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Table of Content

    15 July 1987, Volume 42 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    ON THE EVALUATION AND UNDERSTANDING OF WATER RESOURCES IN ARID LAND
    Yang Lipu
    1987, 42 (3):  193-200.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (543KB) ( )   Save
    Water resources is a sensitive element for natural resources planning and territorial management in arid land. This article deals with some understanding of the evaluation and rational utilization of water resources in arid land.1. The problems of correctly evaluating the water resources in arid land. The area of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region is about 16.5% of China’s total, but its annual flows (81 billion m3) is only 3.1% of China’s total, its mean annual precipitations (145mm) and mean annual runoff depth (47 mm) equal 23% and 17% respectively to the average value of the country. It shows evidently that Xinjiang is arid land. But some papers compared only the annual flows between Xinjiang and other provinces or river basins, without considering the regional difference of the area and precipitation, and compared each other according to water volume per capita. The results from comparison show that water in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region rank the front row. Such material is not true and can not serve as the basis of the regional exploiting plan.2. Using the advantageous natural conditions for rational development of water resources. The following are some examples: (1) Using intermont basin as underground reservoir may regulate a part of flood flow and decrease some reservoir investment for flood control. There are many such intermont basins in Xinjiang uighur Autonomous Region. (2) Seepage control for irrigation canals should be considered according to its necessity. If the canals in intermont basin or its major constituent of sediment content is clay, there is generally no necessity for seepage control. (3) It is necessary to build some mountain reservoirs to replace a part of plain reservoirs, which may increase the efficiency of flood control and irrigation benefit.3. Adjusting the water resources between adjacent regions. It is important in arid land to divert a part of flows from the abundant water regions to the water deficient regions. There are three cases in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. (1) The Tarim River can naturally divert a part of its flows from the western part of the Tarim Basin to the eastern part. It will play a positive role in exploiting the natural resources and in the management of ecological environment of the eastern Tarim Basin. (2) A part of the Ertix River flows may be diverted through conveyance canal to the southern and southwestern pan of the Altay Area. It is possible in technique and rational in economy. We ought to plan and to realize. (3) Hi River has abundant flows, but it has some trouble in diverting water to the adjacent regions. At present, We can present some preliminary schemes or carry out some research work.4. Depth understanding of the changing cause of hydrologic phenomenon and ecological environment. For example, some papers consider that the cause of the buried "Silk road" and ancient oasis by sanddunes along the southern margin of the Tarim Basin, and the disappearance of the lake "Lop-nur" is due to climatic change in historical period. Practically, it is the consequence of human economic activities. It was more convenient then to divert river flow from the’middle reach than from the lower reach, hence the irrigated areas were naturally migrated from the lower reach to the middle reach, the oasis and road were abandoned, and gradually buried by sanddunes. In the recent 100 years, because of the large-scale reclamation of the Tarim Basin, the river flows were diverted into the new irrigated areas of the tributaries and its upper reaches, and the flows feeding the lower reach decreased year after year. It is the main cause of the disappearance of the lake "Lop-nur".
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    THEORIES OF TERRITORIAL DIVISION AND LOCATIONAL SUPERIORITIES
    Yang Wuyang, Liang Jinshe
    1987, 42 (3):  201-210.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (499KB) ( )   Save
    There exists an inherent relationship between territorial division and superiority. The former is the objective scheme and the latter-motive Cause from human being. To define loc-ational superiorities of a region or a city, we must, first of all, determine its economic status in a specific area.
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    CENOZOIC EVOLUTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT IN NORTH AND SOUTH SIDES OF THE TIANSHAN MOUNTAINS
    Wang Shuji, Yan Sun
    1987, 42 (3):  211-220.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (645KB) ( )   Save
    1. Since the Cenozoic Era the development of the Tianshan Mountains has gone through two periods of the formation of peneplain under denudation and planation in the Early Tertiary and the rise of high mountains corresponding to block faulting by a big margin from the Neog-ene to the Quaternary. Therefore, the evolution of natural environment is controlled.2. In Early Tertiary, replacement environment of sea and land sedimentation occurred in the southern piedmont of Tianshan Mountains, which was in contact with the Mediterranean Sea in some times; and in the northern piedmont of Tianshan Mountains there was terrestrial environment of river and lake deposits. Since the Late Tertiary, sedimentary environment has tended uniformity with slight difference in both mountain pieldmonts.3. Tianshan region belongs to a part of arid land between the zone of deciduous broad leaf trees of the northern temperate zone and the zone of evergreen broad leaf trees of the southern subtropical zone. Since the Tertiary, it can be divided into two relatively humid periods (the Palaeocene-Eocene and the Oligocene-Miocene) and three drought periods (the Early-Mid-Oligocene, Pliocene and Quaternary). The Quaternary period featured also some relatively humid and drought pulsation.
