Table of Content

    15 October 1987, Volume 42 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Huang Peihua, Lu Zhongjia, Ren Zhenji, Zhu Fengguan
    1987, 42 (4):  289-298.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (787KB) ( )   Save
    Environmental evolutions in the eastern China have the hollowing characters: 1. Quaternary environmental changes are mainly controlled by global climatic variations. 2. The sensitive regions of environmental changes are between the middle part of Northeast China and the middle part of Central China. The environmental variations of the former were between the forest-tundra of cool temperate zone and the deciduous broadleaved forest of warm temperate zone, and those of the latter were between the broadleaved forest with grassland of warm temperate zone and the broadleaved evergreen forest of south subtropic zone. 3. The coldest and dry climate appeared about 18000-15000 years ago in Late-Pleistocene, When the annual average temperature decreased about 8℃ compared with that of today, and the natural environmental zones moved southward about 1000 km in Northeast China and North China. The hottest and wet climate appeared in middle Pleistocene, when the temperature increased 4℃ compared with that of to-day and natural environmental zones moved northward about 700 km in North China. 4. The general tendency of Quaternary environmental variations was to become dry and the continentality of climate was from strength to strength in the eastern China during Quaternary. 5. The natural environmental variations of the southern part of Central China and South China were smaller than those to the north of them, and the tempertural variations were about 3-5℃ 6. We found that the sporo-pollen assemblages in the "glacial boulder clay beds" of Mt. Lushan and Huangshan all belong to warm and wet forest environment, There fore, the problem of glaciation in Mt. Lushan and Huangshan is questionable.
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    Li Wenyi
    1987, 42 (4):  299-307.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (622KB) ( )   Save
    This article is about a Quaternary vegetational analysis based on palynological works in East China. The purpose of this study is to expose the characteristics of the vegetation and its ecological environment of East China in the course of alternative appearances of the cold (glacial) and warm (interglacial) stages in Quaternary period.In East China, the Quaternary flora was established in Tertiary, and it is similar to thatof the present. In other words, since Late Tertiary, the taxa of plants had never been much changed.A clear difference in the development of Quaternary vegetation between the southern region and the northern region of East China, winch are bounded by Qinling mountain and Hu-aihe river, reflected strongly the difference of climatic conditions in the ice age.In northern region of East China, Ulmaceae, Fagaceae, Julandaceae and Betulaceae were the main components of the vegetation in late Pliocene. At the same time, Picea, Pinus and the herbs such as Composite, Chenopodiaceae and Polygonaceae etc. increased rapidly, while the deciduous trees decreased gradually. Therefore a vegetation landscape of a mixed conifer and deciduous forest emerged, which reflected that the climate became cooling, but still remained temperate. However, various traces of vegetational records suggest that the dry climatic factor had played an important role in Quaternary vegetation of the northern China.In southern region of East China, the flora has changed extremely little from Late Tertiary to the present. Podocarpus, Tsuga, Keteheria as well as Magnoliaceae, Fagaceae, Ju-glandaceae, Hamamenlidaceae, Araliaceae, Aquifoliaceae and Anacradaceae are always present in the pollen assemblages, and have been existing to the present. So it is clear that a cold climate which can destory the warm flora hadn’t been formed during the glacial period in East China.According to the distribution and development of the Quaternary flora in East China, any reflections concerning ice cap are not yet discovered, but the vegetational zones downward in the mountain in southern region. The development and expansion of dry terriher-bosa in northern region may be seen. Therefore, the Quaternary vegetation in East China differed from that of Europe, where the vegetation was destroyed frequently by ice sheet in the glacial period.A rough calculation of climatic condition in Quaternary cold stage can be made. In northern region the mean annual temperture is near 2癈 and the aridity index 2, which are similar to the persent climatic condition in the western aera of Daxinganlian mountains. And in the southern region, the ecological environment might be very similar to that of the mountainous region of Southwest China at present, where the mean annual temperature is 11℃ and mean precipitation 1000 mm being a cool humid condition.It seems that in Eurasia the steppe had possibly expanded to a broad area from south Europe to East Asia. However, the glacial climate invading southward to East China was limited. So a great deal of survive plants which originated from the tropical region are still per-served in South China.
