and Cu are rich in most of the soil of Henan. But the amounts of available Fe, Mn and Cu in part of the soil in the northern regions of Henan arc-low. According to zonation of the chemical geographic environment of trace element in the soil, and to the need of crops, it is necessary to apply Fe and Mn fertilizer to these soil rationally.
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