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    ON THE ROMANIZATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES IN CHINA(Pertaining to the generic parts on an atlas to be published forEuropean readers)
    Zeng Shiying
    1987, 42 (3):  221-230.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (637KB) ( )   Save
    Problem raised To promote cultural intercourse, an atlas of China in English is in planning. The geographical names consist generally of specific and generic parts. The romanization of the former has unanimously been advocated in pinyin, while that for the latter difference in advocate between pinyin and translation comes into being. The writer is in favour of pinyin.Donor versus receiver Someone may think that when the generic parts of foreign geographical names have generally been rendered into Chinese by translation, the same way should be adopted to that of Chinese ones into English. Otherwise a "duality of standard" exists. The writer thinks, however, that there are two ways to deal with. When the writing system is different in form, viz, one in alphabets and the other in ideograms, the receiver principle should be followed, while they are in the same form the donor principle should play.The feasibility of donor principle can be illustrated by geographical names in China, Japan and Korea when they are shown by Chinese characters. They are copied one after another in writing but are read differently in pronunciation. So they are only good visually but not auditorily. Now as the geographical names in China are in pinyin, they are good for both. Therefore there is no such contradiction as described as "duality of standard".Generic parts in transcription accustomed to European readers It is questioned that whetherthe generic parts of geographical names in China in transcription is acceptable 10 European readers. In most of the atlases with influence published in roman letters we see that the generic parts of geographical names in non-romentzed letter countries are always rendered by transcription. For instance, in Egyption geographical names, mountain is trapscribed as jbel or jebel, river as bahr, bay as khalij or khalig; in Japanese geographical names, mountain as yama, island as do; in China, mountain, river, lake as shan, ho (now in he), hu. It may be of interest to mention that in India, Hindi and Engish are both adopted as official languages. But in the well known Times Atlas of the World, tthe administrative division is shown as pradesh instead of state.While Huang He and Chang Jiang are rendered in English as Yellow River and Yangtze River, someone may incline to say that the rendering of generic parts in translation is an all-round process. To the contrary they are exceptional as demonstrated by statistics.Mapping and writing not always in accord Because the generic parts of geographical names have been customarily translated in foreign language, someone thinks that if they are differently annotated in transcription on maps, it will be difficult to consult. In atlases published in European countries a glossary is always: appended. We should follow suit for consult. It is especially important that as the geographical names in’ China romanized after pinyin have been adopted as the international standard and that as the generic parts form their componant, we have to furnish their authentic spelling. The atlas serving as a show case should play an exemplary role in standardization. Because the geographical names therein are all-round, systematic, vast in number and clearcut in geographical position.Amend clause after trend of time There are two items concerning the romanization of geographical names in a certain regulation. One stipulates that pinyin should be applied both to the specific and generic parts and the other specifies that the generic parts be translated, In the latter case it deviates somewhat from the practice de facto.Furthemore, as a carrier of information besides the indication of position the geographical names also reflect the linguistic characteristics. It will serve as an evidence of territorial sovereignty right in dispute. For instance, by transcription the generic part of islands in Chinese should be in Dao, Japanese in Do, and Vietnamese in Dao. They are clear-cut. If by translation in English as Island, they mingle with each other.The writer suggests that the regula
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    AN APPROACH TO THE DATA PROCESSING OF HISTORICAL CLIMATE MATERIALS ON THE BASIS OF FLOODS AND DROUGHTS OF TA1 HU BASIN
    Chen Jiaqi
    1987, 42 (3):  231-242.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703005
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    In China we are able to study historical climate and it’s change by means of climatic information from historical records. Bacause there remain some deficiencies such as description, discontinuity and inhomogeneities, neither can a conparison be made between different historical periods nor can the data processing be conducted by computer. Therefore their use value in scientific research has been limited considerably.The information processing of historical climate relies on the basis of the information. The purpose is to establish a set of methods to turn the qualitative information on historical climate into parameters of climatic change, to eliminate the inhomogeneites of various sources, so that to establish a pattern of historical climate.In this paper, a set of methods of establishing the grade patterns of historical floods and droughts during the last 863 years in the Tai Hu basin on the basis of collecting systematically historica events is put forword as follows:1. According to the relationship of drought and flood conditions between each station and the region, the information sources of establishing a grade pattern of historical floods and droughts can be determined and can be further classified into three types: main type, subsidiary type and reference type, so as to establish an information network.2. Defining the classification criterion of historical floods and droughts, the grades of floods and drought may be decided, according to the information on historical floods and droughts at each station; and the corrective parameter of the grades settled, according to the 昪haracteristics of topography and climate.3. According to the differentiation of information sources,the author determines respectively the following information intensities:1) Those including exact records of floods droughts are called "strong information";2) Those which have no exact records of floods or droughts, yet can provide information through other records are called "weak information";3) Those which have no records are called "assumably normal year" or "extremely weak information".On the basis of the above cliassification the information reliability can be determined according to the information intensity.4. The regional grades are synthesized in accordance with their type by historical drought and flood grades of each station, using the method of mean with varied weight. Then the basin grade is synthesized by regional grades, using the method of establishing a distinctive model, to set up the pattern.The grade series is built on the basis of establishing an information management system.