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    Chen Tian
    1987, 42 (4):  308-318.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (471KB) ( )   Save
    The influence region of urban economy is defined as the largest range of the region where the development of regional economy is promoted and spurred by affecting capability of urban economic activity. It is mainly restricted by 3 factors: 1) the affecting capacity of urban economic activity relying on investing capability of cities, agglomeration scale of market and technical and economic conditions; 2) the factor of distance attenuating the influence ability: 3) the diversity of influence capacity among cities and their interactions.In the aspects of investment, market and technico-economic level, a principal component analysis on 15 economic variables shows that the diversity of urban economic activity in China is mainly restricted by the scale of urban economic activity.The main results of the calculation are:1) The regional economic influence centers of the whole country fall into 5 levels. Among then, the first-level centers include 6 cities, which are analosous to the nationwide centers of large regions; the second-level centers include 25 cities, analogous to the sub-centers of large regions or provincial centers with higher level of economic development; the thirdlevel centers include 63 cities, analogous to the ordinary provincial centers or the centers within the provinces with higher economic level; the fourth-level centers include 96 cities, which are ordinary provincial or regional centers, major local cities and the cities with rather specialized functions; and the fifth-level centers include 42 cities, analogous to the ordinary local centers and cities with special functions.2) In the author’s region, seven first-level influence regions of urban economy have been formed in China.
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    Chow Shudjen, Shao Janming
    1987, 42 (4):  319-327.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704004
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    Shanghai is the largest industrial and commercial center and the most rapidly growing city in China In order to approach Shanghai urban in fluence on the solar radiation, we deal with the following two aspects:1. Evolution of annual solar radiation during the last 28 years in Shanghai area (1958-1985). From the late 1960s’, the direct solar radiation (S) in Shanghai central observatory obviously decreased while the diffuse solar radition(D) increased gradually. Since the decrement of S is greater than the increment of D, the global radistion (Q + S + D) had the ?oine decreased trend as S. But these trends did not appear in Shanghai rural areas. The results obtained from the spectral analysis show that the decreased or increased trends of S, Q and D in city are closely related to the consumption of coal and the amount of fall dust in the urban district.2. The difference of solar radiation between Shanghai city and its suburban counties. By using the simultaneous observational data of percentage of possible sunshine and amount of clouds in Shanghai city and its subrubs, we calculated the values of S. D, and Q for its nearby ten rural stations (applying suitable statistical formula). The results show that the urban district has the lowest values of S. and Q. In view of the turbidity factor (D/S), the urban district gives the highest value. The effect of turbidity- island’ is obvious.
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    Yuan Baoyin, Ba Teer, Cui Qiuxu, Yin Qiang
    1987, 42 (4):  328-337.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704005
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    Owing to the special structure and geomorphic conditions of Luochuan Yuan, loess with athickness of 135m has been accumulated by continuous deposition over the past 2.4 million years. This period of loess accumulation spans at least 24 climatic cycles. The climatic changes no: only formed loess-paleosol sequences but also had a profound influence on other aspects of geomorphic development.In the cold-dry stages when loess deposition was fast, soil genesis was comparably weak. In this way the fine loess layers were formed, precipitation and surface runoff remained low in these cold-dry stages. The loess layer and its geomorphic expression was stable only under such climatic condition.When humid temperate climates developed, loess deposition rates were much reduced, per-miting strong pedogenesis. In this way paleosols were formed. In addition, precipitation and surface runoff were much higher in the humid temperate stages, affecting the stability of the underlying loess. This resulted in the onset of erosion and the development of gullying. Since the fifth paleosol layer was formed five erosion stages are recognized in the Luochuan Yuan region.The process of deposition and erosion in the valley of Luohe river at Luochuan Yuan region differs significantly from that mentioned above. During the humid-temperate climatic stage, loess erosion remained strong in the inner part of loess yuan, and gullies were formed. A lot of loess material was carried into the Luohe river. Because the valley of Luohe river was narrow and the runoff volume and flood levels were higher than those in the cold-dry stage, a thick deposit of alluvium was formed in the valley. When the climate entered the next cold-dry stage, erosion was weaker in the inner part of loess yuan and surface runoff decreased. The quantity of loess material carried into the river decreased accordingly. Erosion was then occurred in the alluvium. As the flood level in the cold-dry stage was lower than that in the previous humid climate, the flood level could not reach its previous heights. The alluviuin deposited in the last climatic stage then was preserved as a terrace. Locess then began to deposit on the terrace surface. It is reasonable to consider that the terraces of Luohe river in Luochuan Yuan region was formed by such climatic changes.Although the history of Luohe river differs from that of gullying in the inner part of Luochuan loess yuan, both were formed under the influence of the climatic changes. Correlation between the terraces of Luohe river and the gullies of various erosion stages is therefore possible. Such correlation is shown in the following table;
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    Li Lijuan
    1987, 42 (4):  338-346.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704006
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    In this paper, the model calculation is used to calculate the chemical species distribution of heavy metals in the Middle Yellow River. The results show that the pH value is the most important factor to control the distribution of each species, while the initial concentration of the heavy metals and content of suspended matter are other factors.In the Middle Yellow River, Cu and Pb mainly appear in sedimentary form, and Zn in adsorbed form. The content of free state heavy metal is very low. This study provides a scientific basis for forecasting the effect of heavy metal on environment for building the Xiao Lang Di reservoir.