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    GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE X1ANGJ1ANG RIVER SYSTEM
    Zhang Licheng, Zhao Guijiu, Dong Wenjiang,Li Jian, Zeng Beiwei
    1987, 42 (3):  243-251.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703006
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    The quality of water in the Xiangjiang river system may be classified into the bicarbonate type. The equilibrium course of carbonates is the basic adjustment factor controlling the geochemical process of water quality.
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    SOME IDEAS ON PLANNING THE URBAN SYSTEM IN WENZHOU, ZHEJIANG PROVINCE
    Dong Liming
    1987, 42 (3):  252-259.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703007
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    As one of the coastal open cities in China, Wenzhou is situated in the south-easten part of Zhejiang Province. Consisting of nine counties and one district, Wenzhou municipality has a population of 6.3 million (1985), but the city itself has only a population of 300 000.Economy is the leading factor for urban develoment. Since 1978, when the economy reformwas launched in rural area the ever-increasing commodity production and family industry in Wenzhou have played an important role in speeding up urbanization. In recent years, about 620 000 of farmers have left rural area and moved to small towns for being engaged in family industry and tertiary, so that the urban population has significantly increased, accounting for 23% of the total population. As result of the investment by many rich farmers, small towns in Wenzhou have developed rapidly. From 1977 to 1985, the number of towns in Wenzhou increased more than twice. The new town Longang (with a population of 24 000) was set up by farmers any other support. Besides, the commodity production has brought about much progress in specializaed production. It is in favour of the reasonable regional division of labour within the urban system.The basic guideline of urban system planning in Wenzhou is to bring central city into full play, to improve the quality of small towns continually, to develop an urban network with complete size structure and rational division of labour as well as coordinate distribution.1. To raise the size-class of the urban system in Wenzhou. The level of urbanization will be expected to reach 40% by 2000 years. More than fifty new towns will be constructed. As a central city, Wenzhou will develop from a middle city to a large one, with a predicted population of 650 000. Rui’an and Aojiang will grow from county towns into small cities with a population of 150 000 each.2. To organize a rational division system of cities and towns. According to their status and function in the region, cities and towns in wenzhou will be divided into five grades: central city-subcentral city-county town-local central tcwn-town. Then, each grade of cilies and towns will be further divided into 16 function types, for example, industrial towns, traffic towns and trade towns etc.3. To establish an urban network which links points, lines and surface together. To plan a 4-class developing axis in which all cities and towns will organized as an organic unit. Taking Wenzhou, Rui’an and Aojiang as cores, three urban-rural economic, cooperation areas will be set up.Wenzhou is the central city of the whole region. In order to bring it into full play in the south-eastern part of Zhejiang Province in the future, the most important measure will be to build railway and other infrastructure as well as promote light industry and tertiary industry.
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    COMPROMISING ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL WATER RESOURCES
    Zhou Chenghu, Tang Qicheng
    1987, 42 (3):  260-268.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703008
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    This paper described the contents and the theoretical and realistic importance of compromising analysis. The conceptual pattern and general mathematical model (MAOM) are established here. The conceptual pattern consists of three blocks, or decomposing block which is composed of area-decomposing and objective-decomposing, available water resources block which is closely related to interior structural analysis of regional water resources, and compromising analysis block. The aim of decomposion is to transfer the problems which are very complicated or even unsolved into a lot of sub-problems which can be solved. The main tasks of compromising analysis block are to develop the mathematical model and determine the appropriate compromising methods, and to give the use structure of regional water resourcess studied. The general mathematical model of compromising analysis is set up in the third part, which consists of the analysis of development objectives and constraints. The model is a multiarea-multiobjective planning model. Compromising program is one of the effective methods used to solve the model, which is based on the best geometric notion. Finally, according to the principles of compromising analysis described, we made a study of the distribution of Changji Prefeture’s water resources of Xingjiang Uygur Autonomous Regions, and got its near-future and long-range rational use structure of water resources by applying goal programming method to solve the mathematical model.
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    A COMPUTER MODEL TO DETERMINE TOPOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS
    Li Zhanqing, Weng Doming
    1987, 42 (3):  269-278.  doi: 10.11821/xb198703009
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    We put forword a two-dimensional fictitious sub-network difference scheme first. Based upon it, a computer model is developed to determine topographic parameters including slope, azimuth and screening angle caused by the surrounding terrains at every grid point in mountainous areas, from which the distribution maps of slope and terrain pattern and screening figure can be easily made. The input parameters of the model are altitude data at every grid point derived from the contour map, grid space and number. The grid space may vary according to the contour map scale and uneven degree of the terrains in mountainous areas under study. The test made in the pan of dabie Mountains manifests that the computed values of these parameters are generally consistent with observed ones.
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