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    Liu Yue
    1987, 42 (4):  347-356.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (628KB) ( )   Save
    The National Population Atlas of China is a large-scale scientific reference atlas, which reflects comprehensively the population features and geographical distribution of our nation’s one billion population. The Atlas comprises 137 maps, and an appended table of data of 17 demographic indicators by county/city, divided into eight sections: introductory; population distribution; ethnicity; sex and age; population change; education; employed population and its industrial and occupational structures; and family, marriage and fertility. According to the presentation method, the maps in this Atlas can be divided into graduated choropletb maps, dot population maps; graphic population chropleth maps and graduated population grid maps. The compiling characteristics and presentation method of the above maps have been summarized in the article.The information used in the Atlas has been assembled mainly from various accurate and detailed data of the Third Population Census of China in 1982 and with the technique of computer mapping. A series of data processing from data extraction, indices calculation, statistical analysis, to class intervals and graphic output has been finished. This article briefly introduced the compilation of the Atlas as well as the automapping process.
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    Wang Ruilin
    1987, 42 (4):  357-365.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704008
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    This paper presents a case of Jiangsu Province. The author picks up more than 30,000 data of resident areas from topographical maps. More than 30,000 population data are picked up from the transformed data of inhabitation. The author presents 3 maps on the population density of Jiangsu Province drawn by the raster dasymetric diagram method, raster dasymetric choropleth method and isopleth method respectively, and the map on the population distribution of Jiangsu Province drawn by the fixed position dot-dissemination method on the base of population data. The common characteristic of the maps is that they are drawn by using much more population data based on km rasters.
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    Wang Guangte, Guo Changling
    1987, 42 (4):  366-375.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704009
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    A stochastic approach to interpolating sparse observation records in geography referred to as the "Kriging technique" has been developed by Matheron (1970) but was named after D. R. Krige, who first applied some of the concepts underlying this technique to assessing the gold contents of the South Africa mines.A fundamental concept of the kriging theory, i.e, the variogram, is analyzed in the light of the deterministic development and is given a welldefined physical meaning. By minimizing the sum of square deviation between the estimating and measuring values with the constraint of unbiased estimation the "Kriging" system equations could be derived. In principle, the kriging technique should provide more reliable estimates, since the theoretical variogram incorporates a larger amount of information than that related to the available recordls.The primary advantage of the kriging technique is the ability to provide an interpolation value of unmeasured points using available information. The kriging technique could be applied in geography, especially in surface hydrology, groundwater, soil moisture, the regional planning and network design.
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    Li Wan
    1987, 42 (4):  376-381.  doi: 10.11821/xb198704010
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    This paper deals mainly with the target, principle, boundary and substance line, etc of physical geographical regionalization.It emphasizes that heat-water is the internal cause of landscape evolution. But latitude, distance from the sea, height, etc. are factors of external conditions.The principle must be exclusive the boundary may be devised into two types of the theory isopleth and landscape shape line.
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